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One in two dies in hospital in Germany
 
At home on the sofa, in a hospital bed, or in a care home: where a death takes place is always recorded on the death certificate. Until now, however, this information has never been collated and evaluated. In an Original Article in the current issue of Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, Burkhard Dasch and his co-authors analyze for the first time the place of death records for Germany. What they found was that every second person died in a hospital; only one in four died at home.-The study evaluated more than 24,000 death certificates from Westphalia-Lippe — around 11 500 from 2001 and 12 500 from 2011 — and revealed a trend in the distribution of places of death. In 2001, 27.5% of deaths occurred at home; by 2011 the figure was only 23%. People are also dying less often in hospital than previously (57.6% in 2001 vs. 51% in 2011). On the other hand, deaths in nursing or care homes are increasing. In 2001, only one in eight died in a home; in 2011 it was one in five. So far, not many patients are dying in palliative care units and hospices, but the numbers of deaths in these institutions are clearly on the rise.—Story Source–The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Deutsches Aerzteblatt International. Journal Reference-Dasch B, Blum K, Gude P, Bausewein C. Place of death: trends over the course of a decade—a population-based study of death certificates from the years 2001 and 2011. Dtsch Arztebl Int, 2015; 112: 496%u2013504 DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2015.0496 –Deutsches Aerzteblatt International. “One in two dies in hospital in Germany.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 August 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150813074722.htm>.
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Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.))- a putative anticancer agent in bladder carcinoma?
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2015;15(1):26-36
Authors: Conde VR, Alves MG, Oliveira PF, Silva BM
Abstract
The leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) are the source of tea, the second most consumed beverage worldwide. Tea contains several chemical compounds such as polyphenols (mainly catechins), caffeine, theophylline, L-theanine, among many others. Polyphenolic compounds are mainly responsible for its significant antioxidant properties and anticarcinogenic potential. Bladder cancer is one of the most common types of cancer, and its progression and onset are thought to be controlled by dietary and lifestyle factors. Epidemiological studies showed that the regular consumption of tea can be a preventive factor for this type of cancer, and several in vivo and in vitro studies reported that tea and its components may interfere in the cancer cells’ signaling, preventing the bladder tumor progression. The mechanisms responsible for this protection include deregulation of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis while protecting the surrounding healthy bladder cells, inhibition of metastization processes, among others. Herein, we discuss the potential beneficial effects of tea and tea components in bladder cancer prevention and/or treatment, and how they can be helpful in finding new therapeutic strategies to treat this type of cancer. -PMID: 25482719 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Building computers from DNA?
Scientists have found a way to “switch” the structure of DNA using copper salts and EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) — an agent commonly found in shampoo and other household products. It was previously known that the structure of a piece of DNA could be changed using acid, which causes it to fold up into what is known as an “i-motif.” But new research published today in the journal Chemical Communications reveals that the structure can be switched a second time into a hair-pin structure using positively-charged copper (copper cations). This change can also be reversed using EDTA. The applications for this discovery include nanotechnology — where DNA is used to make tiny machines, and in DNA-based computing — where computers are built from DNA rather than silicon.–New research from the University of East Anglia could one day help build computers from DNA–.It could also be used for detecting the presence of copper cations, which are highly toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms, in water.Lead researcher Dr Zoë Waller, from UEA’s school of Pharmacy, said: “Our research shows how the structure of our genetic material — DNA — can be changed and used in a way we didn’t realise.–“A single switch was possible before — but we show for the first time how the structure can be switched twice.[F1] “A potential application of this finding could be to create logic gates for DNA based computing. Logic gates are an elementary building block of digital circuits — used in computers and other electronic equipment. They are traditionally made using diodes or transistors which act as electronic switches.–“This research expands how DNA could be used as a switching mechanism for a logic gate in DNA-based computing or in nano-technology.”–Story Source–The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of East Anglia. –Journal Reference-Henry Albert Day, Elisé Patricia Wright, Colin John MacDonald, Andrew James Gates, Zoë Ann Ella Waller. Reversible DNA i-motif to hairpin switching induced by copper(ii) cations. Chem. Commun., 2015; DOI: 10.1039/C5CC05111H -University of East Anglia. “Building computers from DNA?.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 19 August 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150819083421.htm>.
