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Acetylsalicylic acid and ascorbic acid combination improves cognition- Via antioxidant effect or increased expression of NMDARs (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor )and nAChRs (neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors)?
Abstract
Chronic inflammation occurs systematically in the central nervous system during ageing, it has been shown that neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders. Aspirin, a nonselective COX inhibitor, as well as ascorbic acid, has been purported to protect cerebral tissue. We investigated the effects of subchronic aspirin and ascorbic acid usage on spatial learning, oxidative stress and expressions of NR2A, NR2B, nAChRα7, α4 and β2. Forty male rats (16–18 months) were divided into 4 groups, namely, control, aspirin-treated, ascorbic acid-treated, aspirin + ascorbic acid-treated groups. Following 10-weeks administration period, rats were trained and tested in the Morris water maze. 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde were evaluated by ELISA and HPLC, respectively. Receptor expressions were assessed by western blotting of hippocampi. Spatial learning performance improved partially in the aspirin group, but significant improvement was seen in the aspirin + ascorbic acid group (p < 0.05). While 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased, NR2B and nAChRα7 expressions were significantly increased in the aspirin + ascorbic acid group as compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Subchronic treatment with aspirin + ascorbic acid in aged rats was shown to enhance cognitive performance and increase the expressions of several receptors related to learning and memory process
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Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Nicotinic Cholinergic Mechanisms of the Central Nervous System
Subtypes of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are constructed from numerous subunit combinations that compose channel-receptor complexes with varied functional and pharmacological characteristics. Structural and functional diversity and the broad presynaptic, postsynaptic, and nonsynaptic locations of nAChRs underlie their mainly modulatory roles throughout the mammalian brain. Presynaptic and preterminal nicotinic receptors enhance neurotransmitter release, postsynaptic nAChRs contribute a small minority of fast excitatory transmission, and nonsynaptic nAChRs modulate many neurotransmitter systems by influencing neuronal excitability. Nicotinic receptors have roles in development and synaptic plasticity, and nicotinic mechanisms participate in learning, memory, and attention. Decline, disruption, or alterations of nicotinic cholinergic mechanisms contribute to dysfunctions such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, autism, dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer’s disease, and addiction.
 
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Prostate and Anti Aromatising—
you will need several ingredients to make this
 
* Rosemary-anti inflammatory—anti estrogenic-antioxidant-Liver Support
* Grapeseed Powder-antiestrogenic-antioxidant
* Ginger Powder and Extract-anti inflammatory— Heart ATP-Testosterone Support
* Aspirin-anti inflammatory-anti cancer( prostate as well as others)
* Cayenne Pepper-anti inflammatory-anti prostate cancer
* Nettle Root-DHT Blocker and anti estrogen and Testosterone producer
* Black Pepper-Delivery to the system due to the piperine
* Hawthorn Leaf-Heart ATP- Anti Estrogenic
* Siberian Ginseng– Additionally, eleutherococcus compounds bind to estrogen receptors, with no apparent effect in cell cultures
* BHT-anti –estrogenic –antioxidant-Testosterone Support
* Oil—Olive—Sesame Seed-Pumpkin Seed—any one will do
 
* Take 3 oz of oil of choice—add to a glass container—–take 1 gram aspirin( 1/4tsp) 5 grams ( 1 tsp)of rosemary –siberian ginseng-hawthorn leaf –nettle root- ginger powder-Grapeseed –Cayenne and Black Pepper 1 gram ( ¼ tsp) put in glass jar with the oil—then place oil into a pot of water and allow this to boil and boil for about 15 minutes—when done take the contents and put into a blender and then blend for another 5-8 minutes—strain and add to a glass jar-Add the BHT in the end 2 grams( 2000mgs or almost half a tsp) and mix –use ¼ tsp several times daily to lower Prostate inflammation-increase Testosterone-and Minimize Aromatizing to Estrogen
 
* You can as well use the herbals as a extract in alcohol as well to do the same thing to fuse this in the oil as a carrier and apply this either in the blending or the fusing in the oils through the boiling method
 
* Another way is to fuse these all in honey which has as well estrogen blocking and Testosterone supporting effects—While our data shows that both honey and chrysin induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis in a prostate cancer cell line, honey is more potent. It seems that the variety of polyphenols in honey may have stronger anti-proliferative effects than chrysin alone. This is the first report on honey-induced and chrysin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Our data confirm that honey has cytotoxic activity against human prostate cancer cells, which is consistent with previous studies that indicate that honey and its ingredients possess antitumor and anticarcinogenic properties. The ability to induce tumor cell apoptosis is an important property in an anticancer drug that discriminates it from a toxic compound.50
 
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Piperine reverses high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice.
