Experts Explore Emerging Evidence Linking Diabetes and Cancer
ScienceDaily (June 16, 2010) — A new consensus statement of experts assembled by the American Diabetes Association and the American Cancer Society reviews emerging evidence that suggests cancer incidence is associated with diabetes as well as certain diabetes risk factors and treatments.–The new report reviews the state of science concerning the association between diabetes and cancer incidence/prognosis; risk factors common to both diseases; possible biologic links between diabetes and cancer risk; and whether diabetes treatments influence the risk of cancer or cancer prognosis. In addition, the report outlines key unanswered questions for future research.—Diabetes and cancer are common diseases that have a tremendous impact on health worldwide. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that people with diabetes are at a significantly higher risk of many forms of cancer. Type 2 diabetes and cancer share many risk factors, but potential biologic links between the two diseases are not completely understood. Moreover, evidence from observational studies suggests that some medications used to treat hyperglycemia are associated with either an increased or reduced risk of cancer.—Against this backdrop, the American Diabetes Association and the American Cancer Society convened a consensus development conference in December 2009. After a series of scientific presentations by experts in the field, the writing group independently developed a consensus report to address important questions: Is there a meaningful association between diabetes and cancer incidence or prognosis? What risk factors are common to both cancer and diabetes? What are possible biologic links between diabetes and cancer risk? And do diabetes treatments influence cancer risk or cancer prognosis?—For each of these areas, the authors were asked to address current gaps in evidence and potential research and epidemiologic strategies for developing more definitive evidence in the future. Below is a summary of their findings and recommendations.
Diabetes (primarily type 2) is associated with an increased risk of some cancers (liver, pancreas, endometrium, colon/rectum, breast, and bladder). Diabetes is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. For some other cancer sites, there appears to be no association or the evidence is inconclusive.
The association between diabetes and some cancers may be due in part to shared risk factors between the two diseases such as aging, obesity, diet, and physical inactivity.
Possible mechanisms for a direct link between diabetes and cancer include hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and inflammation.
Healthy diet, physical activity, and weight management reduce the risk and improve outcomes of type 2 diabetes and some forms of cancer and should be promoted for all.
Patients with diabetes should be strongly encouraged by their health care professionals to undergo appropriate cancer screenings as recommended for all people of their age and sex.
The evidence for specific drugs affecting cancer risk is limited, and observed associations may have been confounded by indications for specific drugs, effects on other cancer risk factors such as body weight and hyperinsulinemia, and the complex progressive nature of hyperglycemia and pharmacotherapy in type 2 diabetes.
Although still limited, early evidence suggests that metformin is associated with a lower risk of cancer and that exogenous insulin is associated with an increased cancer risk. Further research is needed to clarify these issues and evaluate the possible association of insulin and other diabetes medications with the risk of cancer.
Cancer risk should not be a major factor when choosing between available diabetes therapies for the average patient. For selected patients with a very high risk of cancer occurrence (or for recurrence of specific cancer types), these issues may require more careful consideration.
Many research questions remain.
