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Measurement and Conversions
Measurement Equivalents
1 tablespoon (tbsp) = 3 teaspoons (tsp)
1/16 cup (c) = 1 tablespoon
1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
1/6 cup = 2 tablespoons + 2 teaspoons
1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
1/3 cup = 5 tablespoons + 1 teaspoon
3/8 cup = 6 tablespoons
1/2 cup = 8 tablespoons
2/3 cup = 10 tablespoons + 2 teaspoons
3/4 cup = 12 tablespoons
1 cup = 48 teaspoons
1 cup= 16 tablespoons
8 fluid ounces (fl oz) = 1 cup
1 pint (pt) = 2 cups
1 quart (qt) = 2 pints
4 cups = 1 quart
1 gallon (gal) = 4 quarts
16 ounces (oz) = 1 pound (lb)
1 milliliter (ml) = 1 cubic centimeter (cc)
1 inch (in) = 2.54 centimeters (cm)
Common Measurement Conversions in Recipes
1 cup = 24 centiliter (cl) or 240 milliliter (ml)
1 tablespoon (tbsp) = 15 milliliter (ml)
1 teaspoon (tsp) = 5 milliliter (ml)
1 fluid ounce (oz) = 30 milliliter (ml)
1 pound (lb) = 454 grams (gm)
Conversion formulas:
°C = (°F – 32) X 5/9
°F = (°C X 9/5) + 32
32°F = 0°C
40°F = 4.4°C
100°F = 37.7°C
200°F = 93.3°C
225°F = 107.2°C
250°F = 121.1°C
275°F = 135°C
300°F = 148.9°C
325°F = 162.8°C
350°F = 176.7°C
375°F = 190.6°C
400°F = 204.4°C
425°F = 218.3°C
450°F = 232.2°C
475°F = 246.1°C
500°F = 260°C
1 milliliter = 1/5 teaspoon
1 milliliter = 0.03 fluid ounce
1 teaspoon = 5 milliliters
1 tablespoon = 15 milliliters
1 fluid ounce = 30 milliliters
1 fluid cup = 236.6 milliliters
1 quart = 946.4 milliliters
1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 34 fluid ounces
1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 4.2 cups
1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 2.1 fluid pints
1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 1.06 fluid quarts
1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 0.26 gallon
1 gallon = 3.8 liters
1 ounce = 28.35 grams
1 pound = 453.59 grams
1 gram = 0.035 ounce
100 grams = 3.5 ounces
1000 grams = 2.2 pounds
1 kilogram = 35 ounces
1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds
Wound Healant for Cattail
The cattails must be harvested after 2 frosts and not before. Place the pure lard in a freezer bag then really carefully remove the fluff from the stem into the bag as well. Close the bag ’cause it’s very messy, then mix thoroughly together. It takes a while (like 20 minutes) then when they are well blended you may store it in containers. I keep it in the fridge and once you need some, scoop some and apply on the skin and place either a bandaid or styril gauze. I do no think it’s edible though. My husband sliced the tip of his finger and I applied that ointment and like magic, it healed so fast I couldn’t believe it.—Hopefully this is helpful for you as it is helpful for me.—–Danielle Bourdeau
Improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in mice consuming sour cherry juice (Prunus Cerasus cv. Maraska).–Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2009 Dec;64(4):231-7 Authors: SariÄ A, Sobocanec S, Balog T, KusiÄ B, Sverko V, DragoviÄ-Uzelac V, Levaj B, CosiÄ Z, Macak Safranko Z, Marotti T
The present investigation tested the in vivo antioxidant efficacy (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase; Gpx), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and anti-inflammatory properties (cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2) of sour cherry juices obtained from an autochthonous cultivar (Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska) that is grown in coastal parts of Croatia. Antioxidant potential was tested in mouse tissue (blood, liver, and brain), LPO (liver, brain) and anti-inflammatory properties in glycogen elicited macrophages. Additionally, the concentration of cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-rutinoside and total anthocyanins present in Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska cherry juice was determined. Mice were randomly divided into a control group (fed with commercial food pellets) and 2 experimental groups (fed with commercial food pellets with 10% or 50% of cherry juice added). Among the anthocyanins, the cyanidin-3-glucoside was present in the highest concentration. These results show antioxidant action of cherry juice through increased SOD (liver, blood) and Gpx (liver) activity and decreased LPO concentration. The study highlights cherry juice as a potent COX-2 inhibitor and antioxidant in the liver and blood of mice, but not in the brain. Thus, according to our study, Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska cherry juice might potentially be used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory product with beneficial health-promoting properties.
