Scripts 2014

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    Turpentine Therapies
    Oral myiasis–a case report.
    Abstract
    Myiasis, a term introduced by William Hope in 1840, refers to the invasion of tissues and organs of animals and human wounds and certain body cavities by the dipteran larvae, which manifests as subcutaneous furunculoid or boil-like lesions. Oral myiasis is a rare pathology and a risk to the patient’s life. A higher incidence is seen in rural areas, affecting the tropical and subtropical zones of Africa and America. It can be secondary to medical or anatomic conditions, such as cancrum oris, neglected mandibular fracture, cerebral palsy, mouth breathing, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and use of mechanical ventilation. Myiasis also has been described after tooth extraction. All these conditions more easily allow the infestation of human tissues. Myiasis affecting the orodental complex is rare. This case report describes oral myiasis in a 25-year-old male patient who was a gardener by profession. The lesion was treated with turpentine oil, which forced the larvae out, and irrigated with normal saline solution.
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    The use of white and yellow turpentine baths with diabetic patients
    [Article in Russian]
    Davydova OB, Turova EA, Golovach AV.
    Abstract
    In patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus while and yellow turpentine baths produced a positive effect on carbohydrate metabolism. White baths were more effective in respect to lipid metabolism, blood viscosity, produced a good effect on plasmic hemocoagulation factors. Both while and yellow turpentine baths were beneficial for capillary blood flow: initially high distal blood flow in patients with prevailing distal polyneuropathy decreased while in patients with macroangiopathy initially subnormal blood flow increased. Both white and yellow turpentine baths promoted better pulse blood filling of the lower limbs and weaker peripheral resistance of large vessels. In patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus white and yellow turpentine baths contributed to normalization of carbohydrate metabolism. Yellow baths were more effective in lowering lipids. White baths induced inhibition of platelet aggregation but had no effect on coagulation, yellow baths promoted a reduction of fibrinogen but had no effect on platelet aggregation. Yellow baths produced more pronounced effect than white ones on blood viscosity and microcirculation. Both yellow and white baths stimulated pulse blood filling, corrected peripheral resistance of large and small vessels of the lower limbs.
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    Use of white turpentine bath emulsion and yellow turpentine solution for the treatment of chronic prostatitis complicated by excretory pathospermia.
    Citation:
    Voprosy kurortologii, fizioterapii, i lechebnoĭ fizicheskoĭ kultury, (31-3), 0042-8787
    Author(s):
    Karpukhin IV,Li AA,Gusev MA
    Abstract:
    The paper reports a review of up-to-date methods for the use of white turpentine bath emulsion and yellow turpentine solution in the treatment of chronic prostatitis complicated by excretory pathospermia. The results of bath therapy are presented. It is shown that the efficiency of white turpentine bath emulsion amounted to 69.7% compared with 88.3% in patients treated with the use of yellow turpentine solution.
     
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    Effect of turpentine oil on C-reactive protein (CRP) production in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
    Citation:
    Fish & shellfish immunology, September 2004, vol./is. 17/3(203-10), 1050-4648
    Author(s):
    Liu Y,Iwasaki T,Watarai S,Kodama H
    Abstract:
    The effect of turpentine oil on C-reactive protein (CRP) production was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Serum CRP concentration was estimated by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using anti-rainbow trout CRP monoclonal antibody (mAb) AC4 and polyclonal antibody. Intracellular CRP was demonstrated by flow cytometry using anti-trout CRP mAb. Hepatocytes, head kidney macrophages, spleen lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes showed reaction against AC4, but RTG-2 fibroblastic line cells, derived from rainbow trout gonad did not. This is the first report on the detection of intracellular CRP in fish. CRP levels decreased significantly 1 day after intramuscular injection of turpentine oil and remained low for 14 days. Significant decreases in the expression of CRP in hepatocytes, head kidney macrophages and spleen lymphocytes after injection of turpentine oil were found. The reduction of serum CRP concentration after turpentine oil injection may be attributed to decreases in intracellular CRP synthesis.
     
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    Antioxidant and analgesic activities of turpentine of Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallsiana (Lamb.) Holmboe.
    Citation:
    Journal of ethnopharmacology, May 2003, vol./is. 86/1(51-8), 0378-8741
    Author(s):
    Gülçin I,Büyükokuroglu ME,Oktay M,Küfrevioglu OI
    Abstract:
    The aim of this study is to examine possible antioxidant and analgesic activities of turpentine exudes from Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallsiana (Lamb.) Holmboe (TPN). Total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, free radical scavenging, metal chelating, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities were studied. The total antioxidant activity increased with the increasing amount of extracts (100, 300, and 500 microg) added to linoleic acid emulsion. All of the doses of TPN showed higher antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. The samples showed 49, 70, and 91% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. On the other hand, the 300 microg of alpha-tocopherol showed 40% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion. There is correlation between antioxidant activity and the reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, free radical scavenging, metal chelating, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities. Like antioxidant activity, the reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, free radical scavenging, metal chelating, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities of TPN depending on concentration and increasing with increased concentration of TPN. These properties may be the major reasons for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the TPN has a potential source of natural antioxidant. In addition, analgesic effect of TPN was investigated in present study and TPN had strong analgesic effect. The analgesic effect of TPN compared with metamizol as a standard analgesic compound.
     
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    Turpentine white emulsion baths in the rehabilation in patients with sexual dysfunctions
    Citation:
    Voprosy kurortologii, fizioterapii, i lechebnoĭ fizicheskoĭ kultury, (32-3), 0042-8787
    Author(s):
    Karpukhin IV,Li AA,Gusev ME
    Abstract:
    100 patients with sexual dysfunction (SD) and 20 SD patients took turpentine white emulsion baths and sodium chloride baths, respectively. The turpentine baths were given with step-by-step rise in turpentine concentration from 20 to 50 [F1]ml per 200 l of water, temperature 36-37 degrees C, duration of the procedure 10-15 min. The course consisted of 10-12 procedures which were conducted daily or each other day. The turpentine baths were more effective than sodium chloride baths (85 vs 50%, respectively).
     
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    20 Quick Resources to Find Local Food, Farms, Markets, Stands, Co-ops and more!
    Farmerspal – Click the map or your state to find organic, markets, grocers, online shopping and more. Make sure you like their Facebook page for other great resources.
    FarmMatch – Unique because whoever you are, you can put yourself on the map to be matched with producers in your area. Create your food profile today.
    LocalDirt – Helps you buy right from the farm. It’s also a marketplace that allows you to sell and trade. Got eggs? Sell them to your neighbors here. It also allows groups and co-ops to set up bulk orders right there. This one is worth revisiting time and again to check out all its features.
    Weston A Price Chapter Leaders – This is my favorite, because it puts you in touch with passionate people who give their time to connect you to your CSA and quite possibly raw milk and dairy. They will have the latest sources. Weston A. Price Foundation is a wealth of knowledge for traditional foods and health.
    Real Milk Finder – Also from Weston A. Price, this locator could help you to your raw milk and dairy herd share source. Please keep in mind, raw milk availability really depends on your state laws. And not all of the herd share programs are listed there so be sure to read the next important list item.
    Meetup – This seems like a weird place to get the connections but it makes sense. Meetup allows groups to safely connect online and publicly meet to enjoy hobbies, clubs, politics, education – anything. It’s just people meeting up, doing what they love, learning or just having fun – I attribute so many happy, life-changing times to this website. This is how I found my CSA! I went to a nutrition wholefoods meetup to take free natural food classes. The woman running it was a Weston A. Price chapter leader who graciously led me through the entire process and got me connected to raw milk and pasture-fed foods. Wherever people who are passionate about their lifestyle meet, you are sure to pick up a wealth of resources and support. You should check it out to find like-minded people and get out there. I’ve made great friends this way. Some people find their soul mate!
    Pick-A-Pepper – Real local food right at your fingertips. Use your zip to find your farmer or food artisan AND become a vendor.
    Eat Wild – #1 website for all things grass fed. Their map includes Canada and connects you with grassfed wild foods, even companies who ship directly to you.
    LocalHarvest – Another mapping site that allows you to find CSAs, Co-ops, open farms, markets, delis, stores and more. Thankfully, it’s been around for awhile. Unfortunately, that could mean some of the info is outdated. Always good to call ahead – don’t be afraid to talk to farmers and ask questions.
    Homegrown.org – Created by FarmAid (another educational farm source), offers lots of education and provided some of the links in this article. It also has its own map to find local fare. FarmAid also has a list of open Winter Markets worth checking. They also list two maps to find wild catch and pastured cattle and dairy farms. Local Catch and HomeGrownCow.
    Organic Consumers Association – Plug your zip code in and you’ll be in touch with not just healthy GMO-free food sources but all kinds of natural health businesses – even skin care, acupuncture and more.
    RealTimeFarms – Nicely designed, simple to use map shows farmers, artisans, restaurants, markets and more right in your town. Also search by ingredient or certified organic. Very eye-opening!
    FarmPlate – Holy cow! Find everything in your area including apiaries, bakeries, stands, herbalists, confectioners and more. They’ve got it all.
    Market Maker – Is another cool marketplace to buy and sell healthy homegrown.
    EatWellGuide – Find local sustainable food. Is supported by lots of big partners so you know the locator will work great.
    Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food – This comes from the USDA in an effort to be more “sustainable” and local. Maybe it’s to deflect from the tens of billions of dollars going into Big Agri subsidies, the small farm crushing fines of the Food Safety Act, or the GMO deregulation that will run roughshod over local and organic fare. It makes me nervous that the federal government wants to get super cozy with local and have it compassed on a map. But, it does offer a stunning visual of a variety of farms and markets, not just USDA supported ones. You can also find markets near you here. Enjoy it – you paid for it.
    EatLocalGrown – Wouldn’t it be great to know if your food has GMOs or not? Eat Local Grown agrees and locates sources near you. They also have informative beginner’s articles, new food provider listings, and over 50,000 Likes on Facebook.
    Stronger Together Co-op – Find just food co-ops all over the US.
    Food Routes – Has an outreach called Buy Fresh, Buy Local with chapter leaders who will help you do just that.
    WWOOF – World Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms is a buddy to Permies.com (awesome permaculture resource) and a volunteer exchange. People volunteer to learn and work an organic farm and they can get room and board in exchange. Some would call it a free vacation. It’s an opportunity to travel, see what it takes to cultivate, and…find a farm!
    Farmshed CNY – This focuses on the New York area but it is so comprehensive, if it grows beyond it could be the most thorough finder known. Type your city and search up to a 50-mile radius.
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    Show of the Month February 8 2014
    The Fallacy of Radiation Readings Circulating Here in the US
    Environmental transformations of silver nanoparticles- impact on stability and toxicity.
    Baths—or Bathing
     
