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New vitamin B3 pathway identified
Researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) have identified a new vitamin B3 pathway that regulates liver metabolism. The discovery provides an opportunity to pursue the development of novel drug therapies to address obesity, type 2 diabetes and related metabolic diseases.–Published in the August 2015 issue of Nature Medicine, the new findings show that a small molecule called N1-methylnicotinamide prevents metabolic complications caused by a high-fat diet.–“Our laboratory investigates the metabolic effects of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide [NAD+], a metabolite derived from a form of vitamin B3 called nicotinamide[F1],” explained senior author Pavlos Pissios, PhD, an investigator in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at BIDMC and Assistant Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. NAD+ is central to intermediary metabolism, the intracellular process by which food is converted into cellular components in the body.–“Like reservatrol, which is found in red wine, NAD+ boosts the effects of the protein sirtuin 1 [Sirt1], which is known to provide many health benefits,” said Pissios. “Interest in the metabolic effects of NAD+ has spurred the production of several new dietary supplements to improve metabolic health and delay aging. While these results have yet to be demonstrated in humans, recent research has shown that boosting tissue levels of NAD+ can improve health and reduce metabolic complications in mice that have been fed a high-fat diet.”–The liver plays a central role in all metabolic processes, including breaking down fats to produce energy. Because a number of different proteins are involved in the metabolic effects of NAD+, Pissios and his colleagues hypothesized that there might be an as-yet-unidentified vitamin B3 pathway that was directly regulating liver metabolism. “We thought that, in addition to boosting NAD+, vitamin B3 might be positively impacting liver metabolism by acting directly on another pathway,” he explained.–To test this hypothesis, the researchers conducted a variety of experiments that assessed these proteins. Their results showed that nicotinamide N-methyltransfersase (NNMT), a “clearance” enzyme that helps the body excrete excess vitamin B3, also plays a more prominent metabolic role.-“Our lab had been gathering evidence that NNMT not only functions to clear nicotinamide from the liver, but is also involved in the regulation of liver metabolism,” said Pissios. “We confirmed this in our new study, which found that N1-methylnicotinamide, the product of nicotinamide methylation by NNMT, increases Sirt1 protein levels and improves metabolism.”–In subsequent experiments, Pissios and colleagues found that NNMT correlated positively with Sirt1[F2] and a healthy metabolic profile in mice, and also showed that humans with low cholesterol and low triglycerides exhibited high levels of NNMT and Sirt1 in their livers.–“Since N1-methylnicotinamide is a small molecule, we were able to feed it directly to mice to find out if it would prevent the metabolic complications caused by a high-fat diet,” said Pissios. As predicted, N1-methylnicotinamide increased liver Sirt1 protein and suppressed triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis resulting in a healthier liver — with fewer inflammatory markers, less liver fat and lower cholesterol compared to control groups.–“We have now identified a new vitamin B3 pathway that regulates liver metabolism and provides us with an opportunity to pursue development of novel treatments for metabolic diseases,” said Pissios.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. –Journal Reference–Shangyu Hong, Jose M Moreno-Navarrete, Xiaojing Wei, Yusuke Kikukawa, Iphigenia Tzameli, Deepthi Prasad, Yoonjin Lee, John M Asara, Jose Manuel Fernandez-Real, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier, Pavlos Pissios. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase regulates hepatic nutrient metabolism through Sirt1 protein stabilization. Nature Medicine, 2015; 21 (8): 887 DOI: 10.1038/nm.3882
 
 
[F1]The wet milling of such substances with rotor-stator machines offers a multitude of advantages:
The resulting fine fraction is bonded directly in the suspension, so that a dust formation is avoided from the outset.
The substances to be ground remain in the system, unlike dry systems, allowing for a significant reduction of losses. Therefore, wet milling is well-suited for organic chemistry, particularly high-quality substances or for the grinding of poisonous substances.
Product feeding and dosing are easier with wet milling than with a dry process.
Wet milling is successfully used for many applications in the pharmaceutical industry because it works well with API (active pharmaceutical ingredients).
[F2]Meaning then it gets into the organs-brain-skeletal structure-and other places
[F3]This word says it all –at best it is a guess and with the components sustained and using a enzyme mechanism to release the materials then then this could possibly lead to again an overload to organs and other tissues in the body
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[F1]Niacinamide
[F2]Sirtuin 1, also known as NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIRT1 gene.[1][2][3]
SIRT1 stands for sirtuin (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1 (S. cerevisiae), referring to the fact that its sirtuin homolog (biological equivalent across species) in yeast (S. cerevisiae) is Sir2. SIRT1 is an enzyme that deacetylates proteins that contribute to cellular regulation (reaction to stressors, longevity).[4]
Activators
Lamin A is a protein that had been identified as a direct activator of Sirtuin 1 during a study on Progeria.[12]
Resveratrol has been claimed to be an activator of Sirtuin 1,[13] but this effect has been disputed based on the fact that the initially used activity assay, using a non-physiological substrate peptide, can produce artificial results.[14][15] Resveratrol increases the expression of SIRT1, meaning that it does increase the activity of SIRT1, though not necessarily by direct activation.[5] However, resveratrol was later shown to directly activate Sirtuin 1 against non-modified peptide substrates.[16][17] Resveratrol also enhances the binding between Sirtuin 1 and Lamin A.[12]
SRT-1720 was also claimed to be an activator,[13] but this now has been questioned.[18]
TOP A
 
[F1]Are they saying vaccine a causitive issue and that it is the thymus that protects us from vaccinations??
[F2]These Substances may Enhance the Function of the Thymus Gland
 
Amino Acids
 
Arginine (1,000 – 5,000 mg per day) may increase the size of the Thymus, may stimulate the production of Lymphocytes by the Thymus and may restore the production of Thymic Hormones to youthful levels. references
Aspartic Acid may increase the size of the Thymus and may enhance the function of the Thymus. references
 
Cysteine may increase the size of the Thymus.
Ornithine may increase the size of the Thymus. references
Ornithine Alpha-Ketoglutarate (OKG) may inhibit the ability of excessive Stress to cause the atrophy of the Thymus gland. references
 
Threonine may facilitate the growth and activity of the Thymus. [more info]
 
Carotenoids
 
Beta-Carotene may enhance the function of the Thymus. references
 
Hormones
 
Human Growth Hormone (hGH) is essential for the correct function of the Thymus Gland and supplemental, exogenous hGH may increase the size of Thymus Glands that have atrophied (shrunk). references
Melatonin may improve the function of the Thymus: references
 
Melatonin may increase the production of T-Lymphocytes by the Thymus and may facilitate the interaction of Zinc with the Thymus.
Melatonin may restore growth of the Thymus (via its ability to improve the body’s absorption and utilization of Zinc) – in the absence of Melatonin, the Thymus may shrink.
 
Thymulin may stimulate the replication and differentiation of the Lymphocytes in the Thymus (that arrive from the Bone Marrow) into the various types of T-Lymphocytes. [more info]
Thyroid Hormones may promote the regeneration of the Thymus. references
 
Lipids
 
Gangliosides concentrate in the Thymus.
 