 
[F1]Back and forth or on and off or right to left or left to right
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Sediment dwelling creatures at risk from nanoparticles in common household products
Researchers from the University of Exeter highlight the risk that engineered nanoparticles released from masonry paint on exterior facades, and consumer products such as zinc oxide cream, could have on aquatic creatures.–Textiles, paint, sunscreen, cosmetics and food additives are all increasingly containing metal-based nanoparticles that are engineered, rather than found naturally[F1].–The review, published in the journal Environmental Chemistry, highlights the risks posed to aquatic organisms when nanoparticles ‘transform’ on contact with water and as they pass from water to sediment and then into sediment dwelling organisms.–Sediments are important for the health of many aquatic ecosystems and are speculated to be a large potential sink for nanoparticles.–Richard Cross, lead author and postgraduate researcher from the College of Life and Environmental Sciences at the University of Exeter’s Biosciences department said: “We argue for the need to incorporate the transformations that engineered nanomaterials undergo as they pass from water bodies into sediments, as their form and nature will change as they do so. This is important to consider if we are to improve environmental realism in our experimental efforts and also better understand the long term effects of these materials in the environment.”–Professor Charles Tyler, of the College of Life and Environmental Sciences at the University of Exeter, added: “In the aquatic environment, it is known that many nanomaterials will end up in the sediment, so it makes sense to focus on this environmental compartment as a possible worst case scenario for exposures and effects in aquatic systems. This review serves to highlight what we need to consider when assessing the susceptibility of sediment dwelling organisms to nanomaterials.”–The study calls for more research into whether ‘marine snow’ — organic detritus that falls through layers of water — acts as a transport system for nanoparticles and closer examination of bioaccumulation and toxicity in sediment-dwelling species.–The study highlights a large knowledge gap and recommends further research into the factors that determine the fate of nanoparticles in aquatic systems.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of Exeter-Journal Reference–Richard Cross, Charles Tyler, Tamara Galloway. Transformations that affect fate, form and bioavailability of inorganic nanoparticles in aquatic sediments. Environmental Chemistry, May 2015–University of Exeter. “Sediment dwelling creatures at risk from nanoparticles in common household products: Engineered nanoparticles released from masonry paint on exterior facades, consumer products such as zinc oxide cream, could harm aquatic creatures.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 August 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150813074232.htm>.
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Nanoparticles accumulate quickly in wetlands- Aquatic food chains might be harmed by molecules ‘piggybacking’ on carbon nanoparticles
A Duke University team has found that nanoparticles called single-walled carbon nanotubes accumulate quickly in the bottom sediments of an experimental wetland setting, an action they say could indirectly damage the aquatic food chain.–The results risk to humans ingesting the particles through drinking water[F2], say scientists at Duke’s Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEINT). But the researchers warn that, based on their previous research, the tendency for the nanotubes to accumulate in sediment could indirectly damage the aquatic food chain in the long term if the nanoparticles provide “Trojan horse” piggyback rides to other harmful molecules.–Carbon nanotubes are rapidly becoming more common because of their usefulness in nanoelectric devices, composite materials and biomedicine.–The Duke study was done using small-scale replications of a wetland environment, called “mesocosms,” that include soil, sediments, microbes, insects, plants and fish. These ecosystems-in-a-box are “semi-closed,” meaning they get fresh air and rainwater but don’t drain to their surroundings. While not perfect representations of a natural environment, mesocosms provide a reasonable compromise between the laboratory and the real world.–“The wetland mesocosms we used are a much closer approximation of the natural processes constantly churning in the environment,” said Lee Ferguson, associate professor of civil and environmental engineering at Duke. “Although it’s impossible to know if our results are fully accurate to natural ecosystems, it is clear that the processes we’ve seen should be considered by regulators and manufacturers.”-Ferguson and his colleagues dosed the mesocosms with single-walled carbon nanotubes and measured their concentrations in the water, soil and living organisms during the course of a year.[F3] They found that the vast majority of the nanoparticles quickly accumulated in the sediment on the “pond” floor. However, they found no sign of nanoparticle buildup in any plants, insects or fish living in the mesocosms.–While this is good news for humans or other animals drinking water after a potential spill or other contamination event, the accumulation in sediment does pose concerns for both sediment-dwelling organisms and the animals that eat them. Previous research has shown that carbon nanotubes take a long time to degrade through natural processes — if they do at all — and any chemical that binds to them cannot easily be degraded either.–“These nanoparticles are really good at latching onto other molecules, including many known organic contaminants,” said Ferguson. “Coupled with their quick accumulation in sediment, this may allow problematic chemicals to linger instead of degrading. The nanoparticle-pollutant package could then be eaten by sediment-dwelling organisms in a sort of ‘Trojan horse’ effect, allowing the adsorbed contaminants to accumulate up the food chain.–“The big question is whether or not these pollutants can be stripped away from the carbon nanotubes by these animals’ digestive systems after being ingested,” continued Ferguson. “That’s a question we’re working to answer now.”–This research was supported by the National Science Foundation, the Environmental Protection Agency under the National Science Foundation cooperative agreement EF-0830093, the Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology and the Environmental Protection Agency’s Science to Achieve Results (STAR) program (RD833859).–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Duke University. The original item was written by Ken Kingery. -Journal Reference-Ariette Schierz, Benjamin Espinasse, Mark R. Wiesner, Joseph H. Bisesi, Tara Sabo-Attwood, P. Lee Ferguson. Fate of single walled carbon nanotubes in wetland ecosystems. Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2014; DOI: 10.1039/c4en00063c –Duke University. “Nanoparticles accumulate quickly in wetlands: Aquatic food chains might be harmed by molecules ‘piggybacking’ on carbon nanoparticles.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 1 October 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/10/141001102644.htm>.