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    The Fallacy of Radiation Readings Circulating Here in the US
    By Craig Douglas
    (written March 2011)
    There has been a lot of spreading of alarming numbers of radiation readings coming from all over the media and internet since the nuclear power plant problems in Japan. With this article, I hope to shut them all down. —
    First off, I sell radiological survey meters, geiger counters, and dosimeters at gun shows around the country. So I would have an ulterior motive to panic you further to sell more equipment, but in actuality I am more interested in the truth getting out there instead of all this panic, hype and lies being spread suggesting the problem is much worse than it is. I have made guest appearances on many talk shows in the last week to try to get the truth out about what is going on.–Invariably, someone who owns a piece of radiation detection equipment, usually a surplus Civil Defense radiological survey meter, will go on the internet with their “report” of what they are reading in their local area. Civil Defense models such as the CD V-710, CD V-715, CD V-717, and the CD V-720 are for detecting high level gamma radiation (although they will also detect X-rays). –Let’s examine gamma radiation for a moment. Gamma radiation emits as rays from a source and travels in straight lines and penetrates objects much like X-rays do. Mass is the best protector from Gamma radiation, that’s why our Fallout Shelters from the 50’s and 60’s were underground; you only need mass between you and the gamma source to protect yourself.[F2] Because of the curvature of the earth and the nature of gamma radiation, it is not possible to measure gamma radiation from Japan here in the US with the above listed equipment. If you are measuring anything on one of these devices you either; 1) don’t know how to use the equipment, 2) your equipment is not calibrated properly or faulty, 3) you are lying, 4) there is something else going on locally that they are blaming on Japan.—Here’s a way to confirm this at home; take a reading as you were before outside, then without changing anything on the instrument, take it in an underground location such as a basement and you will see the reading persists on your instrument. If you really had been reading gamma radiation, the needle would have dropped to zero when you took it underground.—-
    Beta radiation acts differently and must attach to a particle such as dirt or dust, then travel via the prevailing winds [jet stream] to be measured away from the site of trouble. This is called fallout, and in the event of a nuclear weapon detonation, the beta particles will be blown high into the atmosphere by the blast as seen with the large mushroom cloud. In this event, the beta particles could go into the jet stream and travel for some distance before finally falling back to earth where we could measure them. —Now in the case of Japan, there has been no mushroom cloud, only much smaller hydrogen explosions which even if there was any radiation present at the time of those explosions, they certainly would not have gone high into the atmosphere. Any beta radiation will travel with surface winds and wouldn’t get very far before falling into the Pacific Ocean or whichever way the winds might take it. The only surplus Civil Defense models that could measure beta radiation would be the model CD V-720 (high level only), and the CD V-700 which can measure low level beta and low level gamma. Remember, this is the ONLY type of radiation that could POSSIBLY get here from Japan, and this is extremely unlikely unless there is some sort massive explosion that could get the beta particles airborne high enough to reach the jet stream.—–Another device which is more important, but much less known because of the movies, is the CD V-750 dosimeter charger and dosimeters. Dosimeters are small devices that you wear that measure your accumulated gamma radiation level (expressed in roentgens or “R”) over time. The dosimeters from Civil Defense have different scales on them and will be the models CD V-138 (0-.2r), CD V-730 (0-20r), CD V-740 (0-100r), and the most common CD V-742 (0-200r). If you were be exposed up to 50r you would not have any visible effects. If you were exposed from around 50-200r you would get radiation sickness depending on your immune resistance and bio-terrain. Between 200-500r some will die from these exposures. If you were exposed all the way up to 600r you would die within two weeks. These higher numbers are what people are falsely claiming to have been exposed to already here in the US, but I haven’t heard any reports of people dying from radiation here, or even Japan for that matter. –For up to date information on real radiation numbers as updated every 15 minutes here in the U.S. go to http://www.blackcatsystems.com/RadMap/map.html
    The bottom line is I need not worry what happens in Japan if I am living in the United States, even if all of the cores completely melt down. I would worry if I was in Japan, but not here. Now that’s not to say that I need not worry; that earth quake could as just as easily happen off the coast of California, or even on the New Madrid fault in Missouri. Then there could be a concern for my safety here in the US.–Remember, we already fought World War III many times over. We bombed ourselves, the Soviet Union bombed themselves, the Chinese, French, etc. with all the nuclear weapons testing done over several decades. all over the world. Did you panic then? That was a much greater danger than what we are seeing in Japan today. By the time those beta particles fell to earth they were so diluted they were hardly measurable on most of the planet.
    Craig Douglas
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    Environmental transformations of silver nanoparticles- impact on stability and toxicity.
    Levard C, Hotze EM, Lowry GV, Brown GE Jr.
    Author information
    Abstract
    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) readily transform in the environment, which modifies their properties and alters their transport, fate, and toxicity. It is essential to consider such transformations when assessing the potential environmental impact of Ag-NPs. This review discusses the major transformation processes of Ag-NPs in various aqueous environments, particularly transformations of the metallic Ag cores caused by reactions with (in)organic ligands, and the effects of such transformations on physical and chemical stability and toxicity. Thermodynamic arguments are used to predict what forms of oxidized silver will predominate in various environmental scenarios. Silver binds strongly to sulfur (both organic and inorganic) in natural systems (fresh and sea waters) as well as in wastewater treatment plants, where most Ag-NPs are expected to be concentrated and then released. Sulfidation of Ag-NPs results in a significant decrease in their toxicity due to the lower solubility of silver sulfide, potentially limiting their short-term environmental impact. This review also discusses some of the major unanswered questions about Ag-NPs, which, when answered, will improve predictions about their potential environmental impacts. Research needed to address these questions includes fundamental molecular-level studies of Ag-NPs and their transformation products, particularly Ag(2)S-NPs, in simplified model systems containing common (in)organic ligands, as well as under more realistic environmental conditions using microcosm/mesocosm-type experiments. Toxicology studies of Ag-NP transformation products, including different states of aggregation and sulfidation, are also required. In addition, there is the need to characterize the surface structures, compositions, and morphologies of Ag-NPs and Ag(2)S-NPs to the extent possible because they control properties such as solubility and reactivity.
     
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    Baths—or Bathing
    The use of sodium chloride baths in the treatment of diabetic patients with micro- and macroangiopathies.
    [Article in Russian]
    Davydova OB, Turova EA, Grishina EV.
    Abstract
    Patients suffering from insulin-dependent or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with micro- and macroangiopathy took sodium chloride baths of diverse concentration (30 and 50 g/l). A control group consisted of patients who had taken “neutral” baths. The response to sodium chloride baths was registered in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, microcirculation, hemorheology, lower limbs circulation, exercise tolerance. Baths with sodium chloride concentrations 50 g/l have advantages, especially in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
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    Use of white turpentine bath emulsion and yellow turpentine solution for the treatment of chronic prostatitis complicated by excretory pathospermia.
    Citation:
    Voprosy kurortologii, fizioterapii, i lechebnoĭ fizicheskoĭ kultury, (31-3), 0042-8787
    Author(s):
    Karpukhin IV,Li AA,Gusev MA
    Abstract:
    The paper reports a review of up-to-date methods for the use of white turpentine bath emulsion and yellow turpentine solution in the treatment of chronic prostatitis complicated by excretory pathospermia. The results of bath therapy are presented. It is shown that the efficiency of white turpentine bath emulsion amounted to 69.7% compared with 88.3% in patients treated with the use of yellow turpentine solution.
     