Food Chem. 2013 Dec 15;141(4):3627-35
Authors: Choi S, Choi Y, Choi Y, Kim S, Jang J, Park T
Abstract
This study examined the effect of piperine on hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance induced in mice by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 13 weeks and elucidated potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Administration of piperine (50 mg/kg body weight) to mice with HFD-induced hepatic steatosis resulted in a significant increase in plasma adiponectin levels. Also, elevated plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose and hepatic lipid levels induced by feeding a HFD were reversed in mice when they were administered piperine. However, piperine did not reduce body weight and other biochemical markers to an extent where they became equal to the levels found in the CD-fed mice. Piperine reversed HFD-induced down-regulation of adiponecitn-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling molecules which play an important role in mediating lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and insulin signalling in the livers of mice. The expressions of lipogenic target genes were decreased, whereas the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) gene involved in fatty acid oxidation was increased in the livers of the Pin50 group. Piperine significantly decreased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) compared with the HFD-fed mice. Administration of piperine appeared to reverse preexisting HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, probably by activation of adiponectin-AMPK signalling in mice.–PMID: 23993530 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Oral administration of Bis(aspirinato)zinc(II) complex ameliorates hyperglycemia and metabolic syndrome-like disorders in spontaneously diabetic KK-A(y) mice: structure-activity relationship on zinc-salicylate complexes.
Yoshikawa Y1, Adachi Y, Yasui H, Hattori M, Sakurai H.
Author information
Abstract
In recent years, the number of patients suffering from diseases, such as cancer, apoplexy, osteoporosis, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. Type 2 diabetes, a lifestyle-related disease, is recognized as a serious disease. Various types of pharmaceutics for diabetes have been used. Since the relationship between diabetes and biometals such as vanadium, copper, and zinc ions has been recognized for many years, we have been developing the anti-diabetic metal complexes as new candidates. We found that several zinc(II) (Zn) complexes exhibit glucose-lowering activity for treating type 2 diabetes. High doses of salicylates have been known to reverse hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in type 2 diabetic patients. [F1]These findings strongly suggest that the combined use of Zn and salicylates achieves the synergism in treating type 2 diabetes. Because aspirin, acetyl salicylic acid, has a chelating ability, we used it as a ligand to Zn. Several Zn-salicylate complexes were prepared and their biological activities were examined in this study. The complexes with an electron-withdrawing group in the ligand exhibited higher in vitro insulinomimetic activity than those of Zn complexes with an electron-donating group in the ligand. When bis(aspirinato)Zn (Zn(asp)₂) complex was orally administered on KK-A(y) mice with hereditary type 2 diabetes, the diabetic state was improved. In addition, this complex exhibited normalizing effects on serum adiponectin level and high blood pressure in metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, Zn(asp)₂ complex is newly proposed as a potent anti-diabetic and anti-metabolic syndrome agent.
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The pharmacology of the insulinomimetic effect of zinc complexes.
Sakurai H1, Adachi Y.