Minerals
 
Chronic Magnesium deficiency may cause abnormalities in the development of the Thymus. [more info]
Selenium (200 mcg per day) may increase the size of the Thymus gland and may enhance the function of the Thymus gland. references
 
Zinc deficiency may cause shrinkage of the Thymus: references
 
Supplemental Zinc may cause regrowth of Thymus Glands that have shrunk because of Aging.
 
Neurotransmitters
 
Norepinephrine may cause the release of the Hormones that provide the Thymus with correct instructions.
 
Proteins
 
Proline Rich Polypeptide (PRP) may help to regulate the activity of the Thymus Gland. references
Thymic Protein A may improve the function of the Thymus (Thymic Protein A is a component of Hormones produced by the Thymus and exogenous supplemental Thymic Protein A may enhance endogenous Thymic Protein A function). [more info]
 
Vitamins
 
Biotin deficiency may cause atrophy (shrinkage) of the Thymus. references
Vitamin A may protect and strengthen the Thymus and may enhance its ability to manufacture T-Lymphocytes. Supplemental Vitamin A may increase the size of the Thymus gland. references
Vitamin C may increase the size of the Thymus. [more info]
Vitamin E may protect the Thymus and supplemental Vitamin E may increase the size of the Thymus. references
 
 
 
[F3]They don’t work–
[F4]Nanoparticles, natural, artificial, old and new
What’s new about nanoparticles, as far as risk is concerned, is that many of them are chemically inert as ordinary ions or as larger particles (and hence never had to go through regulatory approval before the nanoparticles were used); but as soon as the particle size reaches nanometre dimensions, they acquire novel physicochemical properties, causing oxidative stress and breaking DNA, and they can get access to every part of the body including the brain, via inhalation and the olfactory nerve.
A comprehensive review by Cristina Buzea and colleagues at Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, in Canada, pointed out that human beings have been exposed to natural nanoparticles since the origin of our species, in the form of viruses, dusts from terrestrial and extraterrestrial dust storms, volcanic eruptions, forest fires, and sea salt aerosols Nanoparticles have been created by human activities for thousands of years, by burning wood in cooking, and more recently, chemical manufacturing, welding, ore refining and smelting, burning of petrol in vehicles and airplane engines, burning sewage sludge, coal and fuel oil for power generation, all of which are already known to have health impacts. Automobile exhaust particular pollution is linked to heart and lung diseases and childhood cancers.
Tobacco smoke is composed of nanoparticles with size ranging from around 10 nm up to 700 nm, with a peak around 150 nm. It has a very complex composition with more than 100 000 chemical components and compounds. First or second hand cigarette smoke is associated with an increased risk of chronic respiratory illness, lung cancer, nasal cancer, and cardiovascular disease, as well as other malignant tumours, such as pancreatic cancer, and genetic alterations. Children exposed to cigarette smoke show an increased risk of sudden infant death –syndrome, middle ear disease, lower respiratory tract illnesses, and exacerbated asthma.—Dust from building demolition is an important source of particulate pollution. Older buildings are likely to contain asbestos, fibres, lead, glass, wood, paper and other toxic particles
Natural and artificial nanoparticles overlap. For example, C60 fullerenes have been reported in 10 000-year-old ice core samples.–It is important to distinguish nanoparticles from nano-structured materials that do not exist as free particles during any part of the manufacturing process, which therefore are not expected to present the same hazards. –Nevertheless we are faced with an unprecedented and ever-growing volume and diversity of nanoparticles as nanotechnologies take off in all directions.
Diseases associated with nanoparticles
Nanoparticles may be inhaled, ingested or taken in through contact with the skin. The known possible adverse health impacts include both natural and anthropogenic nanoparticles. Obviously not all nanoparticles are harmful, but without exhaustive tests especially in the case of the newly engineered nanoparticles, it is impossible to tell.–Diseases associated with inhaled nanoparticles include asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Nanoparticles in the gastrointestinal tract have been linked to Crohn’s disease and colon cancer. Nanoparticles that enter the circulatory system are implicated in arteriosclerosis, blood clots, arrhythmia, heart diseases, and ultimately death from heart disease. Nanoparticles entering other organs, such as liver, spleen, etc., may lead to diseases of these organs. Some nanoparticles are associated with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and rheumatoid arthritis.
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TOP B
 
From: H S Truman
 
Political Correctness is a doctrine, recently fostered by a delusional, illogical minority and
promoted by a sick mainstream media, which holds forth the proposition that it is entirely
possible to pick up a piece of shit by the clean end!
 