PMID: 19763832 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Tumors Hide out from the Immune System by Mimicking Lymph Nodes
—–The tumor has transformed its outer layer into lymphoid-like tissue to avoid detection by the immune system. ——ScienceDaily (Mar. 26, 2010) — A new mechanism explaining how tumors escape the body’s natural immune surveillance has recently been discovered at EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) in Switzerland. The study shows how tumors can create a tolerant microenviroment and avoid attack by the immune system by mimicking key features of lymph nodes.—The discovery, published in Science and in Science Express, online March 25, 2010, underscores the role of the lymphatic system in cancer and may open up new possibilities for cancer treatment.—“The tumor tricks the body into thinking it is healthy tissue,” says lead author Melody Swartz, head of the Laboratory of Lymphatic and Cancer Bioengineering (LLCB) and EPFL professor. Swartz and her team set out to understand how immune tolerance is induced by tumors, allowing them to progress and spread. The researchers from EPFL concentrated their efforts on a certain protein that is normally present in healthy lymph nodes to attract T cells and program them to perform vital immune functions. They found that some tumors can secrete this protein to transform the outer layer of the tumor into lymphoid-like tissue. This outer layer then attracts and effectively re-programs the T cells to recognize the tumor as friend not foe, resulting in a tumor that goes undetected by the immune system.—Since most tumors progress only if they have escaped the immune system, this new understanding of one mechanism by which the tumor can bypasses or hides from immune defenses is an important step towards future cancer therapies. “The finding that tumors can attract naïve and regulatory T cells and educate them has important implications for tumor immunotherapy,” says Jacqui Shields, from LLCB. The study also opens up potential novel areas of research focusing on the relationship between lymphatic systems and cancer research. According to Shields, the concept that tumors mimic lymphoid tissue to alter the host’s immune response represents a new understanding of tumors’ interactions with the lymphatic system.—-The laboratory is affiliated with the EPFL’s Institute of Bioengineering and the Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research.—-Authors include Jacqueline D. Shields, Iraklis C. Kourtis, Alice A. Tomei, Joanna M. Roberts, Melody A. Swartz, from the the Laboratory of Lymphatic and Cancer Bioengineering at EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.—Story Source:—Adapted from materials provided by Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.—-Journal Reference: —-Jacqueline D. Shields, Iraklis C. Kourtis, Alice A. Tomei, Joanna M. Roberts, Melody A. Swartz. Induction of Lymphoidlike Stroma and Immune Escape by Tumors That Express the Chemokine CCL21. Science, March 25, 2010 DOI: 10.1126/science.1185837
I= My Observation and experience with this component
Biological Function of Tumor Necrosis Factor
Immune System
TNF stimulates the proliferation of B-Lymphocytes.—-TNF diminishes the supply of Blood and Oxygen to the tumors that are involved in various forms of Cancer: -Endogenous TNF possesses anti-angiogenesis properties: it damages the Blood Vessels that nourish tumors. This damage to the Blood Vessels reduces the supply of Blood and Oxygen to tumors and causes them to bleed into themselves and die.
– TNF reduces the production of Free Radicals by Cancer cells.
– Exogenous TNF further enhances the ability of Hyperthermia to successfully treat some forms of Cancer.
– If high concentrations of TNF-alpha are released into the body for extended periods of time, TNF-alpha loses its ability to fight Cancer.
TNF (both TNF-alpha and TNF-beta forms) inhibits the replication of Viruses.
TNF Enhances the Function of these Substances
Hormones—TNF (TNF-a form) increases the production of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) by the Hypothalamus.
TNF Enhances the Effectiveness of these Therapies—Heat Therapy—–Exogenous TNF further enhances the ability of Hyperthermia to successfully treat some forms of Cancer.
These Substances Enhance the Production or Function of TNF
Carbohydrates—-Acemannan stimulates the production of TNF-Alpha by Macrophages.
Echinacin stimulates Macrophages to release TNF-Alpha. I ( It would have to be extracted and D fractionated I believe for it to be more effective —most echanacea products today seem to have lost there potency )
Grifolan (a form of Beta 1,3 Glucan present in Maitake Mushrooms) stimulates the production and activity of TNF-Alpha by Macrophages. I( The experience shows that D fraction seems to be the more potent and effective way to utilize this and it appears to be more effective as well when comb’d with other herbs
Lentinan enhances the ability of exogenous, genetically-engineered TNF to destroy Cancer cells:—Lentinan also stimulates the endogenous production of TNF in Cancer patients. ( found in Mushrooms like reishi or maitake or chaga)
Carotenoids—Beta-Carotene increases the body’s production of TNF-alpha. I ( dose will be high it would be minimum 25,000 IU several times a day if infected or dealing with this ) a cheap source would be palm oils and carrots
Cytokines—Interferon Gamma enhances the ability of Tumor Necrosis Factor to destroy Cancer cells.