Author information
Abstract
In developing new insulinomimetic zinc(II) complexes with different coordination structures and with a blood glucose-lowering effect to treat type 2 diabetic animals, we found a potent bis(maltolato)zinc(ll) complex, Zn(mal)(2). Using the complex as the leading compound, we examined the in vitro and in vivo structure-activity relationships of Zn(mal)(2) and its related complexes in respect to the inhibition of free fatty acids (FFA) release and the enhancement of glucose uptake in isolated rat adipocytes treated with epinephrine (adrenaline), and hypoglycemic activity. Among the compounds tested, a new Zn(II) complex with allixin that was isolated from garlic, bis(allixinato)Zn(II), Zn(alx)(2), was found to exhibit the highest insulin-mimetic and hypoglycemic activities in type 2 KK-A(y) [F2]diabetic mice. On the basis of the results, Zn(alx)(2), complex was proposed to be a potent candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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Show of the Month May 10 2014
Older adults- Build muscle and you’ll live longer
One in five older Americans take medications that work against each other
Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract
List of Codex members
Use of acetaminophen during pregnancy linked to ADHD in children, researchers say
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Older adults- Build muscle and you’ll live longer
Date:
March 14, 2014
Source:
University of California – Los Angeles Health Sciences
New UCLA research suggests that the more muscle mass older Americans have, the less likely they are to die prematurely. The findings add to the growing evidence that overall body composition — and not the widely used body mass index, or BMI — is a better predictor of all-cause mortality.–The study, published in the American Journal of Medicine, is the culmination of previous UCLA research led by Dr. Preethi Srikanthan, an assistant clinical professor in the endocrinology division at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, that found that building muscle mass is important in decreasing metabolic risk.—“As there is no gold-standard measure of body composition, several studies have addressed this question using different measurement techniques and have obtained different results,” Srikanthan said. “So many studies on the mortality impact of obesity focus on BMI. Our study indicates that clinicians need to be focusing on ways to improve body composition, rather than on BMI alone, when counseling older adults on preventative health behaviors.”—The researchers analyzed data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III, conducted between 1988 and 1994. They focused on a group of 3,659 individuals that included men who were 55 or older and women who were 65 or older at the time of the survey. The authors then determined how many of those individuals had died from natural causes based on a follow-up survey done in 2004.–The body composition of the study subjects was measured using bioelectrical impedance, which involves running an electrical current through the body. Muscle allows the current to pass more easily than fat does, due to muscle’s water content. In this way, the researchers could determine a muscle mass index — the amount of muscle relative to height — similar to a body mass index. They looked at how this muscle mass index was related to the risk of death. They found that all-cause mortality was significantly lower in the fourth quartile of muscle mass index compared with the first quartile.–“In other words, the greater your muscle mass, the lower your risk of death,” said Dr. Arun Karlamangla, an associate professor in the geriatrics division at the Geffen School and the study’s co-author. “Thus, rather than worrying about weight or body mass index, we should be trying to maximize and maintain muscle mass.”–This study does have some limitations. For instance, one cannot definitively establish a cause-and-effect relationship between muscle mass and survival using a cohort study such as NHANES III. “But we can say that muscle mass seems to be an important predictor of risk of death,” Srikanthan said. In addition, bioelectrical impedance is not the most advanced measurement technique, though the NHANES III measurements were conducted in a very rigorous fashion “and practically, this is the best situation possible in a study of this size,” she noted.