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    The use of sodium chloride baths in patients with chronic bronchitis
    Abstract
    80 patients with chronic bronchitis took baths with sodium chloride concentration 20, 40, 60 g/l [F3]and temperature 37-38 degrees C. The baths produced a positive effect on central and regional hemodynamics, reduced inflammation and sensitization.
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    ATP- adenosine triphosphate
    Also known as: ATP; dATP; rATP; Universal Energy Molecule
    Description—–Adenosine Triphosphate is an endogenous compound that contains Adenine + Ribose (i.e. Adenosine) and three Phosphate groups.
    Biological Functions and Therapeutic Effects of ATP
    Cardiovascular System——Supplemental ATP may alleviate Arrhythmias: Supplemental ATP may restore heartbeat to normal in Tachycardia patients. references
    Supplemental ATP may improve Blood Circulation (by functioning as a vasodilator, expanding the Veins and Arteries). [more info]
    The Heart requires high amounts of ATP (for the provision of Energy to “fuel” its pumping actions).
    Metabolism—-Supplemental ATP may improve Athletic Performance (due to its role in the provision of Energy to the body). -ATP is the fuel (Energy) source utilized by the Neurons of the Brain.-One of the underlying causes of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) may be impairment in the production of ATP by the Mitochondria of Cells-Endogenous ATP is produced by Oxidation of various chemicals the Krebs Cycle and is the body’s primary “storehouse” of cellular Energy (hence its alternative name Universal Energy Molecule): -The human body is constantly manufacturing (and breaking down) ATP for Energy production. The total amount of ATP metabolized by the average person for Energy production amounts to approximately 68 – 85 kg each day.– Optimal production of ATP is required in order to avoid Fatigue. -The Electron Transport System (ETS) accepts Hydrogen atoms from the Krebs Cycle and passes them through a series of compounds until they combine with Oxygen to form Water – each cycle of this process produces 11 molecules of ATP.
    Musculoskeletal System—(Supplemental) ATP may alleviate Lumbago (back pain). –ATP provides Energy to the Muscles via Actin and Myosin:-ATP molecules diffuse into contracted Muscles and change the structure of Actin and Myosin in such a way that they no longer attract one another, permitting the Muscle to relax into its extended state, it then reverts to its otherwise contracted state.–ATP that is STORED in the Muscles is the only endogenous instant “fuel” that is available for Energy production (therefore stored ATP is the only fuel capable of generating 100% Muscle contraction).–The Muscles of most people contain enough ATP to generate 4 – 5 seconds of maximum Muscle contraction.–Once stored ATP has all been utilized in Energy production other sources of Energy must be converted to ATP in order to maintain Energy production within the Muscles (the order in which other sources of Energy are converted to ATP are 1) Creatine Phosphate, 2) Glycogen, 3) Glucose, 4) Fatty Acids and 5) Amino Acids).–Supplemental ATP may alleviate Muscular Dystrophy.
    Nervous System——–Supplemental ATP may increase Alertness (by providing Energy to the Brain). –Alzheimer’s Disease patients have a significant reduction in their production of ATP (indicating that supplemental ATP may be beneficial for Alzheimer’s Disease patients). -ATP is manufactured by Neurons within the Brain and provides Energy to the Brain (20% of the body’s ATP production is used by the Brain for Energy). -ATP appears to provide the Energy to the Brain that “fuels” the Interhemispheric Flow of Information that optimizes Creativity and Verbal Fluency. -ATP Enhances the Function of these Substances
    Amino Acids—–ATP is an essential cofactor for the endogenous conversion of Methionine to S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe).-
    These Substances may Enhance the Production of ATP
    Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC) may facilitate the endogenous production of ATP. Carnitine may increase the generation of ATP via its role in the beta-oxidation of Fatty Acids and via its role in the removal of Acetyl units in the Mitochondria. -Citrulline may increase the production of ATP. -Creatine Monohydrate may increase the body’s production of ATP. – Creatine Phosphate acts as a carrier vehicle for Phosphorus in the form of Phosphate for the production of Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) which is further metabolized to ATP as part of the Krebs Cycle of Energy production. –
    Carbohydrates-Glucose is one of several precursors for the production of ATP – one molecule of Glucose can generate 38 molecules of ATP. – Ribose facilitates the production of ATP and supplemental Ribose (2,000 – 3,000 mg per day) further enhances the endogenous production of ATP. –
    Electron Transport System–NADH facilitates the production of ATP – one molecule of NADH can generate three molecules of ATP. references
    Enzymes—–Adenyl Cyclase catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP (cAMP) within Cells. -Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK) catalyzes the conversion of Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) and Creatine Phosphate to ATP and Creatine. –
    Flavins—Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN) functions as a Hydrogen carrier for the production of ATP.–
    Hormones–Melatonin may facilitate the production of ATP in the Mitochondria. -Thyroid Hormones (especially Triiodothyronine (T3)) stimulate the production of ATP in the Mitochondria.
    Krebs Cycle Chemicals
    ATP is formed from Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) within the body.
    Ketone Bodies are utilized by the Muscles in the production of ATP.
    Lipids
    Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) may increase the body’s production of ATP.
    Minerals
    Chromium (via Glucose Tolerance Factor) may facilitate the provision of Glucose to the body’s Cells where it can be used in the manufacture of Energy by ATP. [more info]
    Magnesium is required for the production of ATP (Magnesium is responsible for transferring the Phosphorus molecule to ATP).
    ATP contains three Phosphorus groups.
    Nucleic Compounds
    Adenine (as a component of Adenosine) is an essential component of ATP.
    Inosine may enhance the production of ATP in the body (including the Heart). [more info]
    Ribose (as a component of Adenosine) is an essential component of ATP.
    Quinones
    Coenzyme Q10 may enhance the production of ATP in the Mitochondria of Cells. references
    Smart Drugs
    Hydergine may increase ATP levels in the Brain.
    Piracetam may increase the turnover of ATP within the Cerebral Cortex of the Brain.
    Vinpocetine may increase the production of ATP by the Brain’s Neurons.
    Xanthinol Nicotinate may increase the body’s (especially the Brain’s) production of ATP.
    Vitamins
    Lipoic Acid may increase the production of ATP within Muscles. [more info]
    Vitamin B3 is involved in the production of ATP.
    Vitamin B5 is an essential cofactor for the production of ATP (due to its incorporation into ATP’s precursor – Acetyl Coenzyme A).
    Vitamin C may facilitate the production of endogenous ATP. [more info]
    Vitamin K may facilitate the production of ATP. [more info]
    These Herbs may Enhance the Production of ATP
    Ginger may increase the production of ATP by the Heart. references
    Ginkgo biloba may increase the body’s production of ATP. [more info]
    Golden Root may enhance the production of ATP via the process of oxidative phosphorylation. references
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    What food has adenosine triphosphate in it?
    adenosine triphosphate is made from Adenine fount in Brewer’s yeast, whole grains (breads and cereals), raw unadulterated honey, bee pollen, royal jelly, propolis, most fresh vegetables, most fresh fruits and all complex carbohydrates Creatine
    Following herbs:
    Blessed thistle, blue cohosh, burdock, capsicum (cayenne), caraway, cascara sagrada, catnip, cloves, couch grass, ginger,
    golden seal, hawthorn, hops, jojoba, kelp, lady’s slipper, mullein, rose hips, sage, sarsaparilla, spearmint, strawberry, thyme, yucca
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    Adenosine-5′-triphosphate’s (ATP) role as the primary intracellular energy source for body tissues is well established [1]. In addition, ATP also has extensive extracellular functions that are primarily mediated through purinergic (P2Y and P2X) membrane receptors ubiquitously present in many cell types [2]. One extracellular-mediated function of ATP includes the modification of muscle excitability (i.e., increasing skeletal muscle calcium permeability and blocking chloride efflux) and vasodilation [3,4]. Moreover as a co-transmitter, ATP operates on both the central and peripheral nervous systems to elicit local tissue modifications during neurotransmission [5].
    It has been reported that the half-life of infused ATP is less than one second [6-8], ATP is rapidly taken up and stored by erythrocytes [6]. This rapid uptake by erythrocytes is central to its role in affecting blood flow and oxygen delivery to oxygen-depleted tissue [9]. Specifically, there is a tight coupling between oxygen demand in skeletal muscle and increases in blood flow. Erythrocytes regulate this response by acting as “oxygen sensors” [10]. When oxygen is low in a working muscle region, the red blood cell deforms, and releases ATP [10,11]. The result is vasodilation and greater blood flow to the working musculature, thereby enhancing nutrient and oxygen delivery [10,11]. Long-term oral administration of ATP has been shown to increase both the uptake and synthesis of ATP in the erythrocytes of rodents [12]. Collectively, these findings suggest that oral ATP supplementation may elicit ergogenic outcomes on skeletal muscle without elevating plasma ATP concentrations.
    Research by Jordan et al. [13] demonstrated that 225 mg per day of enteric-coated ATP supplementation for 15 days resulted in increased total bench press lifting volume (i.e. sets•repetitions•load [kg]) as well as within-group set-one repetitions to failure. More recently, Rathmacher et al. [14] found that 15 days of 400 mg per day of ATP supplementation increased minimum peak torque for the final two sets of a dynamometer test. The increases suggest that orally delivered ATP may reduce muscle fatigue and enable a higher force output during repeated high-intensity bouts of exercise. These aforementioned findings lead us to hypothesize that dietary supplementation with ATP may be beneficial to both the exercising and less active muscle tissue.
    The novelty of ATP as an oral supplement has limited data available in regards to its chronic effects in humans. To date, no studies have examined the chronic effects of oral ATP supplementation on body composition or indicators of athletic performance when combined with a periodized resistance training (RT) protocol. However, provided that short-term supplementation in the absence of a training intervention has resulted in positive outcomes in muscle performance, it is plausible to suggest that ATP may have long-term ergogenic effects in periodized RT regimens. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that supplementation with oral ATP would improve measures of power, strength, and skeletal muscle mass during a 12-week RT protocol. The second purpose was to assess the safety of the supplement over 12 weeks through blood chemistry and hematology measures.
    Muscle strength and power
    Both groups increased their muscle strength (Table 1, Figure 1A, t-test, p < 0.001). However, supplementation with ATP resulted in significantly greater increases in the 1RM for the squat, deadlift, and total strength compared with placebo over the 12-week study (Trt*time, p < 0.001, 0.002, and 0.001, respectively). The ATP supplementation resulted in strength increases of 12.9% and 16.4% for squat and deadlift, respectively. However, in the placebo group, RT alone resulted in increases of 4.4 and 8.5% for squat and deadlift, respectively. The total strength increases over the 12-week study were 5.9% (22.4 ± 7.1 kg) in the placebo-supplemented participants and 12.6% (55.3 ± 6.0 kg) in the ATP-supplemented participants (Figure 1A, Trt*time, p < 0.001). Mean total strength in response to ATP supplementation was greater at 8, 9, 10, and 12 weeks than mean total strength in the placebo-supplemented participants (t-test, p < 0.05). During phase 2, the overreaching cycle, the placebo-supplemented group had a 22.6 ± 5.1 kg decrease in total strength, while the ATP-supplemented group decreased only 12.0 ± 2.5 kg in total strength during the same test period (Table 1, Figure 1A, Trt, p < 0.007).
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    Body composition and muscle hypertrophy measurement
    After 12 weeks of RT, lean body mass (LBM) increased within both groups (Table 2, t-test, p < 0.001), whereas fat percentage was decreased with training only in the ATP-supplemented participants (Table 2t-test, p <0.01). The ATP supplementation did not affect overall body weight or fat percentage during the study, but it did significantly increase LBM gain during the 12-week training period (Trt*time, p < 0.009). The ATP-supplemented participants gained 4.0 ± 0.4 kg of LBM whereas the placebo-supplemented participants gained 2.1 ± 0.5 kg of LBM. The quadriceps muscle thickness increased after 12 weeks of RT (Table 2, Time, p < 0.001). Additionally, ATP supplementation resulted in a 9.4% (4.9 ± 1.0 mm) increase in quadriceps muscle thickness compared with a 4.9% (2.5 ± 0.6 mm) increase in response to placebo (Table 2, Trt*time p < 0.02).
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    Muscle damage, hormonal status and performance recovery scale
    Muscle damage assessed by blood CK was affected by training (Table 3, Time, p < 0.001). Supplementation with ATP was unable to attenuate the increase in CK at either the initiation of training (weeks 0 to 1) or during phase 2, the overreaching cycle (weeks 9 and 10), where the sudden change in training volumes caused blood CK to increase. Muscle protein degradation was measured by the urinary 3-MH:Cr ratio (Table 3) during the initiation of training (weeks 0 to 1) and overreaching cycle (weeks 9 and 10). During week 8 of the study, ATP-supplemented subjects had a higher urinary 3-MH:Cr ratio compared to the placebo group (t-test, p < 0.05). However, the 8-week values were not different than baseline for both treatment groups. The results indicate that when training volume increased during weeks 9 and 10, ATP supplementation significantly decreased muscle protein degradation compared with placebo (Trt*time, p < 0.007). During phase 2, the overreaching cycle, protein degradation increased 23.7 ± 4.5% in the placebo-supplemented, but not ATP supplemented participants. Supplementation with ATP did not affect changes in CRP, cortisol, or free or total testosterone levels when compared with placebo supplementation (Table 3).
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    The effects of ATP on skeletal muscle strength and power development
    Strength and power are two of the most critical attributes underlying success in athletics [21,22]. These variables are intimately related and allow athletes to be successful in their respective sport [23,24]. Prior to our research, there was limited data evaluating the effects of supplemental ATP on physiological responses that would improve long-term muscular performance. For example, Jordan et al. [13] demonstrated that 14 days of orally ingested ATP positively influenced exercise performance. Specifically, they demonstrated that 225 mg per day of ATP for 14 days resulted in within-group increases in set-one total repetitions performed and bench press total training volume. More recently, Rathmacher et al. [14] found that 400 mg of supplemental ATP per day for 15 days was effective in improving set-two leg muscle minimum peak torque and tended to decrease set-three leg muscle fatigue during three successive sets of knee extension exercises. Interestingly, the changes observed during the aforementioned studies occurred despite final ATP supplementation being provided to test participants 3 [13] and 12 hours [14] prior to post-testing data collection. The prolonged lag time between supplementation and testing may explain the inconclusive, albeit within-group significant effects observed by Jordan et al. [13] and the somewhat minimal but between group effects on torque and fatigue observed by Rathmacher et al. [14] Furthermore, since the 400 mg per day dose used by Rathmacher et al. [14] was divided into two doses throughout the day, the effective pre-exercise testing dose consumed prior to the 12-hour supplement withdrawal would have only been 200 mg of ATP.
    The current investigation employed once per day supplementation of a 400 mg dose of ATP where on training and testing days participants consumed the supplement 30 minutes prior to exercise. We found the ATP supplementation resulted in strength increases for the squat and deadlift of 12.9% and 16.4%, respectively, when compared to RT alone in the placebo (4.4% and 8.5%). In comparison to the two former studies, it is likely that the more robust changes observed within the current investigation are the result of total ATP dose and dose timing relative to testing procedures.
    With regard to muscle power, we found that vertical jump peak power was more responsive to ATP supplementation (+15.3%) as compared to placebo (+11.5%). Rathmacher et al. [14] have speculated that supplemental ATP may provide cumulative benefits in strenuous, repetitive, and exhaustive exercise activities, which could lead to improvements in muscle responses. However, we have to point out that the mechanisms that ATP mediates changes in skeletal muscle performance are still under investigation and need to be fully elucidated. It can be speculated that these functional changes are a factor of small, transient increases in extracellular ATP and its metabolites. For example, Sandona et al. [25] presented evidence that [ATP]ex increases skeletal muscle Ca2+ influx and the release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, thereby affecting muscle contractile properties. Specifically, increasing skeletal muscle Ca2+ influx and intracellular concentrations have been shown to significantly increase both the total number of thin filaments binding and the speed at which the filaments slide [26]. These aforementioned findings provide a clue as to how the ATP supplementation might modulate the increases in muscle strength and power. However, these speculations must be eventually validated with direct research.
    The effects of ATP on skeletal muscle mass and changes in lean body mass
    To our knowledge, this study represents the first formal investigation of the effects of oral ATP supplementation on lean body mass and muscle thickness following a chronic RT program. Our results indicated greater increases in LBM and muscle thickness in response to oral ATP versus placebo. We can speculate on a number of possible reasons for the ergogenic effects of ATP on muscle mass we have observed. In addition to ATP’s capacity to buffer fatigue during repeated high volume sets and increase total training volume, the supplement may increase skeletal muscle blood flow, thereby enhancing muscle O2 recovery. This is critical as muscle deoxygenation is associated with decreased performance under repeated high intensity contractions [27]. Specifically, extracellular ATP directly promotes the increased synthesis and release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGl2) within skeletal muscle and therefore directly affects tissue vasodilation and blood flow [28]. This is supported by research suggesting increased vasodilation and blood flow in response to intra-arterial infusion [29] and exogenous administration of ATP. It can be speculated that these changes in blood flow may lead to an increased substrate pool for skeletal muscle by virtue of increased glucose and O2 uptake [9]. If this is the case the resulting outcome would be an improved recovery response via a greater energetic environment for anabolic processes capable of supporting exercise-induced changes in LBM and hypertrophy. However, these are currently only suggested possible mechanisms and need to be verified in future research.
    The effects of ATP on recovery from high intensity training
    Overtraining and overreaching are two of the most complicated occurrences in sport. The primary tools utilized to detect overtraining and overreaching include changes in serum indices of skeletal muscle damage [30], anabolic and catabolic hormone status [31], perceived recovery [20], and muscle protein breakdown. However, the consensus seems to dictate that the number one indicator of overreaching and overtraining are short- and long-term decrements in performance, respectively [32]. The cause of overreaching appears to be an imbalance between training stimulus and recovery. If the stimulus exceeds the athlete’s adaptive capacity, decrements in performance will result; ultimately taking weeks (overreaching) to months (overtraining) to fully recover. For ethical reasons, a great deal of research in strength and conditioning has centered on overreaching protocols versus overtraining [32].
    The present study attempted to overreach participants through increasing training frequency and volume. Our results indicated that the overreaching cycle was able to decrease muscle power and strength, and overreaching increased protein breakdown. However, these effects were blunted in the ATP group. It is interesting to note that protein breakdown was not blunted during phase 1 (weeks 1–8) by ATP supplementation. In fact, although protein breakdown in the ATP supplemented group was not significantly different than baseline, it appeared slightly higher at week 8 relative to the control. We can speculate that under normal conditions of training, when glycogen levels are likely adequate those participants supplementing with ATP were able to maintain higher intensities, which would result in higher rates of protein breakdown. However, when exposed to greater training frequencies, glycogen levels are likely to be depleted, thus preventing higher intensities from being performed. As such ATP supplementation is able to blunt a rise in protein breakdown relative to a placebo group. Thus, it appears that oral ATP may be able to increase fatigue resistance during a two-week intensive, high-volume overreaching protocol. Following a two-week taper in which volume was reduced, the placebo group regained their baseline performance while the ATP group experienced increases in both muscle strength and power. These results indicate that a typical overreaching stimulus overwhelms recovery capabilities in a non-supplemented state. However, the ability for ATP to speed recovery may provide athletes with a novel method to promote positive training adaptations.
    While at first look these results may appear to be only pertinent to athletic performance, it is important to understand that several non-sport activities place people at risk for deterioration of performance in life threatening situations where performance is critical. A primary example includes combat athletes / military personal who are often times placed in extreme overreaching and overtraining environments that may take months to recover from [33]. These are often times highly conditioned individuals whose lives and mission may depend on the prevention of decay in strength, and power.
    Effects of chronic ATP supplementation on safety parameters
    The results of this study suggest that 400 mg of oral ATP administered daily had no effect on hemoglobin, white blood cells, blood glucose, liver, or kidney function. These results are in agreement with Coolen et al. [34] who reported that up to 5000 mg per day, during 28 days, of oral ATP resulted in no significant changes in any blood or urine measured safety parameters. Therefore, it appears likely that doses of 400 mg/day of oral ATP for up to 12 weeks can be considered safe and presented no clinically relevant adverse effects.
    Bioavailability of oral ATP supplementation
    Recently, Coolen et al. questioned the bioavailability of oral ATP [2]. However, the biological pool where ATP is measured will determine the results of bioavailability analysis. If sampled in venous portal blood, oral ATP is indeed bioavailable [13]. Coolen et al. did not analyse venous portal blood. If sampling systemic plasma or whole blood, oral ATP will have very low bioavailability even in very high doses. Paradoxically, Kichenin & Seman observed that repeated administration of oral ATP led to progressive diminution of plasma ATP [12]. Nevertheless, their study demonstrated that oral ATP supplementation can indeed produce biological responses. Over all, due to the nature of the ATP molecule, its bioavailability is quite difficult to determine. While our results suggest that oral ATP supplementation can significantly impact athletic performance, skeletal muscle hypertrophy and recovery, the current study did not utilize methodologies to investigate the potential mechanism(s) for the ergogenic effects we observed.
     