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) stimulates the activity of Tumor Necrosis Factor.
Electromagnetic Radiation—UV-B exposure increases the production of Tumor Necrosis Factor. peer-reviewed
Enzymes—-Bromelain (especially when administered in conjunction with Pancreatic Amylase and Papain) stimulates the production of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-alpha form). —–Pancreatic Amylase (especially when administered in conjunction with Bromelain and Papain) stimulates the production of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-alpha form). ——Papain (especially when administered in conjunction with Bromelain and Pancreatic Amylase) stimulates the production of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-alpha form).
When exogenous Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) is administered prior to or concurrently with exogenous TNF in the treatment of Cancer, the survival rates of patients increases by up to 79% – SOD counteracts the toxicity of TNF without interfering with TNF and, in fact, enhances the effectiveness of TNF.
Hormones—-Melatonin stimulates the production of TNF-alpha.
These Foods/Herbs Enhance the Function of TNF—–Algae
Hijiki facilitates the release of the TNF-alpha form of TNF from Macrophages. ( can be gotten at a asian market —looks like a stringy sea weed, dark grey on one side and darker on the other )
Herbs—Astragalus increases the body’s production of TNF.
Black Cumin (seeds) increase the body’s production of TNF (TNF-alpha form).
Cat’s Claw inhibits the production of TNF (TNF-alpha form).
Echinacea increases the body’s TNF levels (due to the Echinacin content of Echinacea).
Sanchi Ginseng stimulates the body’s production of the TNF (TNF-alpha form) (due to Polysaccharides in Sanchi Ginseng).
Mushrooms — Maitake Mushrooms stimulate the production and activity of TNF-alpha by Macrophages (due to the Grifolan content of Maitake).
These Substances Suppress the Production of TNF
Suppression of TNF production is desirable in conditions where excessive TNF production is a contributory factor to illness (for example, many inflammatory conditiions). It is also highly desirable to lower TNF in persons infected with the HIV virus.
Electromagnetic Radiation—-UV-A exposure inhibits the production of TNF. peer-reviewed
Hormones—-Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-initiated production of TNF.
Lipids—Superunsaturated Fatty Acids suppresss the excessive production of TNF:
Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) suppresses the excessive production of TNF.
Minerals—-Zinc inhibits the excessive production of TNF. research
Proteins—-Lactoferrin suppresses the endogenous production of TNF-alpha.
Vitamins—-Vitamin A inhibits the production of excessive quantities of TNF.
Vitamin B12 inhibits the production of excessive quantities of TNF-alpha
Vitamin E inhibits the release of excessive quantities of TNF-alpha.
These Foods/Herbs Reduce TNF Levels—-
Grasses—–Barley Grass inhibits the production of the TNF-alpha form of TNF.
Herbs——-Ginger lowers elevated TNF levels.
Green Tea lowers elevated TNF levels.
Nettle reduces elevated TNF levels.
Perilla Leaf inhibits TNF-alpha.
Polypodium leucotomos inhibits the production of TNF
Oils (dietary oils)——Fish Oils lower TNF (TNF-alpha) levels (by inhibiting the activity of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B). Omega 3 which balances the omega 6 so a good walnut or perilla oil may be effective as well
Exercise—-Isotonic Exercise (e.g. weight lifting) reduces TNF-alpha levels. research
Recipe A—take 1 table spoon of green tea and nettle and a 3-5 inch piece of ginger and brew as a tea—this will definitely increase and analgesic effect and regulate the TNF —not mention that it will regulate prostrate and inflammatory issues as well as increase the thermogenic effect in body mass reduction—now this would be taken later in the day – mid day depending how you are using this—or 2 times a day as well in conjunction with a red and black pepper—can be in tea or tincture
Show Of the Week May 14 2010
Skin Health
Measuring Protein
Anti-Supplement Measure Slips into -Reform- Bill- HR 4173
Private Calgary clinic faces bankruptcy
Pesticide Susceptibility In Children Lasts Longer Than Expected
Skin Health
Dietary nutrient intakes and skin-aging appearance among middle-aged American women1,2,3,4—- Background: Nutritional factors play a key role in normal dermatologic functioning. However, little is known about the effects of diet on skin-aging appearance.
Objective: We evaluated the associations between nutrient intakes and skin-aging appearance. —-Design: Using data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined associations between nutrient intakes and skin aging in 4025 women (40–74 y). Nutrients were estimated from a 24-h recall. Clinical examinations of the skin were conducted by dermatologists. Skin-aging appearance was defined as having a wrinkled appearance, senile dryness, and skin atrophy.