 
Show of the Month August 15 2015
New insight into DNA repair
Nanoparticle cluster manufacturing technique using DNA binding protein developed
Universal iodine supplementation during pregnancy could offer huge cost savings
Critical need for iodine supplements during pregnancy and while nursing
Understanding molecular origin of epigenetic markers
Effect of environmental epigenetics on disease, evolution
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New insight into DNA repair
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the worst possible form of genetic malfunction that can cause cancer and resistance to therapy. New information published reveals more about why this occurs and how these breaks can be repaired.–Scientists at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reported their findings about the role of the enzyme fumarase in DNA repair in the Aug. 3, 2015 issue of Nature Cell Biology.–“Our study showed that the enzymatic activity of the metabolic enzyme fumarase and its product, fumarate, are critical elements of the DNA damage response and that fumarase deficiency promotes tumor growth due to impairment of DNA repair,” said Zhimin Lu, M.D., Ph.D., professor of Neuro-Oncology.–Lu’s team demonstrated that fumarase accomplishes this through a process critical for gene regulation and expression known as histone methylation. Many cancers are thought to result from misregulated histone methylation.–Another crucial component of the DNA repair process is DNA-PK, a protein kinase that governs DNA damage response, helping to assure genetic stability. The researchers defined how DNA-PK and fumarase interact to increase histone methylation, allowing for DNA repair and restoration of healthy cells.–“We know that histone methylation regulates DNA repair, but the mechanisms underlying this repair has not been fully understood,” he said. “Our research revealed a ‘feedback’ mechanism that underlies DNA-PK regulation by chromatin-associated fumarase and the function of this fumarase in regulating histone methylation and DNA repair.”–This chain-of-event repair process occurs at the DSB regions and initiates a DNA damage “fix” by joining the tail ends of the double strand breaks.–Increasingly, inhibition of DNA-PKs and fumarase are being looked at for its potential to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It is hoped a more thorough understanding about how they accomplish this can lead to new approaches to cancer treatment.–Dr. Lu’s group previously reported that another metabolic enzyme, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) acts as a protein kinase in regulation of the Warburg effect, a process by which cancer cells produce energy, as well for regulation of gene expression and cell cycle progression.–“Our new findings on s role in DNA repair further demonstrate that metabolic enzymes can possess non-metabolic functions in crucial cellular activities of cancer cells,” said Lu.—Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. –Journal Reference-Yuhui Jiang, Xu Qian, Jianfeng Shen, Yugang Wang, Xinjian Li, Rui Liu, Yan Xia, Qianming Chen, Guang Peng, Shiaw-Yih Lin, Zhimin Lu. Local generation of fumarate promotes DNA repair through inhibition of histone H3 demethylation. Nature Cell Biology, 2015; DOI: 10.1038/ncb3209 –University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. “New insight into DNA repair.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 August 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150803111217.htm>.
Rapid aging of the thymus linked to decline in free radical defenses
A critical immune organ called the thymus shrinks rapidly with age, putting older individuals at greater risk for life-threatening infections. A study published August 6 in Cell Reports reveals that thymus atrophy may stem from a decline in its ability to protect against DNA damage from free radicals. The damage accelerates metabolic dysfunction in the organ, progressively reducing its production of pathogen-fighting T cells.–The findings suggest that common dietary antioxidants may slow thymus atrophy and could represent a promising treatment strategy for protecting older adults from infections.–“The thymus ages more rapidly than any other tissue in the body, diminishing the ability of older individuals to respond to new immunologic challenges, including evolving pathogens and the vaccines that may otherwise offer protection from them,[F1]” says senior study author Howard Petrie of the Scripps Research Institute. “We provide, for the first time, a mechanistic link between antioxidants and normal immune function, opening new avenues for potential treatment strategies that could improve immune defenses in the aging population.”–The thymus produces essential immune cells called T cells, which are continuously lost and must be replaced throughout life[F2]. But starting around the time of puberty, the thymus rapidly decreases in size and loses its capacity to produce enough new T cells. This loss is partially offset by the duplication of existing T cells, but the resulting population of cells becomes more and more biased toward memory T cells, which recognize pathogens from previous or ongoing infections. As a result, broad-spectrum immunity against new pathogens and protective immune responses elicited by new vaccines diminish with age.–[F3]The development of interventions to slow the progression of thymus atrophy has been limited by the lack of knowledge about the underlying mechanisms. The prevailing theory suggests that sex hormones play a key role, but this explanation does not account for the accelerated speed at which the thymus diminishes in size in comparison to other tissues. Moreover, the body of scientific evidence clearly indicates that other factors must be involved in age-related thymus atrophy.–To address this question, Petrie and first author Ann Griffith, currently at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, developed a computational approach for analyzing the activity of genes in two major thymic cell types–stromal cells and lymphoid cells–in mouse tissues, which are very similar to human thymic tissues in terms of function and the properties of atrophy. They found that stromal cells were deficient in an antioxidant enzyme called catalase, resulting in the accumulation of free radical and metabolic damage.-To test whether catalase deficiency plays a causal role in thymus atrophy, the researchers performed genetic experiments to enhance catalase levels in mice. By 6 months of age, the size of the thymus of the genetically engineered mice was more than double that of normal mice. Moreover, mice that were treated with two common antioxidants from the time of weaning achieved nearly normal thymus size by 10 weeks of age.–Taken together, the findings provide support for the free-radical theory of aging, which proposes that reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide cause cellular damage that contributes to aging and a variety of age-related diseases. These toxic molecules, which form in cells as a natural byproduct of the metabolism of oxygen, have been linked to progressive atrophy in many organs and tissues as part of the normal aging process. However, these are generally slow, progressive processes that do not become apparent until late in life and often go mostly unnoticed.–“In the case of the thymus, atrophy is more rapid than other tissues, which we now show is a consequence of stromal catalase deficiency in the context of a highly metabolic environment designed to support the demands of T-cell proliferation,” Petrie says. “Our studies show that, rather than an idiosyncratic relationship to sex steroids, thymic atrophy represents the widely recognized process of accumulated cellular damage resulting from lifelong exposure to the oxidative byproducts of aerobic metabolism.[F4]”–In future studies, the researchers will investigate whether antioxidant supplementation improves the functioning of the thymus and the immune system during aging. If these studies provide support for this idea, then they could lead to the development of new clinical recommendations for the prevention or treatment of age-related thymus atrophy in humans.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Cell Press. –Journal Reference-Griffith et al. Metabolic damage and premature thymus aging caused by stromal catalase deficiency. Cell Reports, August 2015 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.07.008 –Cite This Page-Cell Press. “Rapid aging of the thymus linked to decline in free radical defenses.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 6 August 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150806133043.htm>.
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Nanoparticle cluster manufacturing technique using DNA binding protein developed
 
A mimetic diagram of NPCs manufacturing technique using DNA binding protein zinc finger.-Credit: Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology–Scientists in South Korea used the Zinc Finger protein to develop a new manufacturing technique for size-controllable magnetic Nanoparticle Clusters.–Professor Hak-Sung Kim of the Department of Biological Sciences at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and Yiseul Ryu, a doctoral candidate, used the Zinc Finger protein that specifically binds to target DNA sequence to develop a new manufacturing technique for size-controllable magnetic Nanoparticle Clusters (NPCs). Their research results were published in Angewandte Chemie International Edition online on 25 November 2014.–NPCs are structures consisting of magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, and quantum dots, each of which are smaller than 100 nm (10 [-9m]). NPCs have a distinctive property of collectivity not seen in single nanoparticles.–Specifically NPCS differ in physical and optical properties such as Plasmon coupling absorbance, energy transfers between particles, electron transfers, and conductivity. Therefore, NPCs can be employed in biological and medical research as well as the development of nanoelectric and nanoplasmon devices.–To make use of these novel properties, the size and the composition of the cluster must be exquisitely controlled.[F5] However, previous techniques relied on chemical binding which required complex steps, making it difficult to control the size and composition of NPCs.–Professor Kim’s team used Zinc Finger, a DNA binding protein, to develop a NPCs manufacturing technique to create clusters of the desired size easily. The Zinc Finger protein contains a zinc ion and specifically recognizes DNA sequence upon binding, which allows the exquisite control of the size and the cluster composition. The technique is also bio-friendly.–Professor Kim’s team created linear structure of different sizes of NPCs using Zinc Finger proteins and three DNA sequences of different lengths. The NPCs they produced confirmed their ability to control the size and structure of the cluster by using different DNA lengths.–The NPCs showed tripled T2 relaxation rates compared to the existing MRI contrast media (Feridex) and effectively transported to targeted cells. The research findings show the potential use of NPCs in biological and medical fields such as MRI contrast media, fluorescence imaging, and drug transport.–The research used the specific binding property of protein and DNA to develop a new method to create an inorganic nanoparticle’s supramolecular assembly. The technique can be used and applied extensively in other nanoparticles for future research in diagnosis, imaging, and drug and gene delivery.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology–Journal Reference-Yiseul Ryu, Zongwen Jin, Joong-jae Lee, Seung-hyun Noh, Tae-Hyun Shin, Seong-Min Jo, Joonsung Choi, HyunWook Park, Jinwoo Cheon, Hak-Sung Kim. Size-Controlled Construction of Magnetic Nanoparticle Clusters Using DNA-Binding Zinc Finger Protein. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2014; DOI: 10.1002/anie.201408593 -Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. “Nanoparticle cluster manufacturing technique using DNA binding protein developed.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 5 December 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/12/141205175130.htm>.
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Universal iodine supplementation during pregnancy could offer huge cost savings
 