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    Energy sources used to synthesise ATP
    The energy for the synthesis of ATP comes from the breakdown of foods and phosphocreatine (PC). Phosphocreatine is also known as creatine phosphate and like existing ATP; it is stored inside muscle cells.
    Phosphocreatine (PC)
    Because it is stored in muscle cells phosphocreatine is readily available to produce ATP quickly. However it is only stored in limited quantities and therefore like our ATP stores it also runs out very quickly. -It is estimated that there is only about 100g( 3.5 oz) of ATP and about 120g( 4.2 oz) of phosphocreatine stored in the body, mostly within the muscle cells.–Together ATP and phosphocreatine are called ‘high-energy’ phosphates as large amounts of energy are released quickly during their breakdown.–Because the stores of PC run out quickly other substrates that are stored in larger quantities in the body are also used to synthesize ATP. These include the sources gained from everyday foods that provide the following macronutrients:
    1. Carbohydrates
    2. Proteins
    3. Fats
    Carbohydrate
    Carbohydrates are the bodies preferred source of food energy for the synthesis of ATP, with one gram of CHO providing four calories of energy. -Once digested carbohydrates are broken down into glucose and chemical reactions involving glucose then produce ATP. Glucose is always present within the blood as it circulates and provides a readily available source of energy. Too much glucose in the blood is not healthy however as it becomes thick and sticky, making it harder to flow through small blood vessels. So to ensure the blood glucose levels are healthy excess glucose that is not needed immediately to produce energy for the body is converted into a substance called glycogen and this is stored in the muscles and liver. When needed, glycogen can then be converted back to glucose for energy.
    Fat
    Fats are broken down into free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides which can produce ATP through chemical reactions. Fatty acids either circulate in the blood or are stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue and muscle. Fat is a very energy dense nutrient, one gram of it provides nine calories of energy. Despite the large quantity of available energy that fat has it provides this energy at a much slower rate than carbohydrate. This is because the chemical reactions required for its breakdown are much more complex and time consuming.
    Protein
    Protein contains four calories per gram and again provides energy at a much slower rate than carbohydrates. -Protein only makes a small contribution to energy production. However it can become a more significant energy source under periods of prolonged starvation or in ultra endurance events where other energy sources become severely depleted. -Protein is converted into amino acids. Amino acids are normally responsible for the growth and repair of body tissue but they can also be converted into glucose or -into other substances used by the aerobic energy system to synthesise ATP. It is important to note that an excess consumption of any or all of these food sources (carbohydrates, fats or proteins) does not result in more energy being produced, rather it results in the consumed excess being converted to and stored as adipose (fat) tissue.
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    Show of the Month February 15 2014
    Lycopene from tomatoes
    Psorasis-and Healing Agents
     