ØResults: Higher vitamin C intakes were associated with a lower likelihood of a wrinkled appearance [odds ratio (OR) 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.96] and senile dryness (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.99). Higher linoleic acid intakes were associated with a lower likelihood of senile dryness (Linoleic Acid is an Essential (Omega 6) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (18:2w6) (18:2n6) containing 18 carbon atoms in the chain with two double bonds) Animal Fats: Tallow 3% Lard 11% Emu Oil— Cereal Grains: Rice Bran 35% Dietary Oils—- Maize Oil 53% ( NON GMO or GE )—-Palm Oil 10%–Sesame Oil45%—Olive Oil 8%— Peanut Oil 29%–Coconut Oil 1.8%–Flax Seed Oil 14%— Evening Primrose Oil 72%–Hemp Seed Oil 55% Walnut Oil 51% –Chia Oil 40%–Corn Oil 59% ( NON GMO or GE )—Sunflower Oil 65%–Pumpkin Seed Oil 50% Wheat Germ Oil 50%—Grape Seed Oil 71% –Sesame Seed Oil 45% Borage Seed Oil 37.5% –Blackcurrant Seed Oil 36% —- (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.88) and skin atrophy (OR: 0.78; 95% CI 0.65, 0.95). A 17-g increase in fat and a 50-g increase in carbohydrate intakes increased the likelihood of a wrinkled appearance (OR: 1.28 and 1.36, respectively) and skin atrophy (OR: 1.37 and 1.33, respectively). These associations were independent of age, race, education, sunlight exposure, income, menopausal status, body mass index, supplement use, physical activity, and energy intake. —–Conclusions: Higher intakes of vitamin C and linoleic acid and lower intakes of fats and carbohydrates are associated with better skin-aging appearance. Promoting healthy dietary behaviors may have additional benefit for skin appearance in addition to other health outcomes in the population. Skin aging is a continuous process that is heavily determined by the combined influences arising from intrinsic aging, the environment (eg, sun exposure), and lifestyle factors [eg, cigarette smoking, low body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), and menopausal status] (1-5). Among these factors, the harmful effects of chronic sun exposure (photoaging) and smoking on premature skin aging are widely supported (6-9). During the course of skin aging, both skin function and appearance are affected. Changes in appearance are the most visible signs of aging and include wrinkles, irregular pigmentation, sagging, atrophy, elastosis, and telangiectasia (1, 6). Such changes in appearance have substantial negative affects on self-esteem and social well-being (10). Furthermore, appearance was shown to be an indicator of overall health status, and it has been shown that “looking old for one’s age” is associated with increased risk of mortality (11, 12). —Balanced nutrition is essential not only to prevent chronic disease such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and diabetes (13) but also to maintain health and ensure normal functioning. Certain nutrients were identified to play a critical role in the normal functioning of the skin, particularly when nutrient deficiencies are apparent, eg, vitamin C in collagen synthesis (14, 15). Several studies have observed improved protection of the skin against sun damage (photoprotection) by dietary supplementation with vitamins E and C, carotenoids (ß-carotene and lycopene), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (16, 17). However, those studies are limited by the use of supplements, some with several active ingredients, making it difficult to determine which nutrient is having an effect. One study observed a photoprotective effect of a diet higher in vegetables, fruit, and olive oil on the skin (18). Whether habitual dietary intakes have a significant effect on skin-aging appearance has not been shown. This is critical to adequately design potential interventions targeted to improve or delay the skin-aging process. Therefore, in the present cross-sectional analysis, using the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) (19), we examined the relation between nutrient intakes and the prevalence of the appearance of wrinkles, senile dryness (dryness as a result of aging), and skin atrophy (thinning) in middle-aged women. This examination allowed us to examine the relation between nutrient intakes, rather than supplements, and skin-aging appearance, rather than photoprotection, for the first time to our knowledge. ——-Data source—The NHANES I was conducted in the United States by the National Center for Health Statistics between 1971 and 1974 (19). Briefly, NHANES I was conducted on a nationwide sample of {approx}32 000 noninstitutionalized persons aged 1–74 y. Details of methods, including the development, plan, and operation of the survey and data collection forms have been published and are available elsewhere (20-22). —–Study sample–All women aged ≥40 y were eligible for inclusion. From the original available sample of 23 808 subjects, 10 152 men, 8477 women aged < 40 y, 1062 women who did not have a dermatologic examination, and 92 women with unsatisfactory 24-h dietary recalls were excluded. The final sample consisted of 4025 women aged 40–74 y. –Assessment of skin aging—A complete clinical dermatologic examination of the skin was undertaken to evaluate variations in texture and color, certain manifestations of aging, and all pathologic changes. The dermatologic