“Traditionally there hasn’t been much overlap between research in cancer and in diabetes,” says Edward Giovannucci, MD, SCD, co-chair of the consensus report group. “But recently it’s become clearer that there are fascinating links between the two. Our summary may raise more questions than provide answers, but we hope that it will spur additional studies.”—“The vast majority of patients with diabetes need not consider cancer risk when weighing their diabetes therapy options,” added David M. Harlan, MD, co-chair of the consensus report group, “Only patients with a very high risk for cancer occurrence, or re-occurrence, may wish to carefully consider their options. Even then, the association appears to exist for some cancer types, and not for others. We have much to learn.”—The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by American Cancer Society, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.—-Journal Reference:—Edward Giovannucci, David M. Harlan, Michael C. Archer, Richard M. Bergenstal, Susan M. Gapstur, Laurel A. Habel, Michael Pollak, Judith G. Regensteiner, Douglas Yee. Diabetes and Cancer: A Consensus Report. Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 2010; DOI: 10.3322/caac.20078
Tumors Use Sugars To Avoid Programmed Cell Death
ScienceDaily (Apr. 17, 2008) — Researchers at the Duke School of Medicine apparently have solved the riddle of why cancer cells like sugar so much, and it may be a mechanism that could lead to better cancer treatments.—Jonathan Coloff, a graduate student in Assistant Professor Jeffrey Rathmell’s laboratory in the Duke Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, has found that the tumor cells use glucose sugar as a way to avoid programmed cell death. They make use of a protein called Akt, which promotes glucose metabolism, which in turn regulates a family of proteins critical for cell survival, the researchers shared during an April 15 presentation at the American Association of Cancer Research Annual Meeting in San Diego.—In normal cells, growth factors regulate metabolism and cell survival. Removing these factors leads to loss of glucose uptake and metabolism and cell death. Cancer cells, however, maintain glucose metabolism and resist cell death, even when deprived of growth factors.—To study how Akt might affect these processes, Coloff and colleagues introduced a cancer-causing form of Akt called myrAkt, into cells that depend on growth factor to survive. The mutant form of Akt allowed cells to maintain glucose usage and survive even when no growth factors were present, allowing them to bypass a normal safeguard used by cells to prevent cancer development.—-The death of normal cells after growth factors are removed is partly accomplished by two proteins called Mcl-1 and Puma. But the cancer-causing version of Akt prevents these two proteins from accomplishing their tasks, allowing the cell to survive when it shouldn’t.—Once glucose was withdrawn from the environment, however, Akt was no longer able to maintain regulation of the key targeted proteins Mcl-1 and Puma, and the cells died.—“Akt’s dependence on glucose to provide an anti-cell-death signal could be a sign of metabolic addiction to glucose in cancer cells, and could give us a new avenue for a metabolic treatment of cancer,” said Dr. Rathmell.—The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Duke University Medical Center.
In general, broth is a liquid made by boiling meat, bones, or vegetables. There are many types of broths, based on what is being cooked. For example, Bieler Broth, a vegetable broth made with green beans, zucchini, and celery is a supportive remedy used in detoxification or cleansing protocols. Consommé, a rich broth made from meat, is another example. It is prepared by reducing, or prolonged simmering. Stock is another word used synonymously with broth, though some chefs denote stock as being made from bones whereas broth is made from meat. In this paper the two names are used interchangeably. Soup is a similar term referring to simmered vegetables, meat, and seasonings, and is defined by Random House Webster’s Dictionary as a liquid food.1 The difference is that soup contains solids such as meat, beans, grains or vegetables (sometimes disguised by a purée) while a broth is the liquid in which solids have been simmered and then discarded. Soup is what we think of as having for a meal. Broth is a starting ingredient for soup, and must be prepared separately beforehand.— The ingredients are as follows: bones from an animal, with or without meat and skin, enough water to just cover the bones, a splash of vinegar, and optional assorted vegetables or their scraps. Making broth requires almost no work, just put the bones in a pot, add water and vinegar, bring it to a simmer and walk away. No chopping or tending is needed.— It needs to boil for hours, and the longer it simmers, the better it gets. An easy solution is to routinely put meat scraps into a pot, instead of the garbage can. Broth can just as easily be extracted from a single chicken breast bone as it can from a whole chicken, and it need not be raw. Broth can be allowed to simmer on lowest heat for a day or two— Nutritional Contents
Basically then, broth will contain the ingredients that are in bone. Covering and adhering to the ends of bones to form a joint, is cartilage. Therefore broth will also contain the ingredients that are in cartilage. Bone and cartilage are both classified as connective tissue. Connective tissue is one of the four basic tissue types that exist in animals. It functions to bind or hold together and to support and strengthen the body. Connective tissue consists of a matrix, and cells that secrete the matrix. The matrix is the material that fills the space between the cells and is therefore referred to as the extracellular matrix. It is composed of protein fibers, and ground substance, which can be a liquid, a gel or a solid. Since the cells are few, it is the valuable nutrients from the matrixes of bone and cartilage, which create the substance called broth. (Table I)
Table I: Connective Tissue
Extra Cellular Matrix
sodium and potassium
collagen I (90%)
The primary functions of bone are to provide a support framework, protect organs, store and release minerals, produce blood cells and store energy. In the matrix of bone, the protein, collagen, forms the fibers. Collagen has the ability to resist a pulling or tearing force, called tensile strength. It is flexible and rubbery. The other matrix component, the ground substance, is made of mineral salts. Calcium and phosphorus, in a composite called hydroxyapatite, and some calcium carbonate, form 65% of the ground substance. Water contributes 25%. The remaining 10% is formed by magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate and fluoride.3,4 (Table I) The inorganic minerals form a solid ground substance and give bone its hardness. If bones were made only of collagen they would be rubbery, but if they were made only of minerals, they would be brittle. Together they make bone flexible and hard.