Giving all pregnant women iodine supplements, even in mildly iodine deficient countries like the UK, could result in huge cost savings for health care systems and society, according to new modelling research published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal.–The new estimates suggest that introducing iodine supplementation in pregnancy in the UK could save the National Health Service (NHS) around £200 per expectant mother and provide monetary benefits to society of around £4500 per child from increased lifetime earnings and lower public sector costs. With around 1.9 billion people and 241 million school-age children (aged 6-12 years) living in the 32 countries that have iodine deficiency, the authors conclude that the benefits of universal iodine supplementation during pregnancy could be substantial.–“Iodine deficiency in pregnancy remains the leading cause of preventable retardation worldwide. Even mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy is associated with children with lower IQs,” explains Kate Jolly, a co-author and Professor of Public Health at the University of Birmingham in the UK. “It’s time for all women living in iodine deficient countries without universal supplementation of iodine, who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy to be advised to take a daily supplement containing iodine.”–Iodine is not made naturally in the body and must be consumed by eating foods like dairy and seafood or supplements.[F6] Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy can cause substantial mental impairment and delayed development in children, resulting in a lower IQ and consequently lower educational attainment and earning potential. International health organisations like WHO and the European Food Safety Authority recommend that pregnant and breastfeeding women take daily iodine supplements. However, no recommendation for iodine supplementation has been issued to pregnant women in the UK, even though mild iodine deficiency has been reported to be widespread.–As a randomised trial might not be approved because of ethical concerns in the untreated group, a team of researchers from the University of Birmingham did a modelling study to examine the cost-effectiveness of iodine supplementation versus no supplementation for pregnant women in the UK. Using data from a systematic review of published studies and expert opinion they modelled both the direct health service savings and monetary benefits to society (lifetime earnings) in terms of gains from an additional IQ point in the children.–By converting the effects of iodine supplementation in pregnancy on developing brains into IQ points, the authors estimate that the benefits equate to 1.22 IQ points per child, with monetary benefits of around £199 per expectant mother for the NHS, and £4476 per pregnancy for society.–According to the authors, “As food fortification alone may not be enough to achieve iodine sufficiency for pregnant women, our results strengthen the case for universal iodine supplementation of all women before and during pregnancy and whilst breastfeeding in mild-to-moderate iodine deficient countries.”–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by The Lancet. –Journal Reference–Mark Monahan, Kristien Boelaert, Kate Jolly, Shiao Chan, Pelham Barton, Tracy E Roberts. Costs and benefits of iodine supplementation for pregnant women in a mildly to moderately iodine-deficient population: a modelling analysis. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/S2213-8587(15)00212-0 –The Lancet. “Universal iodine supplementation during pregnancy could offer huge cost savings.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 9 August 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150809223931.htm>.
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Critical need for iodine supplements during pregnancy and while nursing
A viewpoint in this week’s Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) discusses the issue of iodine deficiency in pregnant women in the U.S. and the potential negative health implications for both mothers and their children from this deficiency.–Alex Stagnaro-Green, MD, MHPE, professor of medicine and professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the George Washington University (GW) School of Medicine and Health Sciences (SMHS), is the paper’s lead author. Elizabeth Pearce, MD, MSc, associate professor of medicine at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM), serves as co-author on the paper. The authors hope to start a conversation in the healthcare community on how to better protect the health of mothers and their children.–“Iodine levels in the US have been decreasing, which has the potential to negatively impact the mother and unborn child,” said Stagnaro-Green. “It’s time for all healthcare professionals to make sure that every pregnant and breast-feeding woman gets supplemental iodine during pregnancy and while they are breast-feeding.”–Iodine, which is not naturally made in the human body, must be consumed through foods rich in the element or through supplements. Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormone, and adequate thyroid hormone levels are critical for normal fetal neurodevelopment. National and international health organizations currently recommend that pregnant women take at least 150 µg of potassium iodide daily.[F7]–“There is concern that even mild iodine deficiency in pregnant women could lead to children with lower IQ’s,” said Pearce. Iodine deficiency remains the leading cause of preventable mental retardation worldwide. Other risks of iodine deficiency include maternal and fetal goiter and increased pregnancy loss and infant mortality. Guidelines from the American Thyroid Association, Endocrine Society and Teratology Society have recommended daily iodine supplements for women in the U.S. who are pregnant, lactating or planning a pregnancy. However, these recommendations have not been widely adopted and many prenatal multivitamins sold do not contain iodine. Previous studies have shown that approximately only 20 percent of women in the U.S. take supplements with iodine.
“It is imperative that collaborations develop among health care providers and the pharmaceutical industry to ensure that all prenatal vitamins contain at least 150 µg of iodine,” said Pearce.–Dr. Stagnaro-Green recommends that, “every prenatal vitamin in the US should have iodine supplementation.”–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by George Washington University. Journal Reference-Alex Stagnaro-Green, Scott Sullivan, Elizabeth N. Pearce. Iodine Supplementation During Pregnancy and Lactation. JAMA, 2012; 308 (23): 2463-2464 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2012.45423 –George Washington University. “Critical need for iodine supplements during pregnancy and while nursing.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 December 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121218161836.htm>
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Understanding molecular origin of epigenetic markers
Researchers at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), Cambridge University and New York University, led by Modesto Orozco, Group Leader at IRB Barcelona, Director of Life Sciences at the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC-CNS) and Professor at the University of Barcelona (UB), have determined the mechanics behind of one of the most common epigenetic modifications: histone-tail acetylation. Acetylation is a means by which a cell can control the expression of its genes–The study published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS) reveals the effect of lysine acetylation in histone tails. “The most relevant acetylation reactions take place in a mysterious part of the nucleosome: the histone tails,” explains Modesto Orozco. “Histone tails are loosely structured protein fragments. They are unfolded under normal conditions and when they move, they can touch other nucleosomes, thereby condensing chromatin,” he adds. Nucleosomes are structures that make up the fundamental units of chromatin, which is the complex within which DNA is organized in eukaryotic cells.–Using simulation and nuclear magnetic resonance, the researchers found that the histone tails with lysine acetylation acquire a certain structure. “By forming this structure, they become shorter and lose their ability to touch other nucleosomes. As a result, the internucleosomal contact that condenses unmodified chromatin, doesn’t happen and this produces DNA molecules that are more accessible to effect or proteins and therefore more active,” the researcher describes.–This is the first mechanical explanation at the atomic level of an epigenetic effect, one of the most important, that connects an epigenetic modification with a phenotypic effect,” assures Orozco. “This leads us to believe that there is a similar explanation for other epigenetic modifications. There may be a very basic mechanism that accounts for the effect that they have on gene structure and expression,” he concludes.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Institute for Research in Biomedicine-IRB. Journal Reference-Rosana Collepardo-Guevara, Guillem Portella, Michele Vendruscolo, Daan Frenkel, Tamar Schlick, Modesto Orozco. Chromatin unfolding by epigenetic modifications explained by dramatic impairment of internucleosome interactions: a multiscale computational study. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2015; 150720124818006 DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b04086
Institute for Research in Biomedicine-IRB. “Understanding molecular origin of epigenetic markers.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 28 July 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/07/150728101508.htm>.
 