examinations were performed by 101 dermatologists that followed a studywide protocol after uniform training and standardized definitions (23). To ensure consistency with the examination protocol, a random sample of the 20 637 examinations was checked by a senior dermatologist (24). The dermatologist classified the subjects into 1 of 3 categories of cumulative lifetime sunlight exposure: 1) low (unimpressive), 2) moderate, and 3) high (considerable), based on the subjects’ occupation and amount of leisure time spent outdoors. Skin aging was defined by 3 independent determinants of the process: wrinkled appearance, senile dryness (dryness as a result of aging), and skin atrophy (thinning). —-Dietary assessment—A 24-h dietary recall was administered to each respondent by a trained dietary interviewer, with 3-dimensional food models, including household measures, to estimate food portions (23). The interviewer probed for clarity of foods and beverages consumed and for commonly forgotten items (eg, sugar in tea, beverages with meals). Estimates of nutrient intake for each food and beverage reported were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture food composition data (25). —Assessment of other variables–Height and weight were measured using standard methods (26), and BMI was calculated. The physical activity question about nonrecreational activity was: “In your usual day, aside from recreation, how active are you?” The possible responses were 1) very active, 2) moderately active, or 3) quite inactive. Additional covariate information about age, smoking habits, menopausal status, race, education, and family income was obtained with the use of questionnaires. –Distribution of nutrient intakes by skin-aging appearance—Multivariate-adjusted means for nutrient intakes (adjusted for age, race, energy intake, education, sunlight exposure, family income, menopausal status, BMI, supplement use, and physical activity) are shown by outcomes of skin-aging appearance in Table 2Go. Women with a wrinkled appearance had significantly lower intakes of protein, total dietary cholesterol, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin A, and vitamin C than did women without a wrinkled appearance. Women with senile dry skin had significantly lower intakes of linoleic acid and vitamin C than did women without senile dry skin. Women with skin atrophy had a significantly lower linoleic acid intake than did women without skin atrophy. Furthermore, additional associations were observed among smokers. Smokers with a wrinkled appearance had significantly lower intakes of protein and niacin than did smokers without wrinkled appearance (P < 0.05), and smokers with skin atrophy had higher calcium intakes than did smokers without skin atrophy– Although vitamin A has long been noted to have antiwrinkle properties, and retinol (vitamin A) is commonly used in the cosmetics industry as a topi
cal antiwrinkle agent (34, 35), clinical trials have failed to show this effect when taken orally as supplements. Our findings that women with a wrinkled appearance had lower vitamin A intakes support the evidence that vitamin A benefits skin-aging appearance. We also found that women with a wrinkled appearance had lower protein intakes. Lower protein intakes in older adults were shown to increase skin fragility (36). Vitamin A and protein however did not affect the prevalence of a wrinkled appearance in the multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models. The favorable association of vitamin C and linoleic acid intakes with skin aging may be attributed to the dietary sources of these nutrients. At the time of this survey, the main sources of vitamin C in the US diet were orange juice (more than a quarter of total vitamin C intake), citrus fruit, fruit juices, and tomatoes (37). Linoleic acid is found in oils ( see list above )and in foods such as green leafy vegetables and nuts (38). Furthermore, as mentioned earlier, the body can convert linoleic acid into EPA and DHA (n–3 PUFAs). These nutrients were not measured in NHANES I, but their main dietary sources are fish and fish oils (39). Current dietary recommendations promote higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and fish and PUFAs (13, 40, 41). Despite several campaigns to promote the consumption of fruit and vegetables and the evidence that diets poor in fruit and vegetables are associated with poor health outcomes, most adults are still not eating enough fruit and vegetables (42, 43). Therefore, a benefit for skin-aging appearance from eating aspects of a healthy diet, such as fruit, vegetables, nuts, and fish, and reducing fat intake may motivate people and improve current promotions for healthy eating.
Measuring Protein
BV Ratings Of Proteins ( Foods )
Protein Ratings
Eggs (whole)
Eggs (whites)
Chicken / Turkey
Lean Beef
Cow’s Milk
Unpolished Rice
Brown Rice
White Rice
Whole Wheat
Soy beans
Whole-grain Wheat
Dry Beans
White Potato
Protein Ratings
Whey Protein Isolate
Whey Protein Concentrate
Doesn’t require digestion; quickly absorbed into the bloodstream; relatively expensive
Predigestion speeds entry into digestive system, but often contains longer chains that must be broken down. Whey and lactalbumin are examples.
During exercise, aids in the formation of alanine from chain glucose, which helps prevent muscle catabolism.