 
 
 
 
[F1]The chemical substance(s) that constitute an ENM can be classified into the following main categories:
 inorganic nanomaterials – these include metals (titanium, zinc, silver, calcium
and magnesium), metal oxides and metal nitrides and non-metals such as
selenium and silicates.
 organic nanomaterials – these include nanopolymers and nanomedicines as
well as nano-carrier systems (e.g. encapsulates) containing antimicrobials,
and nutritional and health supplements etc.
 surface functionalised nanomaterials – these may be inorganic materials that
are surface functionalised with organic moieties, or vice versa. Examples
include organically modified nanoclays for food packaging applications
[F2]UK containing engineered nanomaterials based on their likelihood to reach drinking water sources Of the identified 126 products on the UK market that contain ENMs 62 could be ranked qualitatively in terms of their potential to contaminate drinking water, based on the concentration of ENM in the product, product usage, likelihood of environmental exposure and estimated market share for each particle type. Due to the wide range of particle types and consumer products, a ranked list is provided by particle and by product type to allow comparison. Products for which the ENM type is
unknown (32) and the ENM location within the product could not be established (24) and/or products for which the major release pattern is predicted to be landfill (35) were excluded (in total 62). Two products (category filtration) could not be included in the ranking due to missing information on usage and ENM concentration in the product. Data used for the scoring system on market penetration, usage and ENM concentration were collated from scientific publications, patents and manufacturers and product websites (Chapter 3). Nanotechnology is still a highly sensitive area and companies are reluctant to provide any information, therefore for some of the products the required information could not be collated.
[F3]Estimated the level of commercial scale production and use of ENMs. For example, the RS/ RAE review (Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering, 2004) estimated the production of ENMs for:
 structural applications (ceramics, catalysts, composites, coatings, thin films,
powders, metals) at 10 tonnes in 2003-04, predicted to increase to 1000
tonnes by 2010 and between 10,000 and 100,000 tonnes per year by 2020;
 skin-care applications (mainly metal oxides – such as titanium dioxide, zinc
oxide and iron oxide) to stay approximately at a similar level of around 1000
tonnes per year between 2003-04 and 2020;
 information and communication technologies (carbon nanotubes, titanium
dioxide, zinc oxide, iron oxide and organic light-emitting diodes) and for
instruments and sensors at 10 tonnes in 2003-04, predicted to increase to
100 tonnes by 2010 and 1000 tonnes or more by 2020;
 biotechnology applications (nanoencapsulates, ENMs for targeted drug
delivery, bio-compatible ENMs, quantum dots, composites, biosensors etc) at
less than 1 tonne in 2003-04, predicted to increase to 1 tonne in 2010 and 10
tonnes per year in 2020;
 environmental applications (such as nanofiltration ad membranes) at around
10 tonnes in 2003-04, predicted to increase to 100 tonnes in 2010 and
between 1000 and 10,000 tonnes in 2010.
Other reports, such as by Aitkin et al. (2008), have identified ENMs that are
produced in high production volumes. These include silver, carbon black, amorphous
silica, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, nanoclays, carbon materials (fullerenes and
carbon nanotubes), cerium oxide, iron, organic materials and other commercially
produced ENMs (Table 3.1).