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Effect of environmental epigenetics on disease, evolution
Washington State University researchers say environmental factors are having an underappreciated effect on the course of disease and evolution by prompting genetic mutations through epigenetics, a process by which genes are turned on and off independent of an organism’s DNA sequence.–Their assertion is a dramatic shift in how we might think of disease and evolution’s underlying biology and “changes how we think about where things come from,” said Michael Skinner, founding director of the Center for Reproductive Biology in WSU’s School of Biological Sciences. Skinner and colleagues Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna and M. M. Haque present their findings in the latest issue of the journal Epigenetics. “The ability of environmental factors to promote epigenetic inheritance that subsequently promotes genetic mutations is a significant advance in our understanding of how the environment impacts disease and evolution,[F12]” they write. Skinner is a pioneer in the field of epigenetics, which looks at the effect of changes in how genetic information is passed between generations even if DNA remains unchanged. Earlier work by Skinner has found epigenetic effects from a host of environmental toxicants, connecting plastics, pesticides, fungicide, dioxin and hydrocarbons to diseases and abnormalities as many as three generations later. His recent study exposed gestating female rats to the fungicide vinclozolin. Sperm in the first generation of male offspring showed epimutations, or alterations in the methyl groups that stick to DNA and affect its activation. Third generation, or great-grand offspring, had increased genetic mutations, which the researchers saw in increased DNA structure changes known as copy-number variations. Multiple generations of control animals had no such variations. This, said Skinner, suggests that environment has a more important role in mutations, disease and evolution than previously appreciated, and appears to be one of the main drivers of intergenerational changes, not simply a passive component. In short, Skinner and his colleagues say, the environment and epigenetics can drive genetics. “There’s not a type of genetic mutation known that’s not potentially influenced by environmental epigenetic effects,” Skinner said.–Story Source–The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Washington State University. The original item was written by Eric Sorensen.Journal Reference–Michael K Skinner, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna, M Muksitul Haque. Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of sperm epimutations promote genetic mutations. Epigenetics, 2015; 10 (8): 762 DOI: 10.1080/15592294.2015.1062207 -Washington State University. “Effect of environmental epigenetics on disease, evolution: ‘Epigenetics can drive genetics,’ experts say.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 August 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150803083351.htm>.
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[F1]Are they saying vaccine a causitive issue and that it is the thymus that protects us from vaccinations??
[F2]These Substances may Enhance the Function of the Thymus Gland
 
Amino Acids
 
Arginine (1,000 – 5,000 mg per day) may increase the size of the Thymus, may stimulate the production of Lymphocytes by the Thymus and may restore the production of Thymic Hormones to youthful levels. references
Aspartic Acid may increase the size of the Thymus and may enhance the function of the Thymus. references
 
Cysteine may increase the size of the Thymus.
Ornithine may increase the size of the Thymus. references
Ornithine Alpha-Ketoglutarate (OKG) may inhibit the ability of excessive Stress to cause the atrophy of the Thymus gland. references
 
Threonine may facilitate the growth and activity of the Thymus. [more info]
 
Carotenoids
 
Beta-Carotene may enhance the function of the Thymus. references
 
Hormones
 
Human Growth Hormone (hGH) is essential for the correct function of the Thymus Gland and supplemental, exogenous hGH may increase the size of Thymus Glands that have atrophied (shrunk). references
Melatonin may improve the function of the Thymus: references
 
– Melatonin may increase the production of T-Lymphocytes by the Thymus and may facilitate the interaction of Zinc with the Thymus.
– Melatonin may restore growth of the Thymus (via its ability to improve the body’s absorption and utilization of Zinc) – in the absence of Melatonin, the Thymus may shrink.
 
Thymulin may stimulate the replication and differentiation of the Lymphocytes in the Thymus (that arrive from the Bone Marrow) into the various types of T-Lymphocytes. [more info]
Thyroid Hormones may promote the regeneration of the Thymus. references
 
Lipids
 
Gangliosides concentrate in the Thymus.
 
Minerals
 
Chronic Magnesium deficiency may cause abnormalities in the development of the Thymus. [more info]
Selenium (200 mcg per day) may increase the size of the Thymus gland and may enhance the function of the Thymus gland. references
Silicon may improve the function of the Thymus. [more info]
 
Zinc deficiency may cause shrinkage of the Thymus: references
 
– Supplemental Zinc may cause regrowth of Thymus Glands that have shrunk because of Aging.
 
Neurotransmitters
 
Norepinephrine may cause the release of the Hormones that provide the Thymus with correct instructions.
 
Proteins
 
Proline Rich Polypeptide (PRP) may help to regulate the activity of the Thymus Gland. references
Thymic Protein A may improve the function of the Thymus (Thymic Protein A is a component of Hormones produced by the Thymus and exogenous supplemental Thymic Protein A may enhance endogenous Thymic Protein A function). [more info]
 
Vitamins
 
Biotin deficiency may cause atrophy (shrinkage) of the Thymus. references
Vitamin A may protect and strengthen the Thymus and may enhance its ability to manufacture T-Lymphocytes. Supplemental Vitamin A may increase the size of the Thymus gland. references
Vitamin C may increase the size of the Thymus. [more info]
 
Vitamin E may protect the Thymus and supplemental Vitamin E may increase the size of the Thymus. references
 
 
 
[F3]They don’t work–
[F4]Nanoparticles, natural, artificial, old and new
What’s new about nanoparticles, as far as risk is concerned, is that many of them are chemically inert as ordinary ions or as larger particles (and hence never had to go through regulatory approval before the nanoparticles were used); but as soon as the particle size reaches nanometre dimensions, they acquire novel physicochemical properties, causing oxidative stress and breaking DNA, and they can get access to every part of the body including the brain, via inhalation and the olfactory nerve.
A comprehensive review by Cristina Buzea and colleagues at Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, in Canada, pointed out that human beings have been exposed to natural nanoparticles since the origin of our species, in the form of viruses, dusts from terrestrial and extraterrestrial dust storms, volcanic eruptions, forest fires, and sea salt aerosols Nanoparticles have been created by human activities for thousands of years, by burning wood in cooking, and more recently, chemical manufacturing, welding, ore refining and smelting, burning of petrol in vehicles and airplane engines, burning sewage sludge, coal and fuel oil for power generation, all of which are already known to have health impacts. Automobile exhaust particular pollution is linked to heart and lung diseases and childhood cancers.
Tobacco smoke is composed of nanoparticles with size ranging from around 10 nm up to 700 nm, with a peak around 150 nm. It has a very complex composition with more than 100 000 chemical components and compounds. First or second hand cigarette smoke is associated with an increased risk of chronic respiratory illness, lung cancer, nasal cancer, and cardiovascular disease, as well as other malignant tumours, such as pancreatic cancer, and genetic alterations. Children exposed to cigarette smoke show an increased risk of sudden infant death –syndrome, middle ear disease, lower respiratory tract illnesses, and exacerbated asthma.—Dust from building demolition is an important source of particulate pollution. Older buildings are likely to contain asbestos, fibres, lead, glass, wood, paper and other toxic particles
Natural and artificial nanoparticles overlap. For example, C60 fullerenes have been reported in 10 000-year-old ice core samples.–It is important to distinguish nanoparticles from nano-structured materials that do not exist as free particles during any part of the manufacturing process, which therefore are not expected to present the same hazards. –Nevertheless we are faced with an unprecedented and ever-growing volume and diversity of nanoparticles as nanotechnologies take off in all directions.
Diseases associated with nanoparticles
Nanoparticles may be inhaled, ingested or taken in through contact with the skin. The known possible adverse health impacts include both natural and anthropogenic nanoparticles. Obviously not all nanoparticles are harmful, but without exhaustive tests especially in the case of the newly engineered nanoparticles, it is impossible to tell.–Diseases associated with inhaled nanoparticles include asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Nanoparticles in the gastrointestinal tract have been linked to Crohn’s disease and colon cancer. Nanoparticles that enter the circulatory system are implicated in arteriosclerosis, blood clots, arrhythmia, heart diseases, and ultimately death from heart disease. Nanoparticles entering other organs, such as liver, spleen, etc., may lead to diseases of these organs. Some nanoparticles are associated with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and rheumatoid arthritis.
[F5]Controlled meaning programmed or directed
[F6]Dairy and Seafood—you have to consider where the dairy is coming from and if the cows feed is sourced with adequate iodine as well and see foods for the most part are mercury and cadmium loaded so the iodine there may as be non existent so to make sure ustilize real iodine either orally or topically to get your adequate dose
[F7]Which is far to low—the daily dose would be 10-13mgs a day –lugols –iodoral—potassium iodide—iosol or atomidine would be suggested
[F8]Are they saying vaccine a causitive issue and that it is the thymus that protects us from vaccinations??
[F9]These Substances may Enhance the Function of the Thymus Gland
 