Di- and Tripeptides
Two- and three-molecule amino acids that are quickly digested
Plant Foods
Natural source of protein, often with fiber. Inexpensive, but incomplete (low in certain essential aminos), slowly digested and absorbed.
Animal Foods
Natural source containing all essential amino acids; longer digestion/absorption time, especially with fatty meats.
There are many other major methods of determining how readily used a protein is, including:
Net protein Utilization (NPU)—- The net protein utilization, or NPU, is the ratio of amino acid converted to proteins to the ratio of amino acids supplied. This figure is somewhat affected by the salvage of essential amino acids within the body, but is profoundly affected by the level of limiting amino acids within a foodstuff.—Experimentally, this value can be determined by determining dietary protein intake and then measuring nitrogen excretion. One formula for NPU is:
NPU = ((0.16 × (24 hour protein intake in grams)) – ((24 hour urinary urea nitrogen) + 2) – (0.1 × (ideal body weight in kilograms))) / (0.16 × (24 hour protein intake in grams))
As a value, NPU can range from 1 to 0, with a value of 1 indicating 100% utilization of dietary nitrogen as protein and a value of 0 an indication that none of the nitrogen supplied was converted to protein.—Certain foodstuffs, such as eggs or milk, rate as 1 on an NPU chart.
Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER)—-Protein efficiency ratio (PER) is based on the weight gain of a test subject divided by its intake of a particular food protein during the test period.—From 1919 until very recently, the PER had been a widely used method for evaluating the quality of protein in food.—In the United States, the food industry had long used the PER as the standard for evaluating the protein quality of food proteins. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration used the PER as the basis for the percent of the U.S. recommended daily allowance (USRDA) for protein shown on food labels.—–PER \,= \frac{Gain\ in\ body\ mass(g)}{Protein\ intake (g)}
Nitrogen Balance (NB)
Protein digestibility (PD)
Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS)
These all hold specific advantages and disadvantages over BV,[7] although in the past BV has been held in high regard.[8][9]
Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on both the amino acid requirements of humans and their ability to digest it— The PDCAAS method may also still be considered incomplete, since human diets, except in times of famine, almost never contain only one kind of protein. However, calculating the PDCAAS of a diet solely based on the PDCAAS of the individual constituents is impossible. This is because one food may provide an abundance of an amino acid that the other is missing, in which case the PDCAAS of the diet is higher than that of any one of the constituents. To arrive at the final result all individual amino acids would have to be taken into account, though, so the PDCAAS of each constituent is largely useless —Ithis Method was introduced in 1993 when Soy became popular and was introduce as a selling feature to compete against whey—it was an inaccurate measurement due to the fact SOY IS AN INCOMPLETE PROTEIN and needs to be combined with other sources—in of itself it has goitregenic and antipancreatic components and Should not be used for food but rather for soil balancing
Anti-Supplement Measure Slips into -Reform- Bill, HR 4173
Alliance for Natural Health USA ^
Posted on Wednesday, April 28, 2010 8:45:16 PM by MetaThought
Congressman Waxman Slips Obscure Anti-Supplement Measure into Wall St. “Reform” Bill Passed by the House; Please Take Action to Prevent Same Thing Happening in the Senate!
(The FTC’s) chief mission is to combat commercial fraud. It has full authority to pursue companies making fraudulent claims. But the FTC can’t go beyond that, can’t set other regulatory requirements, without advance approval of Congress. The FTC once had this regulatory “rule-making” authority. It lost it in the 1980’s because Congress thought the Agency was abusing it. —At the present time, if the FTC moves against a dietary supplement company for false or misleading advertising, the FTC typically requires the company, as part of a consent decree agreed to by both parties, to back up its claims by undertaking at least two random controlled human trials. This is done on a case-by-case basis and is legal because the targeted company has agreed to it. —-If the FTC had general rulemaking authority, which Waxman’s language reinstates, the Agency would be expected to create a new legal requirement for all supplement companies. Such companies would have to perform at least two of these human studies before making any claims for their products. —Why should we care whether supplement companies are required to perform two random controlled human trials for each product? Because such trials take a long time and would be beyond the financial means of most supplement companies. Even if the companies could find the money, the FTC could require more and more costly versions of these studies, or more of these studies. At each stage, fewer supplements would be available, and those available would cost more and more, until they became as costly as drugs. Supplements are not drugs. In most cases, drugs are non-natural and therefore patentable substances. Why patentable? Because no company will spend a billion dollars on studies and FDA approval trials without the monopoly provided by the patent. To insist that supplements be treated like drugs is really to sound the death knell for the supplement industry, something that drug companies would be delighted to see, because they know that supplements are their chief potential competition, are often more effective than drugs, are often less toxic, and are always much less expensive.