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Show of the Month August 29 2015
Modified bacteria become a multicellular circuit
Complex logic circuit made from bacterial genes
How beneficial bacteria protect intestinal cells–
Aspirin reverses obesity cancer risk
Alpha-lipoic acid stimulates telomerase in vascular smooth muscle
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Modified bacteria become a multicellular circuit–Scientists modify E. coli to cooperate, control protein expression
Rice University scientists have made a living circuit from multiple types of bacteria that prompts the bacteria to cooperate to change protein expression.–The subject of a new paper in Science, the project represents the first time the Rice researchers have created a biological equivalent to a computer circuit that involves multiple organisms to influence a population.–The researchers’ goal is to modify biological systems by controlling how bacteria influence each other. This could lead to bacteria that, for instance, beneficially alter the gut microbiome in humans.[F1]–Humans’ stomachs have a lot of different kinds of bacteria, said Rice synthetic biologist Matthew Bennett. “They naturally form a large consortium. One thought is that when we engineer bacteria to be placed into guts, they should also be part of a consortium. Working together allows them to effect more change than if they worked in isolation.[F2]”In the proof-of-concept study, Bennett and his team created two strains of genetically engineered bacteria that regulate the production of proteins essential to intercellular signaling pathways, which allow cells to coordinate their efforts, generally in beneficial ways.–The ability to engineer DNA so cells produce specific proteins has already paid dividends, for example, by manipulating bacteria to produce useful biofuels and chemicals.–“The main push in synthetic biology has been to engineer single cells,” Bennett said. “But now we’re moving toward multicellular systems. We want cells to coordinate their behaviors in order to elicit a populational response, just the way our bodies do.”–Bennett and his colleagues achieved their goal by engineering common Escherichia coli bacteria. By creating and mixing two genetically distinct populations, they prompted the bacteria to form a consortium.–The bacteria worked together by doing opposite tasks: One was an activator that up-regulated the expression of targeted genes, and the other was a repressor that down-regulated genes. Together, they created oscillations [F3]– rhythmic peaks and valleys — of gene transcription in the bacterial population.–The two novel strains of bacteria sent out intercellular signaling molecules and created linked positive and negative feedback loops that affected gene production in the entire population. Both strains were engineered to make fluorescent reporter genes so their activities could be monitored. The bacteria were confined to microfluidic devices in the lab, where they could be monitored easily during each hours long experiment.–When the bacteria were cultured in isolation, the protein oscillations did not appear,[F4] the researchers wrote.–Bennett said his lab’s work will help researchers understand how cells communicate, an important factor in fighting disease[F5]. “We have many different types of cells in our bodies, from skin cells to liver cells to pancreatic cells, and they all coordinate their behaviors to make us work properly,” he said. “To do this, they often send out small signaling molecules that are produced in one cell type and effect change in another cell type.
“We take that principle and engineer it into these very simple organisms to see if we can understand and build multicellular systems from the ground up.”–Ultimately, people might ingest the equivalent of biological computers that can be programmed through one’s diet, Bennett said. “One idea is to create a yogurt using engineered bacteria,” he said. “The patient eats it and the physician controls the bacteria through the patient’s diet. Certain combinations of molecules in your food can turn systems within the synthetic bacteria on and off, and then these systems can communicate with each other to effect change within your gut[F6].”–Ye Chen, a graduate student in Bennett’s lab at Rice, and Jae Kyoung Kim, an assistant professor at KAIST and former postdoctoral fellow at Ohio State University, are lead authors of the paper. Co-authors are Rice graduate student Andrew Hirning and Krešimir Josi?, a professor of mathematics at the University of Houston. Bennett is an assistant professor of biochemistry and cell biology.–The National Institutes of Health, the Robert A. Welch Foundation, the Hamill Foundation, the National Science Foundation and the China Scholarship Council supported the research. Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Rice University. Journal Reference-Y. Chen, J. K. Kim, A. J. Hirning, K. Josi , M. R. Bennett. Emergent genetic oscillations in a synthetic microbial consortium. Science, 2015; 349 (6251): 986 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa3794 -Rice University. “Modified bacteria become a multicellular circuit: Scientists modify E. coli to cooperate, control protein expression.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 27 August 2015. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150827154251.htm&gt;.
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Complex logic circuit made from bacterial genes
Date-October 13, 2012
Source-Washington University in St. Louis
Summary-An engineer has assembled the most complex logic circuit yet assembled in a single bacterium. The logic circuit, in which genes and the molecules that turn the genes on or off function as logic gates, the simple devices that form the basis for electronic circuits, is one step in an effort to make programmable bacteria that make biofuels, degrade pollutants, or attack cancer or infections. —Just as electronic circuits are made from resistors, capacitors and transistors, biological circuits can be made from genes and regulatory proteins. Engineer Tae Seok Moon’s dream is to design modular “genetic parts” that can be used to build logic controllers inside microbes that will program them to make fuel, clean up pollutants, or kill infectious bacteria or cancerous cells.–By force of habit we tend to assume computers are made of silicon, but there is actually no necessary connection between the machine and the material. All that an engineer needs to do to make a computer is to find a way to build logic gates — the elementary building blocks of digital computers — in whatever material is handy.–So logic gates could theoretically be made of pipes of water, channels for billiard balls or even mazes for soldier crabs.–By comparison Tae Seok Moon’s ambition, which is to build logic gates out of genes, seems eminently practical. As a postdoctoral fellow in the lab of Christopher Voigt, PhD, a synthetic biologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he recently made the largest gene (or genetic) circuit yet reported.–Moon, PhD, now an assistant professor of energy, environmental and chemical engineering in the School of Engineering & Applied Science at Washington University in St. Louis is the lead author of an article describing the project in the Oct. 7 issue of Nature. Voigt is the senior author.-The tiny circuits constructed from these gene gates and others like them may one day be components of engineered cells that will monitor and respond to their environments.–The number of tasks they could undertake is limited only by evolution and human ingenuity. Janitor bacteria might clean up pollutants, chemical-engineer bacteria pump out biofuels and miniature infection-control bacteria might bustle about killing pathogens.