In a central cavity, bone also houses marrow. There are two types of bone marrow, red and yellow. Red bone marrow is the location for the manufacture of the cells in blood. It produces the cells in their immature forms. The final conversion into mature blood cells occurs outside the bone marrow. The cells made in the red marrow are myeloid stem cells, the precursors to red blood cells, and lymphoid stem cells, the precursors to white blood cells and platelets. Red blood cells carry and deliver oxygen to other cells, white blood cells are part of the immune system, and platelets allow for clotting. Red bone marrow also contains collagen protein fibers, sometimes called reticulin fibers, classified as type III collagen.5 (Table I) In comparing why less chicken parts compared to beef parts are needed to produce a similarly strong tasting broth, the authors of The Best Recipe cookbook suggest that chicken bones have a higher concentration of red marrow, and that this considerably enhances flavor.—Yellow bone marrow is a storage site for energy in the form of lipids or fats. It contains adipocytes within which fat is stored. It also contains a small amount of blood cells and type III collagen fiber.7 (Table I)
Cartilage is deposited in varying places in the body including the nose and ear. The joint cartilage is the primary type that gets incorporated in broth. It functions as a shock absorber and to reduce friction. In the matrix of cartilage, the fiber component is collagen protein and elastin protein. Like collagen, elastin provides strength, but it also provides stretch. It can stretch up to one and a half times its original length. The other matrix component, ground substance is made of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) chondroitin sulfate, keratin sulfate and hyaluronic acid. The GAGs form a gel ground substance that gives cartilage its resilience. (Table I)—Cartilage has enjoyed fame as a supplement for osteoarthritis in the form of shark cartilage. It has been studied for joint disease, and gastrointestinal disease. Prudden found that cartilage dramatically improved degenerative joint disease, including rheumatoid arthritis. He also found that it improved inflammatory bowel disease.–Cartilage has a poor blood supply. It actually produces chemicals known as antiangiogenesis factors (AAFs) that inhibit the growth of blood vessels into it. This quality can actually be used to fight against cancer. Cancer cells grow very rapidly. They achieve rapid proliferation by stimulating the growth of new blood vessels to support themselves. AAFs are now being used as a treatment to inhibit the growth of blood vessels into cancer cells.10 As a medicine, AAFs are given in the form of cartilage.–Cartilage supplementation also stimulates B, T, and macrophage immune cells.12 According to Murray and Pizzorno, malnutrition (protein deficiency) is the most common form of immune suppression in the world. That is because the immune system is composed primarily of protein, including antibodies, receptors and chemical signalers. When it is further considered that 80% of the immune system lines the gastrointestinal tract, the role of cartilage gains importance, since it can nourish both the gut and the immune system.—-Pharmaceutically prepared cartilage is very expensive, often prohibitively so. Of course cartilage can be extracted at home, by making broth. Broth recipes stress the quality that can be obtained from using highly cartilaginous parts of animals. These parts will be joint areas, like chicken feet and beef knuckles, trachea and ribs, or anatomy with a concentration of glycosaminoglycans, like hooves and skin.–To summarize, cartilage (broth) can be considered for use in the following conditions: arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), cancer, decreased immune system states, and malnutrition.