Private Calgary clinic faces bankruptcy
A private Calgary clinic contracted by the Alberta government to do hip and knee surgeries has filed for bankruptcy.—The Health Resources Centre, located in the former Grace Hospital in the northwest, is the only overnight facility in Calgary for orthopedic surgeries. It is in the middle of a legal fight with one of its creditors.—Alberta Health Services, which oversees health-care delivery in the province, has filed an application in the Court of Queen’s Bench for a receiver to be appointed so the facility can keep operating.—-Since 2006, the centre has been doing about 900 orthopedic surgeries a year or one-third of the hip, knee, foot and ankle operations in the city that are paid for by the province.—Deb Gordon, an AHS senior vice-president, said so far operations have not been affected and the province hopes scheduled surgeries will proceed.—-If the centre does close, health officials will have to try to squeeze patients into the three main hospitals in Calgary.—“But if that option fails as I said we’ll work with our doctors and nurses and find the solutions that we can,” said Dr. John Kortbeek, chief of surgery for Calgary.—“In the short term those solutions could only be additional after-hours surgery or looking at the small window of summer closures that we have and using surgeons and anesthetists who were scheduled to work at HRC to work in that potential extra summer capacity.”—-Alberta Liberal Leader David Swann, who is also a medical doctor, questioned the province’s arrangement with the clinic.—“This has thrown some real uncertainty into the system and the government can reassure people that they will continue to try to fund those things, but then we are backstopping a private organization and it raises questions about what the role of the private delivery versus the public funding is,” said Swann.—-Eight new operating rooms will help ease the crunch once the new McCaig Tower at the Foothills Hospital opens, which is slated for early winter, said Kortbeek.
Pesticide Susceptibility In Children Lasts Longer Than Expected
ScienceDaily (June 23, 2009) — Although it is known that infants are more susceptible than adults to the toxic effects of pesticides, this increased vulnerability may extend much longer into childhood than expected, according to a new study by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley.—Among newborns, levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an enzyme critical to the detoxification of organophosphate pesticides, average one-third or less than those of the babies’ mothers. It was thought that PON1 enzyme activity in children approached adult levels by age 2, but instead, the UC Berkeley researchers found that the enzyme level remained low in some individuals through age 7.—Based upon the findings, reported this month in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, the study authors recommend that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) re-evaluate the current standards for acceptable levels of pesticide exposure.—“Current EPA standards of exposure for some pesticides assume children are 3 to 5 times more susceptible than adults, and for other pesticides the standards assume no difference,” said Nina Holland, UC Berkeley adjunct professor of environmental health sciences and senior author of the paper. “Our study is the first to show quantitatively that young children may be more susceptible to certain organophosphate pesticides up to age 7. Our results suggest that the EPA standards need to be re-examined to determine if they are adequately protecting the most vulnerable members of the population.”—-In 2001, the EPA began restricting organophosphate pesticides in products sold for use in homes, mainly because of risks to children. However, organophosphate pesticides, such as chlorpyrifos and diazinon, are still used in agriculture in the United States and elsewhere.—The study, conducted by UC Berkeley’s Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS), involves 458 children from an agricultural region who were followed from birth through age 7. Cord blood samples were collected from all children to determine their PON1 genotype and to obtain baseline measures of the enzyme’s activity level.—For more than 100 of the children in the study, researchers were able to obtain at least four additional measurements – at ages 1, 2, 5 and 7 – of PON1 activity. Almost all the children in the study had 2 to 3 time points assessed, for a total of 1,143 measurements of three types of PON1 enzyme activity.—One’s PON1 genotypic profile determines how effectively the enzyme can metabolize toxins. For example, people with two copies of the Q form of the gene – known as a QQ genotype – produce a PON1 enzyme that is less efficient at detoxifying chlorpyrifos oxon, a metabolite of chlorpyrifos, than the enzyme produced by people with two R forms of the gene. Similarly, individuals with two T forms of the PON1 gene on a different part of the chromosome generally have a lower quantity of the enzyme than do those with two C forms of the gene.—-Previous research led by Holland found that some of the QQ newborns may be 50 times more susceptible to chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon than RR newborns with high PON1 levels, and 130 to 164 times more susceptible than some of the RR adults.