How to make an AND gate out of genes—-The basis of modern computers is the logic gate, a device that makes simple comparisons between the bits, the 1s and 0s, in which computers encode information. Each logic gate has multiple inputs and one output. The output of the gate depends on the inputs and the operation the gate performs.–An AND gate, for example, turns on only if all of its inputs are on. An OR gate turns on if any of its inputs are on.–Suggestively, genes are turned on or off when a transcription factor binds to a region of DNA adjacent to the gene called a promotor.–To make an AND gate out of genes, however, Moon had to find a gene whose activation is controlled by at least two molecules, not one. So only if both molecule 1 AND molecule 2 are present will the gene be turned on and translated into protein.–Such a genetic circuit had been identified in Salmonella typhimurium, the bacterium that causes food poisoning. In this circuit, the transcription factor can bind to the promotor of a gene only if a molecule called a chaperone is present. This meant the genetic circuit could form the basis of a two-input AND gate.–The circuit Moon eventually built consisted of four sensors for four different molecules that fed into three two-input AND gates. If all four molecules were present, all three AND gates turned on and the last one produced a reporter protein that fluoresced red, so that the operation of the circuit could be easily monitored.–In the future, Moon says, a synthetic bacterium with this circuit might sense four different cancer indicators and, in the presence of all four, release a tumor-killing factor.
Crosstalk and timing faults
There are huge differences, of course, between the floppy molecules that embody biological logic gates and the diodes and transistors that embody electronic ones.–Engineers designing biological circuits worry a great deal about crosstalk, or interference[F7]. If a circuit is to work properly, the molecules that make up one gate cannot bind to molecules that are part of another gate.–This is much more of a problem in a biological circuit than in an electronic circuit because the interior of a cell is a kind of soup where molecules mingle freely.[F8]
To ensure that there wouldn’t be crosstalk among his AND gates, Moon mined parts for his gates from three different strains of bacteria: Shigella flexneri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as Salmonella.–Although the parts from the three different strains were already quite dissimilar, he made them even more so by subjecting them to error-prone copying cycles and screening the copies for ones that were even less prone to crosstalk (but still functional).–Another problem Moon faced is that biological circuits, unlike electronic ones, don’t have internal clocks that keep the bits moving through the logic gates in lockstep. If signals progress through layers of gates at different speeds, the output of the entire circuit may be wrong, a problem called a timing fault.–Experiments designed to detect such faults in the synthetic circuit showed that they didn’t occur, probably because the chaperones for one layer of logic gates degrades before the transcription factors for the next layer are generated, and this forces a kind of rhythm on the circuit.
Hijacking a bacterium’s controller
“We’re not trying to build a computer out of biological logic gates,” Moon says. “You can’t build a computer this way. Instead we’re trying to make controllers that will allow us to access all the things biological organisms do in simple, programmable ways.”–“I see the cell as a system that consists of a sensor, a controller (the logic circuit), and an actuator,” he says. “This paper covers work on the controller, but eventually the controller’s output will drive an actuator, something that will do work on the cell’s surroundings. “–An synthetic bacterium designed by a friend of Moon’s at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore senses signaling molecules released by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. When the molecules reach a high enough concentration, the bacterium generates a toxin and a protein that causes it to burst, releasing the toxin, and killing nearby P. aeruginosa.–“Silicon cannot do that,” Moon says.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Washington University in St. Louis. The original item was written by Diana Lutz. -Journal Reference-Tae Seok Moon, Chunbo Lou, Alvin Tamsir, Brynne C. Stanton, Christopher A. Voigt. Genetic programs constructed from layered logic gates in single cells. Nature, 2012; DOI: 10.1038/nature11516 -Washington University in St. Louis. “Complex logic circuit made from bacterial genes.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 October 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121013174323.htm>.