    Alternative Options to Psoraisis
    Evening Primrose and Skin Issues
    Environmental transformations of silver nanoparticles- impact on stability and toxicity
    Lycopene from tomatoes: vesicular nanocarrier formulations for dermal delivery.
    J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Jul 31;61(30):7284-93
    Authors: Ascenso A, Pinho S, Eleutério C, Praça FG, Bentley MV, Oliveira H, Santos C, Silva O, Simões S
    Abstract
    This experimental work aimed to develop a simple, fast, economic, and environmentally friendly process for the extraction of lycopene from tomato and incorporate this lycopene-rich extract into ultradeformable vesicular nanocarriers suitable for topical application. Lycopene extraction was conducted without a cosolvent for 30 min. The extracts were analyzed and incorporated in transfersomes and ethosomes. These formulations were characterized, and the cellular uptake was observed by confocal microscopy. Dermal delivery of lycopene formulations was tested under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Lycopene extraction proved to be quite safe and selective. The vesicular formulation was taken up by the cells, being more concentrated around the nucleus. Epicutaneous application of lycopene formulations decreased the level of anthralin-induced ear swelling by 97 and 87%, in a manner nonstatistically different from the positive control. These results support the idea that the lycopene-rich extract may be a good alternative to the expensive commercial lycopene for incorporation into advanced topical delivery systems. –PMID: 23826819 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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    Protective effect of chlorophyllin and lycopene from water spinach extract on cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by heavy metals in human hepatoma cells.
    J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2013;76(23):1307-15
    Authors: Yang UJ, Park TS, Shim SM
    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to examine the inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of water spinach (EEWS) containing chlorophyll and lycopene on cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in liver induced by heavy metals. The (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) MTT assay and dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assay were conducted to measure cytotoxicity and inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. Cytotoxicity was prevented at a concentration of 11.7 mg/L of EEWS. Both sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC) and lycopene in EEWS were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MSn) as major components at m/z 722.64 and 535.45, respectively. The concentrations of SCC and lycopene were 0.12 and 0.04 mg from 100 g of dried powder, respectively. Approximately 99% cytotoxicity induced by Cd was inhibited by EEWS. However, the inhibitory effect attributed to generation of ROS was similar with SCC, lycopene, and EEWS. Our results indicated that EEWS was effective in reducing cytotoxicity and oxidative stress produced by heavy metals in a HepG2 cell. Data suggest that the possible mechanism underlying the preventive action of SCC might be associated with diminished absorption of metal ions by chelating and blocking metal-mediated generation of ROS, while lycopene effects may be attributed to its high number of conjugated dienes that act as most potent singlet oxygen quenchers. —PMID: 24283422 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Recipe—take ethanol based alcohol( vodka-brandy-Gin—cognac-or any clear based alcohol) extract the spinach in this –through either an extraction method or through a water extraction( boiling this down ) then adding alcohol afterwards to preserve and or utilize as a carrier—use tsp increments-according to the ratios they used 3 oz ( 100grams) of dried spinach
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    Psorasis-and Healing Agents
    Christoph C. Geilen and Constantin E.
    Orfanos, Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Benjamin Franklin, The Free University of Berlin, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany.
    Please address correspondence and reprint requests to: Prof.Dr.Dr. Christoph C. Geilen, Klinik und Poliklinik für Dermatologie, Universitätsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Fabeckstrasse 60-62, 14195 Berlin-Dahlem, Germany.
    CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RHEUMATOLOGY 2002.
    Key words: Psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, therapy, new drugs.
    ABSTRACT
    Psoriasis is one of the most common skin diseases. A variety of molecular alterations has been identified in the active, lesional epidermis and dermis of psoriasis, but the pathogenesis still remains unex p l a i n e d. Th e re fo re, a l l antipsoriatic therapeutic regimens are symptomatic. Although there is no cure for psoriasis, a variety of therapeutic modalities is available to reduce the severity and increase the life quality of the patient. In cases with mild to moderate psoriasis, topical therapy (tars, dithranol, topical corticosteroids, and vitamin D derivatives) is the most ap p ro p ri ate choice for initial tre at ment. For patients with more severe, re c a l c i t rant psori a s i s , ap p l i c ation of
    UV-radiation and systemic therap i e s ( e. g. re t i n o i d s , m e t h o t rex at e, cy cl o sporine A) are available. These modalities are more e ffe c t ive than topical therapy but they are also associated with significant cutaneous and/or systemic adverse effects and a risk-benefit ratio must be taken into account. In recent ye a rs , a va riety of new app ro a ches and substances has been d eve l o p e d. Their effi c a cy and safe t y should be proven in the future.
    Introduction
    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, genetically determined skin disease [F4]affecting 1-3% of European and American population. Men and women are equally affected[F5]. The mean age at onset of psoriasis skin lesions is 28 years, but initial lesions may appear in very early childhood or as late as 90 years (1,2). The initial lesion is an erythematous papule topped by a silvery scale. These p apules fo rm plaques of va ry i n g shapes and patterns. Areas of the skin most commonly affected include the elbows, knees, groin, scalp, and nails. Beside the classical plaque-type psoriasis different clinical forms have to be taken into consideration: (i) psoriasis g u t t at a, small ery t h e m at o u s , fi n e scaled papules frequently generalized S-81and developing after upper respiratory infections, e.g. viral flu or streptococcal pharyngitis, (ii) psoriasis pustulosa, which may develop in patients with or without pre – existing psoriasis. Withdrawal of systemic corticosteroids is one of the main reasons of this clinical form of psoriasis but other associations include infections and drugs (e.g. lithium, b-blockers, ACE-inhibitors), (iii) psoriatic erythroderma, a rare form of psoriasis with no typical plaque or guttate lesions resulting from a progressive worsening of psoriasis in either an acute or chronic fashion, and (iv) psoriasis arthropathica. This clinical form affects approximately 5-7% of psoriatic patients. The most common type is a monoarticular, nonsymmetrical arthritis affecting mainly joints of the hands. HLA-B27 histocompatibility antigen is s t ro n g ly associated with psori at i c arthritis, Reiter’s disease, and ankylosing spondylitis (3).A variety of cellbiological, biochemic a l , and molecularbiological alterations have been identified in the active, lesional epidermis and dermis in psoriasis, but the pathogenesis of psoriasis is still unexplained (4-6). Therapeutic regimen may clear the skin lesions but relapses occur regularly and most of the patients need once a year sufficient therapy over several weeks. Without therapy the spontaneous remission rate in psoriasis is ap p rox imately 30%, whereas, the therapeutic strategies available can induce remission in 90-100%[F6] of the patients. But in the absence of a cure we do have to keep in mind the possible side effects effects of effective drugs. Therefore, a broad therapeutic repertoire is necessary to maintain patients in remission and to reduce side effects. Before initiation of all types of treatment factors that may provoce psoriasis such as alcohol intakes, infections, drugs or local mechanical irratations have to be excluded. Furthermore, all psoriasis patients need sufficient and regular skin care with emollients and moisturizers.For patients with mild to moderate psori a s i s , topical therapies are ge n e ra l ly used. This includes tars, dithranol, topical cort i c o s t e ro i d s , and vitamin D derivatives. However, for approximately one-third of psoriasis patients these treatments are insufficient and systemic t h e rapies including photoch e m o t h e ra-py are required to be applied alone or in addition. [F7]Most types of drugs used for moderate to severe psoriasis (e.g. psoralens, retinoids, methotrexate, cyclos porine A) have varying degrees of long-term toxicities. To minimize organ damage combination and/or rotational therapy may be considered for the management of psoriasis in a series of patients (7). Topical therapy Tars Tars are mainly used in combination with UV phototherapy. In 1925 W. G o e cke rman introduced this therapy schedule consisting daily application of crude coal tar followed by UVB irradiation in patients with generalized psoriasis (8). Particularly in the USA, this treatment became a standard management procedure for psoriasis for half a century. Nowadays liquid tars are mainly used, such as liquor carbonis detergens (10-20% in petrolatum) (9).Dithranol (Anthralin, Cignolin) H y d rox ya n t h racene derivat ives have held an important place in the treatment of psoriasis since in 1877 Squire reported the beneficial effect of Goa powder, an extract of the plant Ara araroba. The active compound of this natural product is chrysarobin and its synthetic substitute dithranol (1,8-dihy-droxy-9-anthrone) was introduced into the therapy of psoriasis by Unna in Germany in 1916. Up to now the topical treatment of psoriasis by increasing concentrations of dithranol (0.05% to 2%) serves as a “golden standard” in many European studies (10, 11). The best results are seen in patients with chronic plaque-type psoriasis. In contrast, dithranol is not recommended for pustular or acute, exsudative forms of the disease. Dithranol penetrates faster and in greater amounts into lesional ascompared to non-lesional skin. Therefore, a short-contact therapy has been proposed to reduce irritancy. This form of dithranol application is recommendd part i c u l a ry for use in outpat i e n t s (12). In order to reduce side effects and to increase the efficacy many dithranol-containing combination therapies have been proposed. In our department a combination of tar plus selective UV phototherapy (310-330 nm) combined with low but increasing levels of topical dithranol in petro l atum (0.125 -0.5%) is successfully used[F8]. Recently, dithranol embedded in crystalline mooglycerides (Micanol®) has become available and its efficacy in the treatment of psoriasis has been shown. Less irritation and staining are the main advantages of this new galenic preparation (13, 14).Topical corticosteroids Topical treatment of psoriasis with corticosteroids shows fast remission of the psoriatic plaques and leads to cosmetically acceptable results for the patients. This advantage, however, does not overweight the well known disadvant ages of cort i c o s t e roids such as skin atrophy, striae, purpura, bacterial and fungal infections, steroid acne, rebound phenomena, unresponsiveness for other antipsoriatic therapies, and shortening of the remission free intervall[F9]. Also,the potential for topical fluorinated lucocorticosteroids to cause significant systemic effects has been reported (15). N eve rt h e l e s s , topical cort i c o s t e ro i d s are still useful in psoriasis in three particular indications: (i) eczematous psori a s i s , (ii) ch ronic psori atic invo l vement of the palms and soles with hyperkeratotic, plaquelike lesions and fissuring, and (iii) psoriatic involvement of the scalp.In eczematous psoriasis, topical treatment for 2-5 days with hydrocortisone 1% in cream or ointment is useful to reduce irritation, but this should be foll owed by some other conve n t i o n a l antipsoriatic regimen. The use of fluorinated corticosteroids is recommended in chronic, hyperkeratotic psoriasis palmoplantaris as a pretreatment for using P U VA photoch e m o t h e rapy. In these cases fl u o ri n ated cort i c o s t e ro i d s , e. g. b e t a m e t h a s o n , m ay be used for 3-5 days. In moderate to severe psoriasis of the scalp cort i c o s t e roids are used in combination with keratolytic ointments and tar-containing shampoos over a period of 2 – 4 weeks (16, 17). Vitamin D derivatives In 1985 patients with psoriasis we re reported to respond beneficially to oral or topical administration of 1a,25-dihy d roxyvitamin D3[F10] ( c a l c i t riol) (18). Because treatment of patients with orally administered calcitriol has a narrow safety ra n ge, topical ap p l i c at i o n has been preferred (19). It was possible to manipulate the structure of calcitriol to enhance antipsoriatic characteristics and limit calcemic side effects. Most of these alterations are done by modifying side chains of calcitriol, and together with calcitriol two analogues, calcipotriol and tacalcitol, are now marketed for treating psoriasis (20-22). In different studies it has been demonstrated that the two Vitamin D analogues were better than topical corticosteroide treatment, although more side effects were noted as compared to ointments containing corticosteroids in terms of lesional and perilesional irritations. The ap p l i c ation mode is 1-2 times daily over a period of 6 weeks. Because of
    several reports of hypercalcemia resulting from excessive use of calcipotriol o i n t m e n t , the amount of calcipotri o l ointment should be limited to a maximum of 100 g per week. However, both serum and urine calcium levels returned to normal after treatment is discontinued (23). Overall, calcitriol, calcipotriol and tacalcitol appear to be safe and effective for treating moderate plaque psoriasis by local means. Phototherapy Broad-band UVB irradiation E ru p t ive types of psoriasis re s p o n d more rapidly to broad-band UVB (290 – 320 nm) irradiation as compared to ch ronic plaque-type psoriasis. Fo r choosing the initial UVB dose the patient’s minimal erythema dose (MED) has to be determ i n e d. This dose is dependent on the skin type. MED is defined as the lowest UVB dose that causes uniform erythema with distinct borders 24 h after exposure. In most centers the phototherapy protocols start with a total body dose of 80% of MED and the dose is increased in subsequent t re atments. As a ru l e, ap p rox i m at e ly 20-35 sessions are re q u i red to cl e a r psoriasis. Combination of broad-band UVB and etretinate/acitretin (0.3 – 0.5 mg/kg daily) is useful in order to reduce the doses required for clearing, both for retinoid and UVB. After 20 to 30 irra d i at i o n s , e t re t i n at e / a c i t re t i n should be administered for additional three months in order to increase the remission-free intervall (24, 25).
    Narrow-band UVB therapy-Narrow-band (311-313 nm) UV phototherapy has been shown to be superior to conventional broad-band UVB with respect to clearing and remission times (26). Furthermore, the severity of U V-induced erythema is re d u c e d, whereas, the risk for UV-induced carcinoma is discussed controversially. Narrow-band UVB has been used successfully in several combination regimens, s u ch as with dithra n o l , vitamin D derivatives or tazarotene (27-29). Combination with systemic retinoids (etretin at e / a c i t retin) increases the effi c a cy particularly in patients with hyperkeratotic plaque-type psoriasis. The schedules used are similar to those with broad-band UVB, minimal ery t h e m a dose (MED) has to be determined and the initial dose administered is 70 – 80 % of patient’s MED.
    Selective UV phototherapy (SUP) The spectrum emitted by SUP lamps ranges from 285 to 350 nm with maxima in the UVB spectrum (310-315 nm). Selective UVA/UVB irradiation in combination with liquor carbonis detergens (10% in petrolatum) and lowdose dithranol in petrolatum is used as a standard therapeutic regimen for psoriasis in our Berlin department for more than two decades. SUP can also be combined with oral retinoids reaching the same high levels of efficacy as systemic PUVA (30).PUVA photochemotherapy PUVA is the combination of oral psoralens with subsequent irradiation with long-wave UV (UVA). In the presence of UVA psoralens crosslink the cellular D NA , and ge n e rate re a c t ive ox y ge n species inducing cell damage. Different psoralens are used: 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), and 4,5’,8-tri m e t hy l p s o ralen (TMP). The administration of psoralens can be p e r fo rmed topically (bat h – P U VA , s h ower-PUVA, c re a m – P U VA) or systemically (31-33). Topical application of TMP or 8-MOP helps to avoid gastrointestinal and ocular side effe c t s , since there is no systemic photosensitization; only 8-MOP and 5-MOP are ava i l able for oral use. If a psori at i c patient appears suitable for receiving PUVA, contraindications such as e.g. p reg n a n cy, b re a s t fe e d i n g, p h o t o s e n s i-tivity disorders, history of multiple skin cancers etc. have to be excluded and together with the MED, the patient’s minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) has to be determined. As a rule , PUVA therapy is applied in two phases: fi rs t , a clearing phase and second, the maintenance ch a ra c t e ri zed by tap e ring the UV-dose and the number of sessions given per week. In most protocols the initial UVA-dose amounts 40 % of MPD measure d. European pro t o c o l s are characterized by reduced time period re q u i red for cl e a ring and lowe r cumulative UVA dose as compared to the US protocol (34, 35). The risk of patients treated with PUVA to develop non-melanoma skin cancer has been calculated to be 12 fold for squamous cell carcinoma and 4 fold for basal cell carcinoma after more than 260 PUVA treatments (36).
     