Amino Acids
 
Arginine (1,000 – 5,000 mg per day) may increase the size of the Thymus, may stimulate the production of Lymphocytes by the Thymus and may restore the production of Thymic Hormones to youthful levels.
Aspartic Acid may increase the size of the Thymus and may enhance the function of the Thymus.
 
Cysteine may increase the size of the Thymus.
Ornithine may increase the size of the Thymus. references
Ornithine Alpha-Ketoglutarate (OKG) may inhibit the ability of excessive Stress to cause the atrophy of the Thymus gland.
Threonine may facilitate the growth and activity of the Thymus. [more info]
 
Carotenoids
 
Beta-Carotene may enhance the function of the Thymus. references
 
Hormones
 
Human Growth Hormone (hGH) is essential for the correct function of the Thymus Gland and supplemental, exogenous hGH may increase the size of Thymus Glands that have atrophied (shrunk). references
Melatonin may improve the function of the Thymus: Melatonin may increase the production of T-Lymphocytes by the Thymus and may facilitate the interaction of Zinc with the Thymus.
Melatonin may restore growth of the Thymus (via its ability to improve the body’s absorption and utilization of Zinc) – in the absence of Melatonin, the Thymus may shrink.
 
Thymulin may stimulate the replication and differentiation of the Lymphocytes in the Thymus (that arrive from the Bone Marrow) into the various types of T-Lymphocytes. Thyroid Hormones may promote the regeneration of the Thymus. references
 
Lipids
 
Gangliosides concentrate in the Thymus.
 
Minerals
 
Chronic Magnesium deficiency may cause abnormalities in the development of the Thymus. Selenium (200 mcg per day) may increase the size of the Thymus gland and may enhance the function of the Thymus gland.
Silicon may improve the function of the Thymus.
 
Zinc deficiency may cause shrinkage of the Thymus: Supplemental Zinc may cause regrowth of Thymus Glands that have shrunk because of Aging.
 
Neurotransmitters
 
Norepinephrine may cause the release of the Hormones that provide the Thymus with correct instructions.
 
Proteins
 
Proline Rich Polypeptide (PRP) may help to regulate the activity of the Thymus Gland.
Thymic Protein A may improve the function of the Thymus (Thymic Protein A is a component of Hormones produced by the Thymus and exogenous supplemental Thymic Protein A may enhance endogenous Thymic Protein A function). [more info]
 
Vitamins
 
Biotin deficiency may cause atrophy (shrinkage) of the Thymus. references
Vitamin A may protect and strengthen the Thymus and may enhance its ability to manufacture T-Lymphocytes. Supplemental Vitamin A may increase the size of the Thymus gland. references
Vitamin C may increase the size of the Thymus. [more info]
Vitamin E may protect the Thymus and supplemental Vitamin E may increase the size of the Thymus. references
 
 
 
[F10]They don’t work–
[F11]Nanoparticles, natural, artificial, old and new
What’s new about nanoparticles, as far as risk is concerned, is that many of them are chemically inert as ordinary ions or as larger particles (and hence never had to go through regulatory approval before the nanoparticles were used); but as soon as the particle size reaches nanometre dimensions, they acquire novel physicochemical properties, causing oxidative stress and breaking DNA, and they can get access to every part of the body including the brain, via inhalation and the olfactory nerve.
A comprehensive review by Cristina Buzea and colleagues at Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, in Canada, pointed out that human beings have been exposed to natural nanoparticles since the origin of our species, in the form of viruses, dusts from terrestrial and extraterrestrial dust storms, volcanic eruptions, forest fires, and sea salt aerosols Nanoparticles have been created by human activities for thousands of years, by burning wood in cooking, and more recently, chemical manufacturing, welding, ore refining and smelting, burning of petrol in vehicles and airplane engines, burning sewage sludge, coal and fuel oil for power generation, all of which are already known to have health impacts. Automobile exhaust particular pollution is linked to heart and lung diseases and childhood cancers.
Tobacco smoke is composed of nanoparticles with size ranging from around 10 nm up to 700 nm, with a peak around 150 nm. It has a very complex composition with more than 100 000 chemical components and compounds. First or second hand cigarette smoke is associated with an increased risk of chronic respiratory illness, lung cancer, nasal cancer, and cardiovascular disease, as well as other malignant tumours, such as pancreatic cancer, and genetic alterations. Children exposed to cigarette smoke show an increased risk of sudden infant death –syndrome, middle ear disease, lower respiratory tract illnesses, and exacerbated asthma.—Dust from building demolition is an important source of particulate pollution. Older buildings are likely to contain asbestos, fibres, lead, glass, wood, paper and other toxic particles
Natural and artificial nanoparticles overlap. For example, C60 fullerenes have been reported in 10 000-year-old ice core samples.–It is important to distinguish nanoparticles from nano-structured materials that do not exist as free particles during any part of the manufacturing process, which therefore are not expected to present the same hazards. –Nevertheless we are faced with an unprecedented and ever-growing volume and diversity of nanoparticles as nanotechnologies take off in all directions.
Diseases associated with nanoparticles
Nanoparticles may be inhaled, ingested or taken in through contact with the skin. The known possible adverse health impacts include both natural and anthropogenic nanoparticles. Obviously not all nanoparticles are harmful, but without exhaustive tests especially in the case of the newly engineered nanoparticles, it is impossible to tell.–Diseases associated with inhaled nanoparticles include asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Nanoparticles in the gastrointestinal tract have been linked to Crohn’s disease and colon cancer. Nanoparticles that enter the circulatory system are implicated in arteriosclerosis, blood clots, arrhythmia, heart diseases, and ultimately death from heart disease. Nanoparticles entering other organs, such as liver, spleen, etc., may lead to diseases of these organs. Some nanoparticles are associated with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and rheumatoid arthritis.
[F12]What is in the environment?? This is the question
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TOP C
HOME
 