Collagen and Gelatin
Collagen comes from the word kolla, which means glue. True to its verbal root, it has been used as glue in the past. It functions to hold the body together. One fourth of all the protein in the body is collagen. It is the framework for the extra cellular matrix of bone, cartilage and skin. Another word for collagen is gelatin. Collagen is a scientific term for a particular protein in the body, while gelatin is a food term referring to extracted collagen. It is usually encountered in powdered form, but gelatin also describes the collagen extracted into broth. Properly prepared broth will gel, just like Jell-O, when cooled, because collagen is rubbery and flexible. Webster’s Dictionary defines gelatin as “the…substance extracted by boiling bones, hoofs, and animal tissues.” Since collagen is present in both bone and cartilage, it can be extracted from either of the two connective tissues and be labeled as gelatin. Most commercial gelatin today is extracted from animal skin, another connective tissue which contains collagen. Gelatin, is what most people think of as the main ingredient in broth. Bone broth differs from gelatin in that it also contains minerals and GAGS. Traditionally made stock uses bone and cartilage and produces a higher quality result. It also produces a safer result considering that commercial gelatin contains small amounts of monosodium glutamate (MSG).
Although it seems obscure today, gelatin has been studied and recommended, with great enthusiasm, by the medical community in the past. In 1937 Dr. Pottenger said, “Gelatin may be used in conjunction with almost any diet that the clinician feels is indicated.”From the late 1800s to the mid-1900s, gelatin was the subject of many studies, and these were summarized in the book, Gelatin in Nutrition and Medicine, by Dr. Gotthoffer.21 In her article, “Why Broth is Beautiful,” nutritionist Kaayla Daniel speculates that one of the reasons gelatin is so infrequently studied today, is due to a lack of standardization. Without a consistent item, researchers in the past found it difficult to reproduce findings. In Gotthoffer’s survey, one general area of health prescription clearly comes to the fore, and that is digestion. Most notably, he refers to over 30 years of research on gelatin’s ability to improve the digestion of milk. In the early 1900s gelatin was therefore recommended as an ingredient in infant formula, to decrease allergic reactions, colic and respiratory ailments. Gelatin was also reported to increase the digestibility of beans and meat (which gives credence to the practice of serving meat with gravy). It was also found that gelatin increased the utilization of the protein in wheat, oats and barley, all gluten containing grains. Gluten is a notoriously difficult to digest protein for many people. Those that suffer from gluten allergy are diagnosed with Celiac disease, a debilitating condition.—Gotthoffer also found gelatin to be prescribed for both hyper- and hypo-stomach acidity. He cites three physicians who report gelatin to “work better and more rapidly than bismuth and tannin” in clinical practice. A more recent study by Wald, demonstrated that glycine (a main ingredient in gelatin) stimulates gastric acid secretion.— Another recent study found that “gelatin as feed supplement protected against ethanol-induced mucosal damages in rats.” This directly supports the traditional thought that broth is healing and coating to the gastrointestinal lining, and gives a scientific explanation for broth’s ability to calm and soothe. Gelatin has also been found to improve body weight as well as bone mineral density in states of protein undernutrition. Additionally, studies have shown that convalescing adults, who have lost weight because of cancer, fare better if gelatin is added to their diet. It is said to be tolerated when almost nothing else can be. -Some of the medical communities in other parts of the world value gelatin too. In Chinese herbal medicine, gelatin is an important herbal remedy, in use for thousands of years. Its Chinese name is e jiao. It is classified as a tonic herb. Tonics strengthen or supplement insufficiency and weakness. They are considered nourishing and enhance the body’s resistance to disease. They are used for states of deficiency. Gelatin is used to tonify the blood, in particular. This correlates to Western medical knowledge since, as we will see, glycine, a key ingredient in gelatin, plays a vital role in the blood. Also if gelatin is extracted from bone, then marrow, where blood cells are produced is also extracted. Chinese studies have shown gelatin to increase red blood cell and hemoglobin count, increase serum calcium level, increase the absorption and utilization of calcium, and prevent and treat myotonia atrophica (muscle wasting).—-To summarize, gelatin (broth) can be considered for use in the following conditions: food allergies, dairy maldigestion, colic, bean maldigestion, meat maldigestion, grain maldigestion, hypochlorhydria, hyperacidity (gastroesophageal reflux, gastritis, ulcer, hiatal hernia) inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), irritable bowel syndrome, leaky gut syndrome, malnutrition, weight loss, muscle wasting, cancer, osteoporosis, calcium deficiency and anemia.