    Balneophototherapy–Balneophototherapy with various quantities of diluted salts combines bath water delivery with some anti-inflammatory action or with wat e rs o l u bl e photosensitizers with subsequent UVB or UVA irradiation (see PUVA). The efficacy of salt water baths containing 15% synthetic Dead Sea salt in combination with UV phototherapy was reported in patients with various skin diseases including psoriasis and in atopic dermatitis (37), however, the value of salt water baths has been discussed controversially in psoriasis. and erythrodermic types. The mode of antipsoriatic action of retinoids [F11]is not fully understood, but it seems that etretinate/acitretin promote terminal differentiation, normalize keratinocytic proliferation and modulate leukocyte functions. The dosage required for therapy is 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg bw/day etretinate or 0.3 -0.5 mg/kg bw/day acitretin,administered in one or two daily doses with the meals over a period of 6 to 12 weeks. Etretinate/acitretin are administered alone or in combination with other additional topical modalities (e. g t a r, d i t h ra n o l , vitamin D analog u e s ) and/or with phototherapies (UVB, SUP or PUVA). In combined schedules the dose levels may be reduced to 0.3 to 0.5 m g / k g / d ay resp. 0.2 – 0.3/kg bw/day over a period of 6 weeks in order to minimize the adverse effects. The combination of systemic oral retinoids and PUVA therapy (RePUVA) is considered as a most effective treatment modality for recalcitrant severe psoriasis and the response can be maintained by lowdose retinoid therapy. In erythrodermic psoriasis a low initial dosage should be used, increasing the dose over 3 months up to 0.5 – 0.6 mg/kg/day and then maintained for 6 months. In contrast,in pustular psoriasis a high initial dosage is necessary fo l l owed by a slow decrease up to 0.5- 0.6 mg/kg/day over a period of 3 to 6 months. Maintenance is then required for 6 to 12 months. The profile of adverse effects of systemic
    retinoids is closely associated to hypervitaminosis A (mucocutaneous symptoms, alopecia, elevation of serum lipids, hyperostosis and teratogenicity). Therefore, several contraindications for retinoid therapy should be considered and the patients should be carefully monitored. Medication of oral retinoids together with tetracyclines and high doses of acetylsalicylic acid should be avoided (40-42).
     
    Cyclosporine A–Cyclosporine A is a lipophilic peptide of fungal origin with profound immunosuppressive effects. It was first used in kidney, heart, and liver transplantations. Its therapeutic effect in psoriasis was shown as early as in 1979 (43). Since then nu m e rous clinical studies h ave demonstrated the effi c a cy of cy cl o s p o rine A in psoriasis. Cycl osporine A decreases interleukin-2 production of T-lymphocytes by inhibiting c a l c i n e u ri n – m e d i ated signaling pat h-ways. Beside this inhibition, cyclosporine A exerts various effects on other cells of the immune system, it disrupts the self-perpetuating process between immune cells and keratinocytes involved in psoriasis. The rapid therapeutic action and weak myelotoxicity are seen as key advantages for the use of cyclosporine A; nevertheless, nephrotoxicity and high rates of relapse after treatment cessation limit its use to patients re f ra c t o ry to other therapies. Seve ra l multicenter studies have demonstrated a dose-dependent response of psoriasis and on the basis of these findings , initial dosages of 2.5 to 5 mg/kg/day have been suggested (44).
     
    Fumaric acid derivatives The beneficial effect of fumaric acid derivatives in psoriasis has been first reported by the chemist Sch we cke n-diek in Germany. In a recent multicentre study an overall efficacy of 80% was shown after four months treatment with fumaric acid esters, however, adverse events (e.g. gastrointestinal complaints, flush, lymphocytopenia) were reported in 69% of the patients (45). I m mu n o h i s t o l ogical studies pointed out that systemically administered fumaric acid esters reduce infiltrating Tlymphocytes in the skin, followed by a reduction of acanthosis and parakeratosis. The recommended dosage of fumaric acid esters follows an established, i n c reasing schedule (maximum dose 1.2g per day) whereby the dose levels should be indiv i d u a l ly adjusted after clinical response. The following laboratory parameters should be monitored monthly in the first 6 months: serum c re at i n i n e, blood urea nitroge n , l ive r e n z y m e s , blood cell count incl u d i n g white cell differential count (46). Fumaric acid esters should not be combined with UV phototherapy, other immunos u p p re s s ives or potential nep h ro t ox i c d rugs. A ra n d o m i ze d, d o u bl e – bl i n d, p l a c eb o – c o n t rolled short – t e rm study also revealed the efficacy and safety of fumarates also in psoriatic arthritis (47).–unrelated chemically to cyclosporine A but also inhibits helper T-lymphocyte activation and the synthesis and secretion of cytokines. Furthermore, it has a similar toxicity profile, therefore, patients with nephrotoxicity from cyclosporine are probably not suitable candid ates for tacro l i mus because it also causes hypertension and renal insuffic i e n cy. Systemic (0.1 mg tacro l i mus per kg daily) as well as topical (0.1% tacrolimus ointment) administration of t a c ro l i mus have been rep o rted to be sufficient to improve psoriasis. However, in contrast to atopic dermatitis topical tacrolimus showed a limited efficacy in psoriasis (58, 59).
     
    Alefacept (B-9273)Alefacept is an LFA-3-Ig fusion protein that binds to CD 2 receptor on T-lymp h o cy t e s , inhibiting their activat i o n into CD45Ro + memory T-cells. On the background that psoriasis plaques are characterized by an infiltration of memory effector T-lymphocytes, the effect of alefacept on psoriasis was studied in a mu l t i c e n t e r, ra n d o m i ze d, p l a c eb o c o n t ro l l e d, d o u bl e – blind study. 229 Patients with chronic psoriasis received 0.025,0.075 or 0.150 mg alefacept/kg body weight or placebo intraveneously weekly over a period of 12 weeks, with follow-up for additional 12 weeks. The s t u dy revealed considerable improvement in the alefa c ept groups (38%, 5 3 % , and 53% re s p e c t ive ly ) , gre at e r than in the placebo group (21%) (60). Overall, a ‡75% PASI score reduction occurs in 25 – 30% of the treated patients, indicating that alefacept is less effective in psoriasis than methotrexate or cyclosporine.
     
    Infliximab-A growing body of data supports the role of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha in the pat h o p hy s i o l ogy of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis since elevated TNF alpha levels are detectable in psoriatic skin lesions as well as in the joints of
    patients with psoriatic arthritis. In order to target the TNF alpha system, a chimeric monoclonal anti-TNF alpha anti-body (infliximab) has been developed. In first trials, this antibody was used in order to treat rheumatoid arthtitis and Crohn’s disease. The efficacy of infliximab in patients with psoriasis has been
    reported and a double-blind, randomised trial has been published recently. Of 33 patients enrolled, three dropped out, 9/11 (82%) patients receiving 5 mg i n fl i x i m ab/kg at weeks 0, 2 and 6 re s p o n d e d, and 10/11 (91%) pat i e n t s receiving 10 mg/kg at weeks 0, 2, and 6 responded. In both groups the median time to response was four weeks. A successful therapy of seve re re c a l c itrant psoriasis has also been reported with a combination of infliximab and methotrexate (61-63). However, severe side effects has been reported such as reactivation of tuberculosis (64, 45).
     
    Etanercept-An other TNF alpha neutralising agent is a TNF alpha receptor fusion protein (etanercept). The antiinflammtory action of etanercept has been first reported in rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn’s disease. In a randomised, double-blind, p l a c eb o – c o n t rolled clinical trial the efficacy and safety of etanercept in psoriasis patients was investigated. Thirty patients we re tre ated with etanercept (25 mg subcutaneously twice weekly) over a period of 12 weeks and compared with 30 placebo-treated patients. An improvement of psoriasis wa s achieved in 26/30 (87%) of etanercept-treated patients compared to 7/30 (13 %) of the controls. Further reports on a positive effect of etanercept in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis were published re c e n t ly (66-68). Safety issues are a concern because of the ubiquitous role of TNF alpha. At the moment infections occured at the same rate and with the same frequency as in the placebo population. There should be caution in using anti-TNF agents. In general they should not be administered to patients with serious or re c u rrent infections or in pat i e n t s with untreated or latent tuberculosis.
     
    Leflunomide–Leflunomide is a novel immunomodu -latory compound which has been proved for the therapy of active rheumatoid arthritis in several countries. The active metabolite inhibits proliferation of activated T- and B-lymphocytes predominantly through inhibition of the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides (69). Very recently, the successful treatment of a patient with severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis with leflunomide (10 mg daily) in combination with prednisolone (10 mg daily) and topical Vitamin D3 analogues was rep o rt e d (70).
     
    Pimecrolimus (SDZ ASM 981)-The ascomycin macrolactam derivative pimecrolimus is a cell-selective inhibitor of pro – i n fl a m m at o ry cy t o k i n e s and has been found to be effective in T- lymphocyte-driven skin diseases. In a first study, 15 patients were treated topically with pimecrolimus, a potent halogenated corticosteroid or vehicle . All patients treated with pimecrolimus or the corticosteroid showed a significant improvement of psoriatic lesions. This was confirmed by a further study comparing topical pimecrolimus (0.3% and 1.0%) and cl o b e t a s o l – 1 7 – p ro p i o n at e intment (0.05%) (70, 71) DAB389IL-2 (denileukin diftitox) The fusion protein DAB389IL-2 is composed by human interleukin-2 and fragments of diphtheria toxin. It bl o ck s selectively the proliferation of activated ly m p h o cytes by binding to the IL-2 receptor (CD 25). The mechanism of action is the specific toxic effect after i n t e rn a l i z ation of the re c ep t o r / f u s i o n protein complex. In a phase II multicenter trial, psoriatic patients received 5,10, or 15 µg DAB389IL-2 /kg or placebo daily intravenously for three consecutive days each week for four consecutive weeks. The degree of improvement for treated patients was significantly greater than for placebo-treated patients. However, DAB389IL-2 was not well tolerated at this dosing regimen
    (73,74).
     