Show of the Month August 22 2015
NANO-Banana–
NanoRevolution -For Herbicide · Nano-Driven Adjuvant
Chestnut leaves yield extract that disarms deadly staph bacteria
Drinking coffee daily may improve survival in colon cancer patients
One in two dies in hospital in Germany
Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.))- a putative anticancer agent in bladder carcinoma
Building computers from DNA?
Sediment dwelling creatures at risk from nanoparticles in common household products
Nanoparticles accumulate quickly in wetlands- Aquatic food chains might be harmed by molecules ‘piggybacking’ on carbon nanoparticles
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NANO-Banana–
 
These are photos been taken for the banana the outer skin was loaded with the nano particles the inside was a surprise as well with the saturation of the banana of the nanoparticles clustering along the whole banana~ there was about 1/4 inh removed from the surface that was clear but the surface was saturated
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NanoRevolution -For Herbicide · Nano-Driven Adjuvant
ADDITIVE FOR GLYPHOSATE & 2-4 D AND FOR ROUNDUP TYPE WEED KILLER. NanoRevolution 2.0TM for Herbicide is proprietary adjuvant that is specifically engineered from the ground up which safely improves the performance efficiency of applied glyphosate and 2-4 D herbicide products. NanoRevolution 2.0 may prove beneficial when dealing with stubborn burn-down issues and off-label weed control. TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW ACTIVE INGREDIENTS–Proprietary blend of elemental compounds and derivatives thereof Linear Exthoxylated Compound Other Ingredients TOTAL 8.0% 1.5% 90.5% 100.0%
MIXING FORMULA: NanoRevolution 2.0 will assist the efficiency of applied glyphosate NanoRevolution 2.0 + Herbicide Then Add Water and 2-4 D herbicide products. NanoRevolution 2.0 proprietary adjuvant will help to optimize the over-all performance of the host formula by fusing the existing micro-particles into a synergistic relationship. In other words, EXCELLENT FOR OVERCOMING HERBICIDE RESISTANT WEEDS when NanoRevolution 2.0 adjuvants are Including Glyphosate and 2-4 D. Without altering the existing mixed into existing formulations, the final chemistry of your herbicide, the herbicide “piggybacks” onto the performance of the formula is greater than the nano particles as they penetrate the leaf structure, carrying the sum of its parts. Adding a NanoRevolution 2.0 herbicide directly to the root system for a faster enhanced plant adjuvant to your formula is like putting your absorption of herbicides even on hard to control weeds. existing herbicide on steroids. APPLICATION OPTIONS NanoRevolution 2.0 is designed to be added directly to the spray tank. In a typical application the proper mixture of glyphosate or 2-4 D would be added to the appropriate mixture of water along with the desired ratio of NanoRevolution 2.0. Apply 4-8 ounces of NanoRevolution 2.0 per acre of application regardless of the water amount applied per acre and/or herbicide application rate per acre. For weeds that exceed the herbicide label’s recommendation and harder to control weeds, an application of 8 ounces of NanoRevolution 2.0 per acre may prove beneficial.
Method of Penetration Media Application Herbicide+ Herbicide+ Herbicide+ Herbicide+ Herbicide+ Herbicide+ Carrier Water Only Non-Ionic Surfactant Ammonium Sulfate Crop Oil Liquid Nitrogen NanoRevolution 2.0 Rate 50% or less up to 60% or less up to 65% or less up to 70% or less up to 75-80% 95+% or more Side Effect Limited Control Limited Success/Weather Dependent Limited Success/Weather Dependent Crop Damage/Hotter Chemistry Salt Related Crop Injury/Burn Nano Enhanced/Maximum Penetration
STORAGE & HANDLING All materials should be handled under good housekeeping practices. Wash hands after use. Wear gloves if exposure is prolonged. Care should be taken to ensure product is not introduced to drinking water or foodstuffs. Store container in a dry and cool place and keep from freezing. Store product in a temperature range between 55°F to 75°F; keep container closed when not in use. Always use clean and sterilized handling equipment when re-packaging and transferring product.
NOTICE: Our only obligation shall be to replace or pay for any material proven to be defective. Beyond the purchase price of materials supplied by us, we assume no liability for damages of any kind and the user accepts the product “as is” and without warranties, expressed or implied. The suitability of the product for an intended use shall be solely up to the user. Limited Warranty: Max Systems LLC guarantees that this product conforms to its label description and is suitable for its intended use when used in accordance with the label directions before the expiration date. Max Systems LLC or its representatives must be notified of any turf complaint within sixty (60) days after spraying. Max Systems LLC’s sole obligation under the warranty shall be to refund the purchase price. Max Systems LLC shall not be liable for and disclaims all consequential, incidental and contingent damages whatsoever. Without limiting the foregoing, Max Systems LLC shall not be responsible for loss or partial loss of crops from any case whatsoever. The limited warranty is in lieu of other warranties, expressed or implied. This limited warranty is void where prohibited by law.
NanoRevolution 2.0TM–
MAX SYSTEMS LLC 23533 45th Street Southeast | Lake Lillian, MN 56253-9637
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Chestnut leaves yield extract that disarms deadly staph bacteria—-
Extract shuts down staph without boosting its drug resistance
Date-August 21, 2015
Source-Emory Health Sciences
Summary-The study of a chestnut leaf extract, rich in ursene and oleanene derivatives, shows that it that blocks Staphlococcus aureus virulence and pathogenesis without detectable resistance.
 