“Despite these limitations, this study establishes the independent survival prediction ability of muscle mass as measured by bioelectrical impedance in older adults, using data from a large, nationally representative cohort,” Srikanthan and Karlamangla write, adding that BMI’s association with mortality in older adults has proven inconsistent. “We conclude that measurement of muscle mass relative to body height should be added to the toolbox of clinicians caring for older adults. Future research should determine the type and duration of exercise interventions that improve muscle mass and potentially increase survival in (healthy), older adults.”–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by University of California – Los Angeles Health Sciences. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Preethi Srikanthan, Arun S. Karlamangla. Muscle Mass Index as a Predictor of Longevity in Older-Adults. The American Journal of Medicine, 2014; DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.02.007
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One in five older Americans take medications that work against each other
Date:
March 13, 2014
Source:
Oregon State University
About three out of four older Americans have multiple chronic health conditions, and more than 20 percent of them are being treated with drugs that work at odds with each other — the medication being used for one condition can actually make the other condition worse.-[F3]-This approach of treating conditions “one at a time” even if the treatments might conflict with one another is common in medicine, experts say, in part because little information exists to guide practitioners in how to consider this problem, weigh alternatives and identify different options.–One of the first studies to examine the prevalence of this issue, however, found that 22.6 percent of study participants received at least one medication that could worsen a coexisting condition. The work was done by researchers in Connecticut and Oregon, and published in PLOS One.–In cases where this “therapeutic competition” exists, the study found that it changed drug treatments in only 16 percent of the cases. The rest of the time, the competing drugs were still prescribed.–“Many physicians are aware of these concerns but there isn’t much information available on what to do about it,” said David Lee, an assistant professor in the Oregon State University/Oregon Health & Science University College of Pharmacy.–“Drugs tend to focus on one disease at a time, and most physicians treat patients the same way,” Lee said. “As a result, right now we’re probably treating too many conditions with too many medications. There may be times it’s best to just focus on the most serious health problem, rather than use a drug to treat a different condition that could make the more serious health problem even worse.”–More research in this field and more awareness of the scope of the problem are needed, the scientists said. It may be possible to make better value judgments about which health issue is of most concern, whether all the conditions should be treated, or whether this “competition” between drug treatments means one concern should go untreated. It may also be possible in some cases to identify ways to treat both conditions in ways that don’t conflict with one another.–A common issue, for example, is patients who have both coronary heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD. Beta blockers are often prescribed to treat the heart disease, but those same drugs can cause airway resistance that worsens the COPD.–“There are several types of beta blocker that don’t cause this negative interaction, but many of the other types are still prescribed anyway,” Lee said. “It’s this type of information that would be of value in addressing these issues if it were more widely known and used.”
The chronic conditions in which competing therapies come into play include many common health concerns — coronary artery disease, diabetes, COPD, dementia, heart failure, hypertension, high cholesterol, osteoarthritis and others.–This study was done by researchers from OSU and the Yale University School of Medicine, with 5,815 community-living adults between the years 2007-09. The lead author of the study was Dr. Mary E. Tinetti at Yale University, and it was supported by the National Institutes of Health. The analysis included a nationally representative sample of older adults, and both men and women.–The research identified some of the most common competing chronic conditions, in which medications for one condition may exacerbate the other. They included hypertension and osteoarthritis; hypertension and diabetes; hypertension and COPD; diabetes and coronary artery disease; and hypertension and depression. These issues affect millions of older Americans.–“More than 9 million older adults in the U.S. are being prescribed medications that may be causing them more harm than benefit,” said Jonathan Lorgunpai, a medical student at the Yale School of Medicine and co-author of the study. “Not only is this potentially harmful for individual patients, it is also very wasteful for our health care system.”–Direct competition between medications is just one of the concerns, the report noted. Use of multiple medications can also lead to increased numbers of falls and delirium, dizziness, fatigue and anorexia.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Oregon State University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.—Journal Reference-Songprod Jonathan Lorgunpai, Marianthe Grammas, David S. H. Lee, Gail McAvay, Peter Charpentier, Mary E. Tinetti. Potential Therapeutic Competition in Community-Living Older Adults in the U.S.: Use of Medications That May Adversely Affect a Coexisting Condition. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (2): e89447 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089447
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Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract.
Indian J Exp Biol. 2013 Dec;51(12):1094-100
Authors: Mukherjee D, Banerjee S
Abstract
Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic.–PMID: 24579375 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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