    Interleukin 10-The anti-infl a m m at o ry and immu n os u p p re s s ive cytokine interl e u k i n – 1 0 (IL-10) has been investi gated in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis in one pilot trial and two phase II studies and its administration was well tole rat e d. IL-10 was injected subcuta
    New developments and innovative therapies
     
    Tazarotene-Tazarotene belongs to the new group of receptor-selective retinoids binding to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) family members (48, 49). A beneficial response of stationary, plaque-type psoriasis by topical tazarotene (0.05-0.1% gel) has been reported recently (50). However, topical retinoids are more potent in combination with phototherapy or with mild topical corticosteroids in order to avoid retinoid-induced irritation (51).
     
    Mycophenolate mofetil -Several case reports have shown that the new immunosuppressive drug mycophenolate mofetil has a good therapeutic effect in patients with psoriasis ( 5 2 ,53). Mycophenolic acid (MPA ) the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil, reversibly blocks the de novo biosynthesis of guanine nu cl e o t i d e s required for DNA and RNA synthesis. Therefore, all cell types that rely predominantly on this pathway, such as T-and B-lymphocytes, are most significantly affected. Mycophenolate mofetil is a morpholinoester of mycophenolic acid found to be effective in patients with severe psoriasis in the 1970s (54). Mycophenolate mofetil has better bioavailability and thus an improved therapeutic window and it has been initially applied to prevent acute rejection after renal and cardiac transplantation. Also, oral MMF (dosage: 2g daily) has been shown to be safe and effective for treating severe psoriasis (55). This new im-
    mu n o s u p p ressant may be especially useful in patients with contra i n d i c ations for other systemic antipsori at i c drugs or in patients not responding to e s t ablished antipsori atic therapy. In two recent clinical trials, the topical effect of mycophenolic acid and mycop h e n o l ate mofetil was inve s t i gat e d s h owing that my c o p h e n o l ate mofe t i l may exert an antipsoriatic effect when applied topically, whereas mycophenolic acid was not effective (56, 57).
     
    Tacrolimus (FK506)-Tacrolimus belongs to the group of macrolides like ascomycine and rapamycine. This immunosuppressive drug is Systemic therapy
     
    Methotrexate–In 1951, Guber and co-workers noted the rapid clearing of psoriasis after systemic therapy with aminopterin, but this drug was later replaced by a more stable derivative, methotrexate. Methotrexate ( 4 – a m i n o – 1 0 – m e t hy l p t e roy l g l u t a m i c a c i d, MTX) belongs to the group of antimetabolites competing with natural substances for specific enzymes usually showing greater affinity to the target. As a folic acid antago n i s t , m e t h o t rex at e inhibit DNA synthesis and to a lesser
    extent RNA synthesis. It targets, therefore, cells especially in the S-phase of the cycle. Kinetic studies in psoriasis indicated that more keratinocytes are in the S-phase than in normal skin and since this process can be reversed by methotrexate epidermal proliferation is normalized in psoriasis. Methotrexate is i n d i c ated in re c a l c i t rant disease not responsive to other regimens such as systemic adiministration of retinoids or PUVA, especially in patients with assoc i ated art h ro p at hy. Contra i n d i c at i o n s are significant abnormalities of the liver or renal function, severe anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia, female or male fertility, gastritis, active infectious diseases and ex c e s s ive alcohol consumption (38). Methotrexate can be used by oral medication (single dose 25-35 mg per week or 5-7.5 mg at 12h intervals for three doses per week) or as intramuscular injection (25-35 mg per week). In respect to the cumulative total MTX dose several studies indicated that the incidence of cirrhosis is low if the total dose of MTX does not exceed 1.5 -2.0 g. Major causes for acute methotrexate toxicity are impaired renal function and concomitant intake of tri m e t h oprim-sulfamethoxazole. A potent antidote in such cases is leucovorin calcium to be given early orally or parenterally (10 mg/m2). In treating patients with psoriasis with MTX the goal is not to achieve complete clearing, but to adequately control the disease and return to other therapeutic modalities (39), if possible to topical treatments alone.
     
    Etretinate/acitretin Oral retinoids are potent antipsoriatic drugs, p a rt i c u l a rly in seve re pustular neously over 3-7 weeks and a clinical efficacy was reported in the majority of patients. This possible novel therapeutic approach has to be further investigated in larger, controlled clinical trials (75). Lasers D i ffe rent ap p ro a ches of tre atment of chronic plaque-type psoriasis by lasers h ave been publ i s h e d. Wh e reas CO2 laser re s u r facing of psori atic plaques was ineffe c t ive, the 308-nm ex c i m e r laser has been shown re c e n t ly to be effective. In a pilot dose-response study i nve s t i gating 13 patients with stabl e plaque-type psoriasis cl e a ring of the lesions was rep o rt e d. Laser therapy may become an alternative for limited p s o riasis only, h oweve r, f u rther controlled trials are required (76, 77).
     
    Conclusion
    In conclusion, the various regimen for psoriasis all have their relative advan-
    tages and disadvantages, whereby combinations resp. rotation of therapeutic
    means may be chosen in an attempt to i m p rove their long lasting effi c a cy,
    safety, and tolerab i l i t y. A c c o rding to the type and severity of psoriasis and
    the patient’s individual needs, therapies a re to be care f u l ly selected by the
    physician. A broad spectrum of established antipsori atic agents are now
    available and an increasing number of new drugs is being developed. Their
    clinical benefit will be determined in the near future.
     
    *******************************************************************
     
    Alternative Options to Psoraisis
    Bovine Cartilage may alleviate Psoriasis (due to Glycosaminoglycans): [more info]-One human study demonstrated that of 38 patients with severe total-body Psoriasis who received subcutaneous injections of Bovine Cartilage, 50% experienced complete remission within two months with complete disappearance of lesions for an average of five months.
     
    Shark Cartilage may alleviate Psoriasis. references
     
    Bee Products
     
    Propolis (900 mg per day) may alleviate Psoriasis in approximately 33% of patients. references
     
    Fruit
     
    High consumption of (fresh) Fruit may be associated with a lowered incidence of Psoriasis. references
     
    Herbs
     
    Aloe vera (0.5% extract applied topically via a suitable skin-penetrating carrier vehicle such as ointment, cream or shampoo) may cure some cases of Psoriasis: references–Where Psoriasis afflicts the Scalp, topically-applied Aloe vera ointment can be used in conjunction with an Aloe vera Shampoo in order to further enhance its effectiveness.
     
    Barberry (ointment applied topically or capsules/extract consumed orally) may inhibit the excessive differentiation of Keratinocytes that is associated with Psoriasis (due to the Berbamine, Berberine and Oxycanthine content of Barberry). references
    Boswellia (extract) may alleviate the Inflammation associated with Psoriasis. [more info]
     
    Burdock (root) reputedly alleviates Psoriasis (according to folklore). [more info]
    Calendula (applied topically) may alleviate Psoriasis. [more info]
    Chamomile (ointment applied topically – especially Camocare topical ointment) may help to repair the Skin damage caused by Psoriasis (due to Chamomile’s Levomenol content). [more info]
     
    Coleus may alleviate Psoriasis (due to its Forskolin content increasing the body’s cAMP levels which are often depleted in Psoriasis patients). [more info]
    Comfrey (ointment applied topically) may alleviate Psoriasis (possibly due to Comfrey’s Allantoin content). references
    Goldenseal may inhibit the excessive differentiation of Keratinocytes that is associated with Psoriasis (due to the Berberine content of Goldenseal). [more info]
     
    Gotu Kola (cream applied topically) may accelerate the healing of Psoriasis (by enhancing the production of Cyclic AMP which facilitates Cell maturation). references
    Khella (100 mg per day orally or Khella gel applied topically) may alleviate Psoriasis. references
    Milk Thistle may alleviate Psoriasis (due to the Silymarin content of Milk Thistle). The means by which Milk Thistle may alleviate Psoriasis involves several mechanisms including: references–Improving the function of the Liver in a way that facilitates the removal of Lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) from the body via the Liver – Lipopolysaccharides are involved in Psoriasis.
    Inhibiting the Lipoxygenase enzyme, thereby reducing the production of certain detrimental Leukotrienes that may be involved in Psoriasis.
    Lowering cyclic GMP (cGMP) and raising cyclic AMP (cAMP) (Psoriasis patients generally have a high cGMP:cAMP ratio.
     
    Neem (seed oil applied topically and leaf extract consumed orally) may alleviate Psoriasis. [more info]
    Olive Leaf (extract) may improve the condition of many Psoriasis patients (according to physician’s observations). [more info]
    Oregon Grape may inhibit the excessive differentiation of Keratinocytes that is associated with Psoriasis (due to the Berbamine, Berberine and Oxycanthine content of Oregon Grape). references
     
    Polypodium leucotomos may alleviate Psoriasis (by inhibiting the excessive activity of TH1 Helper T-Cells that occurs during Psoriasis). references
    Red Clover reputedly reduces the discomfort associated with Psoriasis (according to folklore). [more info]
    Sage (tea applied topically) may alleviate the Itching associated with Psoriasis. [more info]
    Sarsaparilla may alleviate the symptoms of Psoriasis (due to Sarsaparilla’s Sarsaponin content). references
    Yellow Dock may alleviate Psoriasis. [more info]
     
    Oils (dietary oils)
     
    Flax Seed Oil may alleviate Psoriasis (due to Flax Seed Oil’s high Alpha-Linolenic Acid (LNA) content). [more info]
     
    Shark Liver Oil (2,000 mg per day) may alleviate Psoriasis (due to the Alkylglycerols content of Shark Liver Oil helping to reduce the excessive proliferation of Skin Cells that occurs in Psoriasis patients and by enhancing the function of the Immune System in a way that benefits Psoriasis patients). references
     
    Oils (topical oils)
     
    Apricot Kernel Oil (applied topically) may reduce the flaking associated with Psoriasis. [more info]
    Jojoba Oil (applied topically) may alleviate the irritation associated with Psoriasis. [more info]
    Lavender (oil applied topically to affected areas or used as a shampoo on the Scalp) may alleviate the irritation associated with Psoriasis. [more info]
     
    Oregano Oil (applied topically) may alleviate Psoriasis. references
    Sesame Seed Oil (applied topically) may alleviate the flaking associated with Psoriasis. [more info]
    Tamanu Oil (applied topically) reputedly alleviates Psoriasis. references
     
    Tea Tree Oil (as an ingredient in Shampoo) may alleviate the Itching associated with Psoriasis where Psoriasis affects the Scalp. [more info]
    Wheat Germ Oil (applied topically) may alleviate Psoriasis. [more info]
     
    Processed Foods
     
    Cider Vinegar (applied topically or in a bath) has been claimed to temporarily alleviate Psoriasis. [more info]
     
    Vegetables
     
    Bitter Melon may be beneficial for the treatment of Psoriasis (due to its ability to inhibit the activity of Guanyl Cyclase, an enzyme that is over-active in many Psoriasis patients).
    High consumption of Carrots may be associated with a lowered incidence of Psoriasis. references
    Garlic may inhibit the Lipoxygenase pathway of Arachidonic Acid metabolism which is implicated in Psoriasis. [more info]
     