—Of the children in this latest study, 24 percent had the QQ genotype, and 18 percent had the TT genotype, both of which are associated with lower activity of the PON1 enzyme. Moreover, 7.5 percent of the children had both QQ and TT genotypes, which is considered an even more vulnerable profile.—-On average, the quantity of enzyme quadrupled between birth and age 7. The greatest rise in enzyme activity was among children with the RR and CC variants of the PON1 gene, which quickly outpaced the increase in children with the QQ and TT genotypes.—The fact that enzyme activity remained low for certain kids with vulnerable genotypes well past age 2 was surprising for the study authors. The researchers are continuing to collect data for these children as they grow older to see if the pesticide susceptibility continues.—“In addition to its involvement in the metabolism of pesticides, many studies are now finding that PON1 may play an important role in protecting against oxidative stress, which is linked to diseases from asthma to obesity and cardiovascular disease,” said study lead author Karen Huen, a UC Berkeley Ph.D. student in environmental health sciences. “The children in our study whose genotypes are related to lower PON1 activity may not only be more susceptible to pesticides throughout much of their childhood, they may also be more vulnerable to other common diseases related to oxidative stress.”—-Notably, other studies have found that PON1 genotypes vary by race and ethnicity, with the Q variants more common among Caucasians, less common among Latinos, and least common among African Americans. The majority of the subjects in this study were Mexican-American.—-“What’s important about this study is that it shows that young children are potentially susceptible to certain organophosphates for a longer period of time than previously thought,” said Brenda Eskenazi, UC Berkeley professor of epidemiology and director of CHAMACOS and the Center for Children’s Environmental Health Research. “Policymakers need to consider these vulnerable populations when establishing acceptable levels of exposure to different pesticides.”—Funding from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the EPA helped support this research.—-Story Source:–Adapted from materials provided by University of California – Berkeley
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The Assault on Autistic Children and their Parents
Lets consider the following:
According to the information presented below, there is ~2.97 million square miles on just the continent of Australia alone. —There are ~ 640 acres in 1 square mile–Based on the size of the land mass of Australia, this equates to ~ 1.9 billion acres of land The average lot size of a home in the US is ~ 14,000 square feet This then equates to ~ 5.7 billion potential home lots –There are currently ~ 6.82 billion people on our planet—Also bear in mind that the world population is made up of families with children younger than 15–So, considering the remaining land masses and their respective sizes left in the world, then the argument for overpopulation is bogus!
How many square feet are in one acre?
In: Units of Measure, Area
There are 43,560 square feet in one acre. -An acre is a unit of area. 640 acres equal a square mile. Hence, it is 1/640 of a square mile. Since a square mile contains 27,878,400 square feet, an acre is 27,878,400 divided by 640, which is 43,560 square feet. —Remember: an acre can be converted to SQUARE feet, not plain (linear) feet. Square feet and feet are not the same units. A foot is unit of distance. A square foot is a unit of area.
How many acres are in one square mile? Answer –One square mile is equal to 640 acres. -1 square mile = 639.9974 acres
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Largest Countries by Area (sq. km)
Total Area (Land + Water)
Land Area
Water Area
17,075,200 sq. km
16,995,800 sq. km
79,400 sq. km
6,592,888 sq. miles
6,562,231 sq. miles
30,657 sq. miles
9,976,140 sq. km
9,220,970 sq. km
755,170 sq. km
3,851,877 sq. miles
3,560,300 sq. miles
291,578 sq. miles
United States
9,629,091 sq. km
9,158,960 sq. km
470,131sq. km
3,717,879 sq. miles
3,536,357 sq. miles
181,522 sq. miles
9,596,960 sq. km
9,326,410 sq. km
270,550 sq. km
3,705,473 sq. miles
3,601,011 sq. miles
104,462 sq. miles
8,511,965 sq. km
8,456,510 sq. km
55,455 sq. km
3,286,546 sq. miles
3,265,135 sq. miles
21,412 sq. miles
7,686,850 sq. km
7,617,930 sq. km
68,920 sq. km
2,967,962 sq. miles
2,941,351 sq. miles
26,611 sq. miles
3,287,590 sq. km
2,973,190 sq. km
314,400 sq. km
1,269,368 sq. miles
1,147,975 sq. miles
121,393 sq. miles
2,766,890 sq. km
2,736,690 sq. km
30,200 sq. km
1,068,321 sq. miles
1,056,661 sq. miles
11,660 sq. miles
2,717,300 sq. km
2,669,800 sq. km
47,500 sq. km
1,049,174 sq. miles
1,030,834 sq. miles
18,340 sq. miles
2,505,810 sq. km
2,376,000 sq. km
129,810 sq. km
967,516 sq. miles
917,395 sq. miles
50,121 sq. miles
Complete List
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Australia’s Size Compared
Australia is the planet’s sixth largest country after Russia, Canada, China, the USA, and Brazil. At 7 692 024 km2, it accounts for just five percent of the world’s land area of 149 450 000 km2, and although it is the smallest continental land mass, it is the world’s largest island.
For more information visit The World Factbook.
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U.S. 309,192,879
World 6,818,697,141
19:48 UTC (EST+5) May 03, 2010
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