 
 
[F1]Or it could lead to as well the effective means to target specifics in the body to not work as they should or to create a more conduscive environment to allow for a further incorporation of things that would not normally be
[F2]Interesting note to pay attention to here when you are looking at this they are basically creating something where your normal bodily functions have been compromised so badly that now you will need this tech to survive amd basically just Exist
[F3]Since nano particles can oscillate at 100,000 oscilations then what we have here with this tech is a saturation into specifc areas of integration with bio/nano
[F4]Rhythmic Change
[F5]Or Spreading or integrating with the system as well
[F6]This does not even sound remotely good at all the idea that an external force can control the ebb and flow of human genome biology for bacterial modification or to allow something like this to be swallowed how much of this would even be just nanotech and the effect of this “ control”
[F7] A means to create a distortion in the communications of these circuits
[F8]By adding nano there is no more mingling freely –just a binding –a new program or over ride of the circuit so now the program is altered
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How beneficial bacteria protect intestinal cells–
Research on a helpful part of the microbiome — beneficial intestinal bacteria — is moving from “what is there” to “how they help.”-Scientists at Emory University School of Medicine have shown how an ancient cellular regulatory circuit called Nrf2, present in both insects and mammals, responds to beneficial bacteria and gears up a protective response to environmental stresses.–The findings could potentially lead to advances in the use of bacteria to treat intestinal diseases or mitigate the effects of radiation therapy for cancer.–The results are scheduled for publication August 13 in Cell Reports.—“The body’s response to bacteria is often seen through the lens of the immune system,” says senior author Andrew Neish, MD, professor of pathology and laboratory medicine at Emory University School of Medicine. “The pathway we’ve identified is not inflammatory or immunoregulatory; rather, it’s cytoprotective.”[F1]–While many types of bacteria that live in our intestines are inert or even harmful to intestinal cells, a small subset — lactobacilli — can stimulate increased motility, proliferation and ability to withstand stress, Neish says.-“Lactobacilli are present in yogurt, and they’re also the first kind of bacteria that will colonize a baby’s system after the baby is born[F2],” he says.–Working with Neish, assistant professor of pediatrics Rheinallt Jones, PhD and colleagues found that only lactobacilli could protect previously “germ free” fruit flies from paraquat, a toxic herbicide. Similarly, feeding lactobacilli, but not other types of bacteria, to germ-free mice could protect them from weight loss and death after exposure to radiation.–In intestinal tissues in both flies and mice, the lactobacilli turned on a series of genes in a pattern that indicates that the Nrf2 pathway is involved. If the flies or the mice had a mutation disabling Nrf2, the protective effect from the bacteria was not seen.–Nrf2 is a cellular pathway involved in protecting cells against external stresses such as toxins and carcinogens, and it is activated by reactive oxygen species or ROS. Both paraquat and radiation generate ROS.–“It looks like a little bit of ROS helps cells get ready to withstand stress,” Jones says. “This is an example of the concept of hormesis, where limited exposure to something that is harmful protects an organism from more of it later.”–Previously, Jones and Neish have shown that lactobacilli stimulate intestinal epithelial cells to produce ROS, which are a key signal for wound healing. In the Cell Reports paper, the researchers showed that when the enzyme Nox1, which makes ROS in response to bacteria, is removed from the intestines in mice, the radioprotective effect of lactobacilli is lost.–While it is not the only regulatory circuit stimulated by beneficial bacteria, Jones and Neish say their findings suggest that Nrf2 is more highly conserved than other bacterially-induced signals, and that it likely evolved as a mechanism for higher organisms to co-exist with bacteria.–Jones and Neish say they are investigating the common genetic signatures of the various types of bacteria that stimulate ROS and Nrf2. That could help researchers sort through which ones may have therapeutic benefits, and possibly how to mimic the bacteria with synthetic agents.
To facilitate this type of research, Jones is establishing a gnotobiotic animal facility at Emory, which will enable scientists to investigate what happens when an animal’s intestines are colonized with only one variety of bacteria.–Story Source–The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Emory Health Sciences–Journal Reference–Rheinallt M. Jones, Chirayu Desai, Trevor M. Darby, Liping Luo, Alexandra A. Wolfarth, Christopher D. Scharer, Courtney S. Ardita, April R. Reedy, Erin S. Keebaugh, Andrew S. Neish. Lactobacilli Modulate Epithelial Cytoprotection through the Nrf2 Pathway. Cell Reports, August 2015 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.07.042
 
[F1]Capable of shielding cells from injury, e.g., damage from electrolyte disturbance, infection, ischemia, or toxins.