Over 15 types of collagen have now been identified, but histology classifies three main types. Type I is in bone, skin, ligaments, tendons and the white of the eye. Type II is in cartilage. Type III is in bone marrow and lymph, and is also called reticulin fiber.—Protein fibers are created by stringing together amino acids, the building blocks of protein. Collagen differs from the average protein in that it is composed of a high concentration of certain amino acids. Specifically, about one third of collagen is composed of glycine, the smallest amino acid. Another third of collagen is composed of proline (and hydroxyproline, the active form of proline). The small size of glycine along with the properties of proline, allows for the unique triple helix shape of collagen. A smaller portion of the amino acids lysine (and hydroxylysine) are also incorporated into collagen. The remaining structure is made from other amino acids that vary. —Scurvy is a disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C. It results in symptoms such as bleeding gums, bruising, and poor wound healing. These manifestations are actually due to a deficiency of collagen, because vitamin C is needed to synthesize collagen. It converts proline into hydroxy proline. Collagen, along with minerals are needed for the creation and healing of bone. It is also integral to cartilage formation and repair, along with GAGs.—
To summarize, collagen (broth) can be considered for use in the following conditions: poor wound healing, soft tissue injury (including surgery), cartilage and bone injury (including dental degeneration).
(mg of Substance per 100 grams of Gelatin
Amino Acids: Alanine 8,700
Aspartic Acid 6,500 Cysteine 50
Cystine 50 Glycine 25,000
Histidine 800 Hydroxyproline* 14,000
Glutamic Acid 11,000 Isoleucine 1,500
Leucine 3,500 Lysine 400
Methionine 1,000 Phenylalanine 2,500
Proline 16,000 Serine 500
Threonine 200 Tyrosine 500
Recipe Gelatin and Beet—take beet juice and add 1-2 tablespoons of gelatin and blend allow to cogeal and consume as a jello—this will increase blood Strenght—liver detox—iron absorption– Beetroot prevents and treats some forms of Cancer -Beetroot helps to prevent and treat Colon Cancer. -Beetroot helps to prevent and treat Lung Cancer. – Beetroot helps to prevent and treat Prostate Cancer. -Beetroot helps to prevent and treat Skin Cancer. – Beetroot helps to prevent and treat Stomach Cancer. –Beetroot helps to prevent and treat Uterus Cancer. –Beetroot stimulates Lymph activity
Recipe Gelatin Healing impact—Take gelatin 1 table spoon and add to water in blender—add juices or a mineral solution ( adding magnesium—manganese—zinc—selenium—even calcium but add this separate ) Using Vitamin C with this as well for Cartillage restoration as well as stomach and Intestinal restoration( Those with IBS—Crohn’s—Leaky Gut—or any disruption in the stomach or lower end may want to add this to there regimen Including mixing this with either yogurt or kefir to better assimilate the protein in the dairy—Or add this to your seed milks so you can better assimilate the seeds and the nutrients from these seeds –Mix this with Comfrey tea or extract For regeneration of Bone and Sinew—as well—As strenghtening the internal organs—use this with milk thistle to increase the impact toward liver efficiency as well as regeneration—combine with nettle and parsley and dandelion for a blood restorer—kidney—liver—skin—blood—