Leaves of the European chestnut tree contain ingredients with the power to disarm dangerous staph bacteria without boosting its drug resistance, scientists have found.
PLOS ONE is publishing the study of a chestnut leaf extract, rich in ursene and oleanene derivatives, that blocks Staphlococcus aureus virulence and pathogenesis without detectable resistance.-The use of chestnut leaves in traditional folk remedies inspired the research, led by Cassandra Quave, an ethnobotanist at Emory University.-“We’ve identified a family of compounds from this plant that have an interesting medicinal mechanism,” Quave says. “Rather than killing staph, this botanical extract works by taking away staph’s weapons, essentially shutting off the ability of the bacteria to create toxins that cause tissue damage. In other words, it takes the teeth out of the bacteria’s bite.”-The discovery holds potential for new ways to both treat and prevent infections of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, or MRSA, without fueling the growing problem of drug-resistant pathogens.–Antibiotic-resistant bacteria annually cause at least two million illnesses and 23,000 deaths in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MRSA infections lead to everything from mild skin irritations to fatalities. Evolving strains of this “super bug” bacterium pose threats to both hospital patients with compromised immune systems and young, healthy athletes and others who are in close physical contact.–“We’ve demonstrated in the lab that our extract disarms even the hyper-virulent MRSA strains capable of causing serious infections in healthy athletes,” Quave says. “At the same time, the extract doesn’t disturb the normal, healthy bacteria on human skin. It’s all about restoring balance.”–Quave, who researches the interactions of people and plants — a specialty known as ethnobotany — is on the faculty of Emory’s Center for the Study of Human Health and Emory School of Medicine’s Department of Dermatology. She became interested in ethnobotany as an undergraduate at Emory.-For years, she and her colleagues have researched the traditional remedies of rural people in Southern Italy and other parts of the Mediterranean. “I felt strongly that people who dismissed traditional healing plants as medicine because the plants don’t kill a pathogen were not asking the right questions,” she says. “What if these plants play some other role in fighting a disease?”–Hundreds of field interviews guided her to the European chestnut tree, Castanea sativa. “Local people and healers repeatedly told us how they would make a tea from the leaves of the chestnut tree and wash their skin with it to treat skin infections and inflammations,” Quave says[F1].–For the current study, Quave teamed up with Alexander Horswill, a microbiologist at the University of Iowa whose lab focuses on creating tools for use in drug discovery, such as glow-in-the-dark staph strains.–The researchers steeped chestnut leaves in solvents to extract their chemical ingredients[F2]. “You separate the complex mixture of chemicals found in the extract into smaller batches with fewer chemical ingredients, test the results, and keep honing in on the ingredients that are the most active,” Quave explains. “It’s a methodical process and takes a lot of hours at the bench. Emory undergraduates did much of the work to gain experience in chemical separation techniques.”–The work produced an extract of 94 chemicals, of which ursene and oleanene based compounds are the most active[F3].–Tests showed that this extract inhibits the ability of staph bacteria to communicate with one another, a process known as quorum sensing. MRSA uses this quorum-sensing signaling system to manufacture toxins and ramp up its virulence.–“We were able to trace out the pathways in the lab, showing how our botanical extract blocks quorum sensing and turns off toxin production entirely,” Quave says. “Many pharmaceutical companies are working on the development of monoclonal antibodies that target just one toxin. This is more exciting because we’ve shown that with this extract, we can turn off an entire cascade responsible for producing a variety of different toxins.”-A single dose of the extract, at 50 micrograms, cleared up MRSA skin lesions in lab mice, stopping tissue damage and red blood cell damage. The extract does not lose activity, or become resistant, even after two weeks of repeated exposure. And tests on human skin cells in a lab dish showed that the botanical extract does not harm the skin cells, or the normal skin micro-flora.—The Emory Office of Technology Transfer has filed a patent for the discovery of the unique properties of the botanical extract. The researchers are doing further testing on individual components of the extract to determine if they work best in combination or alone.–“We now have a mixture that works,” Quave says. “Our goal is to further refine it into a simpler compound that would be eligible for FDA consideration as a therapeutic agent.”–Potential uses include a preventative spray for football pads or other athletic equipment; preventative coatings for medical devices and products such as tampons that offer favorable environments for the growth of MRSA; and as a treatment for MRSA infections, perhaps in combination with antibiotics.–“It’s easy to dismiss traditional remedies as old wives’ tales, just because they don’t attack and kill pathogens,” Quave says. “But there are many more ways to help cure infections, and we need to focus on them in the era of drug-resistant bacteria.”–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Emory Health Sciences–Journal Reference-Cassandra L. Quave, James T. Lyles, Jeffery S. Kavanaugh, Kate Nelson, Corey P. Parlet, Heidi A. Crosby, Kristopher P. Heilmann, Alexander R. Horswill. Castanea sativa (European Chestnut) Leaf Extracts Rich in Ursene and Oleanene Derivatives Block Staphylococcus aureus Virulence and Pathogenesis without Detectable Resistance. PLOS ONE, 2015; 10 (8): e0136486 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136486 –Emory Health Sciences. “Chestnut leaves yield extract that disarms deadly staph bacteria: Extract shuts down staph without boosting its drug resistance.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 August 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150821164150.htm>.
 
[F1]Here is the method of use oral and topically
[F2]Here is another method using alcohol as a tincture or extract
[F3]94 extract chemicals are found with this method of extraction
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Drinking coffee daily may improve survival in colon cancer patients
Regular consumption of caffeinated coffee may help prevent the return of colon cancer after treatment and improve the chances of a cure, according to a new, large study from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute that reported this striking association for the first time.–The patients, all of them treated with surgery and chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer, had the greatest benefit from consuming four or more cups of coffee a day (about 460 milligrams of caffeine)[F1], according to the study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. These patients were 42 percent less likely to have their cancer return than non-coffee drinkers, and were 33 percent less likely to die from cancer or any other cause.–Two to three cups of coffee daily had a more modest benefit, while little protection was associated with one cup or less, reported the researchers, led by Charles Fuchs, MD, MPH, director of the Gastrointestinal Cancer Center at Dana-Farber. First author is Brendan J. Guercio, MD, also of Dana-Farber.–The study included nearly 1,000 patients who filled out dietary pattern questionnaires early in the study, during chemotherapy and again about a year later. This “prospective” design eliminated patients’ need to recall their coffee-drinking habits years later — a source of potential bias in many observational studies Fuchs said. Most recurrences happen within .–“We found that coffee drinkers had a lower risk of the cancer coming back and a significantly greater survival and chance of a cure,”five years of treatment and are uncommon after that, he noted. In patients with stage III disease, the cancer has been found in the lymph nodes near the original tumor but there are no signs of further metastasis. Fuchs said these patients have about a 35 percent chance of recurrence.-As encouraging as the results appear to be, Fuchs is hesitant to make recommendations to patients until the results are confirmed in other studies. “If you are a coffee drinker and are being treated for colon cancer, don’t stop,” he said. “But if you’re not a coffee drinker and wondering whether to start, you should first discuss it with your physician.”–Fuchs said the study is the first to study an association between caffeinated coffee and risk of colon cancer recurrence. It adds to a number of recent studies suggesting that coffee may have protective effects against the development of several kinds of cancer, including reduced risks of postmenopausal breast cancer, melanoma, liver cancer, advanced prostate cancer.–Fuchs said the research focused on coffee and other dietary factors because coffee drinking — in addition to possibly being protective against some cancers — had been shown to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Risk factors for diabetes — obesity, a sedentary life style, a Western diet high in calories and sugar, and high levels of insulin — are also implicated in colon cancer.–In analyzing the results of the new study, Fuchs and his colleagues discovered that the lowered risk of cancer recurrence and deaths was entirely due to caffeine and not other components of coffee[F2]. He said it’s not clear why caffeine has this effect and the question needs further study. One hypothesis is that caffeine consumption increases the body’s sensitivity to insulin so less of it is needed, which in turn may help reduce inflammation — a risk factor for diabetes and cancer, Fuchs said.
Other than drinking coffee, Fuchs said, people can take other measures to reduce cancer risks — avoiding obesity, exercising regularly, adopting a healthier diet, and eating nuts, which also reduce the risk of diabetes.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. –Journal Reference-Brendan J. Guercio, Kaori Sato, Donna Niedzwiecki, Xing Ye, Leonard B. Saltz, Robert J. Mayer, Rex B. Mowat, Renaud Whittom, Alexander Hantel, Al Benson, Daniel Atienza, Michael Messino, Hedy Kindler, Alan Venook, Frank B. Hu, Shuji Ogino, Kana Wu, Walter C. Willett, Edward L. Giovannucci, Jeffrey A. Meyerhardt, and Charles S. Fuchs. Coffee Intake, Recurrence, and Mortality in Stage III Colon Cancer: Results From CALGB 89803 (Alliance). Journal of Clinical Oncology, August 2015 DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2015.61.5062 —-Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. “Drinking coffee daily may improve survival in colon cancer patients.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 17 August 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150817161201.htm>.
 
 
[F1]Usually 60 -80grams in a medium cup—so this would be about 6-7 cups of coffee a day
[F2]So maybe caffeine is not the demon everyone is blaming on for problems

Life Force Energy