[F2]Yogurt for babies not a bad idea and kefir –make sure with fat and nothing that is fat fre-sugar free or with fruit or other flavouring agents other then vanilla
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Aspirin reverses obesity cancer risk
Research has shown that a regular dose of aspirin reduces the long-term risk of cancer in those who are overweight [F1]in an international study of people with a family history of the disease.–The study, conducted by researchers at Newcastle University and the University of Leeds, UK, is published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.–They found that being overweight more than doubles the risk of bowel cancer in people with Lynch Syndrome, an inherited genetic disorder which affects genes responsible for detecting and repairing damage in the DNA. Around half of these people develop cancer, mainly in the bowel and womb.–However, over the course of a ten year study they found this risk could be counteracted by taking a regular dose of aspirin.–Professor Sir John Burn, professor of Clinical Genetics at Newcastle University who led the international research collaboration, said: “This is important for people with Lynch Syndrome but affects the rest of us too. Lots of people struggle with their weight and this suggests the extra cancer risk can be cancelled by taking an aspirin.–“This research adds to the growing body of evidence which links an increased inflammatory process to an increased risk of cancer. Obesity increases the inflammatory response. One explanation for our findings is that the aspirin may be supressing that inflammation which opens up new avenues of research into the cause of cancer.”–The randomised controlled trial is part of the CAPP 2 study involving scientists and clinicians from over 43 centres in 16 countries which followed nearly 1,000 patients with Lynch Syndrome, in some cases for over 10 years.-937 people began either taking two aspirins (600 mg) [F2]every day for two years or a placebo. When they were followed up ten years later, 55 had developed bowel cancers and those who were obese were more than twice as likely to develop this cancer — in fact 2.75 times as likely. Following up on patients who were taking two aspirins a day revealed that their risk was the same whether they were obese or not.–The trial was overseen by Newcastle Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and funded by the UK Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, the European Union and Bayer Pharma.–Professor John Mathers, Professor of Human Nutrition at Newcastle University who led this part of the study said: “For those with Lynch Syndrome, we found that every unit of BMI above what is considered healthy increased the risk of bowel cancer by 7%. What is surprising is that even in people with a genetic predisposition for cancer, obesity is also a driver of the disease. Indeed, the obesity-associated risk was twice as great for people with Lynch Syndrome as for the general population.–“The lesson for all of us is that everyone should try to maintain a healthy weight and for those already obese the best thing is to lose weight. However, for many patients this can be very difficult so a simple aspirin may be able to help this group.”–Professor Tim Bishop from the University of Leeds who led on the statistics for the study added: “Our study suggests that the daily aspirin dose of 600 mg per day removed the majority of the increased risk associated with higher BMI. However, this needs to be shown in a further study to confirm the extent of the protective power of the aspirin with respect to BMI.”
However, Professor Burn advises: “Before anyone begins to take aspirin on a regular basis they should consult their doctor as aspirin is known to bring with it a risk of stomach complaints including ulcers.-“But if there is a strong family history of cancer then people may want to weigh up the cost-benefits particularly as these days drugs which block acid production in the stomach are available over the counter.”-The international team are now preparing a large-scale follow-up trial and want to recruit 3,000 people across the world to test the effect of different doses of aspirin. The trial will compare two aspirin a day with a range of lower doses to see if the protection offered is the same.
Information on the next trial can be found at http://www.capp3.org
Mechanism
The researchers believe the study shows that aspirin is affecting an underlying mechanism which pre-disposes someone to cancer and further study is needed in this area. Since the benefits are occurring before the very early stages of developing a tumour — known as the adenoma carcinoma sequence — the effect must be changing the cells which are predisposed to become cancerous in later years.-One possibility is that a little recognised effect of aspirin is to enhance programmed cell death. This is most obvious in plants where salicylates trigger this mechanism to help diseased plants contain the spread of infection.–“We may be seeing a mechanism in humans whereby aspirin is encouraging genetically damaged stem cells to undergo programmed cell death, this would have an impact on cancer,” says Sir John.–Story Source–The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of Leeds. -Journal Reference–Mohammad Movahedi, D. Timothy Bishop, Finlay Macrae, Jukka-Pekka Mecklin, Gabriela Moeslein,Sylviane Olschwang, Diana Eccles, D. Gareth Evans, Eamonn R. Maher, Lucio Bertario, Marie-Luise Bisgaard,Malcolm G. Dunlop, Judy W.C. Ho, Shirley V. Hodgson, Annika Lindblom, Jan Lubinski, Patrick J. Morrison,Victoria Murday, Raj S. Ramesar, Lucy Side, Rodney J. Scott, Huw J.W. Thomas, Hans F. Vasen, John Burn,and John C Mathers. Obesity, Aspirin, and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Carriers of Hereditary Colorectal Cancer: A Prospective Investigation in the CAPP2 Study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, August 2015 DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2014.58.9952 —-University of Leeds. “Aspirin reverses obesity cancer risk.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 17 August 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150817181301.htm>.
 
[F1]If you use this then it has to be pure no filler or polymer or metal or colouring agents
[F2]If you take this then you must buffere this with either magnesium or baking soda or copper to reduce any side effect ~ it may save the stomach on one heand but if not delivered properly will cause another issue
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Alpha-lipoic acid stimulates telomerase in vascular smooth muscle
Date-August 21, 2015
Source-Emory Health Sciences
Summary-The dietary supplement alpha lipoic acid can stimulate telomerase, the enzyme that lengthens chromosomes’ protective caps, with positive effects in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, scientists report. The discovery highlights a potential avenue for the treatment for chronic diseases.
In human cells, shortened telomeres, the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, are both a sign of aging and contribute to it. Scientists at Emory University School of Medicine have found that the dietary supplement alpha lipoic acid (ALA) can stimulate telomerase, the enzyme that lengthens telomeres, with positive effects in a mouse model of atherosclerosis.The discovery highlights a potential avenue for the treatment for chronic diseases.-The results were published in Cell Reports.–“Alpha-lipoic acid has an essential role in mitochondria, the energy-generating elements of the cell,” says senior author Wayne Alexander, MD, PhD, professor of medicine at Emory University School of Medicine. “It is widely available and has been called a ‘natural antioxidant’. Yet ALA’s effects in human clinical studies have been a mixed bag.”–ALA appears to exert its effects against atherosclerosis by spurring the smooth muscle cells that surround blood vessels to make PGC1 (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1)-alpha. PGC1-alpha was already well known to scientists as controlling several aspects of how skeletal muscles respond to exercise. While the Emory researchers did not directly assess the effects of exercise in their experiments, their findings provide molecular clues to how exercise might slow the effects of aging or chronic disease in some cell types.–“The effects of chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and diabetes on blood vessels can be traced back to telomere shortening,” Alexander says. “This means that treatments that can restore healthy telomeres have great potential.”–“What’s new here is that we show that PGC1-alpha is regulating telomerase, and that has real beneficial effects on cellular stress in a mouse model of atherosclerosis,” says Shiqin Xiong, PhD, instructor in the division of cardiology and first author of the paper.—-Xiong and Alexander used a model of atherosclerosis where mice lacked the ApoE cholesterol processing gene and were fed a high-fat diet. In this model, mice also lacking PGC1-alpha have more advanced plaques in their blood vessels, but only in older animals, the authors show.–Consistent with the poorer state of their blood vessels, aortic cells from PGC1-alpha-disrupted mice had shorter telomeres and reduced telomerase activity. Having shortened telomeres led the smooth muscle cells to display more oxidative stress and damage to the rest of their DNA.–The authors show that introducing PGC1-alpha back into vascular smooth muscle cells lacking that gene with a gene-therapy adenovirus could restore telomerase activity and lengthen the cells’ telomeres.–Telomerase is off in most healthy cell types and only becomes turned on when cells proliferate. Because telomerase is active in cancer cells and enables their continued growth, researchers have been concerned that stimulating telomerase in all cells might encourage cancer growth or have other adverse effects.–As a way to boost PGC1-alpha in cells more conveniently, Xiong and Alexander turned to alpha lipoic acid or ALA. ALA is a sulfur-containing fatty acid used to treat diabetic neuropathy in Germany, and has previously been shown to combat atherosclerosis in animal models.–Treating isolated smooth muscle cells with ALA for one day could both stimulate PGC1-alpha and telomerase, the authors found. ALA’s effects on vascular smooth muscle cells could also be seen when it was injected into mice. Xiong and Alexander say they are now investigating the effects of ALA on other tissues in mice. They have not observed increased cancers in ALA-treated mice, but say more thorough investigation is needed to fully assess cancer risk.–“While ALA is present in many foods and its effects in animal models look promising, it may be problematic for clinical use because of its poor solubility, stability and bioavailability,” Xiong says. “We are designing new ways to formulate and deliver ALA-related compounds to resolve these issues.”Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Emory Health Sciences–Journal Reference-Shiqin Xiong, Nikolay Patrushev, Farshad Forouzandeh, Lula Hilenski, R. Wayne Alexander. PGC-1α Modulates Telomere Function and DNA Damage in Protecting against Aging-Related Chronic Diseases. Cell Reports, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.07.047 –Emory Health Sciences. “Anti-aging tricks from dietary supplement seen in mice: Alpha-lipoic acid stimulates telomerase in vascular smooth muscle.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 August 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150821111051.htm>.

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