    Onion may inhibit the Lipoxygenase pathway of Arachidonic Acid metabolism which is implicated in Psoriasis. [more info]
    Rhubarb (juice) may alleviate the Itching and Pain associated with Psoriasis (due to Rhubarb’s Anthraquinones content). [more info]
    High consumption of Tomato has been associated with a lowered incidence of Psoriasis. references
     
    Water
     
    Bathing in Sea Water may provide temporary relief of the symptoms of Psoriasis. [more info]
    Water (6 – 8 glasses daily) may improve the elimination of the toxins that are associated with Psoriasis. [more info]
     
    Other Therapies that may be Beneficial for Psoriasis
     
    Electromagnetic Radiation
     
    The Ultra-Violet Radiation in Sunlight may temporarily alleviate the symptoms of Psoriasis: [more info]-Exposure of afflicted areas of the Skin to UV-B may temporarily alleviate Psoriasis. UV-B has been shown to inhibit the excessive proliferation of Skin Cells that occurs in Psoriasis. Its effectiveness is described as being equal to that of PUVA therapy with fewer side effects. references
     
    Fasting
     
    Fasting may improve the condition of Psoriasis patients (probably by decreasing levels of Gastrointestinal Tract toxins and by decreasing levels of Polyamines – substances implicated in Psoriasis).
    *************************************************************************
    Evening Primrose and Skin Issues
    Dose-dependent effects of evening primrose oil in children and adolescents with atopic dermatitis.
    Chung BY, Kim JH, Cho SI, Ahn IS, Kim HO, Park CW, Lee CH.
    Abstract
    BACKGROUND:
    Previous clinical trials with evening primrose oil in atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment have shown different results. In addition, the optimal dose and duration of treatment with evening primrose oil have not yet been determined.
    OBJECTIVE:
    The aim of this study is to investigate the dose-response treatment effects of evening primrose oil on clinical symptoms of AD and serum concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
    METHODS:
    Forty AD patients were enrolled for the study and randomly divided into 2 groups: those who received evening primrose oil 160 mg daily for 8 weeks and those who received 320 mg of evening primrose oil twice daily for 8 weeks. We evaluated the Eczema Area Severity Index (EASI) scores of all AD patients at weeks 0, 2, 4 and 8. In addition, we measured the levels of serum fatty acids, including C16 : 0 (palmitic), C18 : 2n (linoleic), C18 : 3n (linolenic) and C20 : 4 (arachidonic acid) using gas chromatography.
    RESULTS:
    The serum fatty acid levels C18 : 3n and C20 : 4 were higher in the 320 mg group than in the 160 mg group, with statistical significance. After evening primrose oil treatment, EASI scores were reduced in the 2 groups. The improvement in EASI scores was greater in the 320 mg group than in the 160 mg group. There were no side effects seen in either group during the study in the 2 groups.
    CONCLUSION:
    The results of this study suggest that the 320 mg and 160 mg groups may be equally effective in treating AD patients and show dose-dependent effects on serum fatty acid levels and EASI scores.
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    Environmental transformations of silver nanoparticles- impact on stability and toxicity.
    Levard C, Hotze EM, Lowry GV, Brown GE Jr.
    Author information
    Abstract
    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) readily transform in the environment, which modifies their properties and alters their transport, fate, and toxicity. It is essential to consider such transformations when assessing the potential environmental impact of Ag-NPs. This review discusses the major transformation processes of Ag-NPs in various aqueous environments, particularly transformations of the metallic Ag cores caused by reactions with (in)organic ligands, and the effects of such transformations on physical and chemical stability and toxicity. Thermodynamic arguments are used to predict what forms of oxidized silver will predominate in various environmental scenarios. Silver binds strongly to sulfur (both organic and inorganic) in natural systems (fresh and sea waters) as well as in wastewater treatment plants, where most Ag-NPs are expected to be concentrated and then released. Sulfidation of Ag-NPs results in a significant decrease in their toxicity due to the lower solubility of silver sulfide, potentially limiting their short-term environmental impact. This review also discusses some of the major unanswered questions about Ag-NPs, which, when answered, will improve predictions about their potential environmental impacts. Research needed to address these questions includes fundamental molecular-level studies of Ag-NPs and their transformation products, particularly Ag(2)S-NPs, in simplified model systems containing common (in)organic ligands, as well as under more realistic environmental conditions using microcosm/mesocosm-type experiments. Toxicology studies of Ag-NP transformation products, including different states of aggregation and sulfidation, are also required. In addition, there is the need to characterize the surface structures, compositions, and morphologies of Ag-NPs and Ag(2)S-NPs to the extent possible because they control properties such as solubility and reactivity.
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    Show of the Month February 22 2014
    Chemical constituents, antifungal and antioxidative effects of ajwain
    Biological activity of liposomal vanillin
    It’s All Coming Back to Me Now: Researchers Find Caffeine Enhances Memory
    Dietary levels of pure flavonoids improve spatial memory
    **************************************************************************
    Chemical constituents, antifungal and antioxidative effects of ajwain essential oil and its acetone extract.
    Singh G, Maurya S, Catalan C, De Lampasona MP.
    Author information
    Abstract
    GC and GC-MS analysis of ajwain essential oil showed the presence of 26 identified components which account for 96.3% of the total amount. Thymol (39.1%) was found as a major component along with p-cymene (30.8%), gamma-terpinene (23.2%), beta-pinene (1.7%), terpinene-4-ol (0.8%) whereas acetone extract of ajwain showed the presence of 18 identified components which account for 68.8% of the total amount. The major component was thymol (39.1%) followed by oleic acid (10.4%), linoleic acid (9.6%), gamma-terpinene (2.6%), p-cymene (1.6%), palmitic acid (1.6%), and xylene (0.1%). Moreover, the oil exhibited a broad spectrum of fungitoxic behavior against all tested fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium monoliforme, Fusarium graminearum, Pencillium citrium, Penicillium viridicatum, Pencillium madriti, and Curvularia lunata as absolute mycelial zone inhibition was obtained at a 6-microL dose of the oil. However, the acetone extract showed better antioxidative activity for linseed oil as compared with synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyl toluene and butylated hydroxyl anisole.—
    Ajwain -Trachyspermum ammi.
    Bairwa R, Sodha RS, Rajawat BS.
    Author information
    Abstract
    Trachyspermum ammi commonly known as ‘Ajwain’ is distributed throughout India and is mostly cultivated in Gujarat and Rajasthan. The fruit possesses stimulant, antispasmodic and carminative properties and is used traditionally as an important remedial agent for flatulence, atonic dyspepsia, diarrhea, abdominal tumors, abdominal pains, piles, and bronchial problems, lack of appetite, galactogogue, asthma and amenorrhoea. Medicinally, it has been proven to possess various pharmacological activities like antifungal, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, cytotoxic, hypolipidemic, antihypertensive, antispasmodic, broncho-dilating actions, antilithiasis, diuretic, abortifacient, antitussive, nematicidal, anthelmintic and antifilarial. Further, studies reveal the presence of various phytochemical constituents mainly carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, phenolic compounds, volatile oil (thymol, γ-terpinene, para-cymene, and α- and β-pinene), protein, fat, fiber and mineral matter containing calcium, phosphorous, iron and nicotinic acid. These studies reveal that T. ammi is a source of medicinally active compounds and have various pharmacological effects; hence, it is encouraging to find its new therapeutic uses.
    ***************************************************************************
    Ajowan
    Ajowan is the small seed-like fruit similar to that of the bishop’s weed (Ammi majus) plant. Because of their seed-like appearance, the fruit pods are
    sometimes called ajwain seeds. Raw ajwain smells like thyme, it also tastes like thyme (or caraway); probably because of its high content of thymol.
    Because a small amount of raw ajwain will completely dominate the flavor of a dish, in Indian cuisine, dry-roasted or fried ajwain is used. [Wikipeida,
    2011] An acetone extract of ajowan contains thymol (39.1%), oleic acid (10.4%), linoleic acid (9.6%), gamma-terpinene (2.6%), p-cymene (1.6%), palmitic acid (1.6%), and xylene (0.1%). [1]–
    Related Names: Ajowan, ajwain, carom seeds, Trachyspermum ammi
     
    Ajowan Health Benefits
    Cancer
    the chemopreventive effect of different doses (2%, 4%, and 6%) of test diets of Ajowan seeds were examined on DMBA-induced skin and B(a)P-induced forestomach papillomagenesis. Results exhibited a significant reduction in the skin as well as the forestomach tumor multiplicity with respect to all doses of test diet as compared to the control group. Ajowan seed extracts may have benefit on people at risk of certain cancers, but more studies are needed to confirm the
    findings. [A4]
    Dental Caries
    An active compound of Ajowan was found effective against adherent cells of Streptococcus mutans, a major causal organism of dental caries, reduced water-insoluble glucan synthesis and inhibited the reduction in pH. [A2]
    Diarrhea
    Ajowan oil may benefit people at risk of diarrhea. Interviews with 208 mothers of children aged under 5 years were conducted in 21 villages of Jaipur District in Rajasthan State, India, researchers found that the major herbal medicines used to cure diarrhea were isabgol ke bhusi mixed with curd (31.3%) and extracts of tea leaves, ajwain, sonth, peepla mul, black pepper, and tulsi leaves (14.4%). [2]
    Fungus
    Ajowan oil extracts showed benefits of antifungal activities in an in vitro study. Ajowan oil exhibited a broad spectrum of fungitoxic behavior against all tested fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium monoliforme, Fusarium graminearum, Pencillium citrium, Penicillium viridicatum, Pencillium madriti, and Curvularia lunata. [3]
    Liver
    Ajowan showed benefits of liver protection in an animal study. Six groups of rats were maintained for 12 weeks as (1) Control; (2) hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH; 300 mg/kg body weight) injected (3) 1% ajwain extract incorporated diet (4)1% ajwain extract incorporated diet+HCH (5) 2% ajwain extract incorporated diet and (6) 2% ajwain extract incorporated diet+HCH. Results revealed that HCH administration lead to an increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation associated with reduction in, levels of glutathione (GSH), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Prefeeding of ajwain extract resulted in decreased hepatic levels of lipid peroxides and increased GSH, GSH-peroxidase, G-6-PDH, SOD, catalase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. [4]
    Microbes, Multidrug Resistant
    Ajowan may benefit patients suffered from infections caused by multidrug resistant microbes. A petroleum ether fraction of T. ammi (least MIC- 625 microg/ml) showed efficacy against multidrug resistant microbes. However, more studies are needed to develop it as an anti-microbial agent. [A3]
    Reproduction
    Sperm treated with Ajowan essential oil showed a significant decrease in viability. Moreover, the treated sperm also showed a significant loss of functional mitochondria and antioxidant enzyme, catalase, when compared to control. The
    cholesterol:phospholipid ratio was also increased in treated sperm when compared to control, which is an indicator of loss of binding ability of human spermatozoa to the zona pellucida. The scanning electron microscopic studies
    demonstrated the loss of membrane integrity in essential oil-treated human spermatozoa, which showed vacuolation, swelling of acrosomal cap, detachment of head portion and tail coiling. Thus, Ajowan essential oil may be used as male contraceptive, but more studies are needed to determine how to apply it as a contraceptive. [A1]
    Urolithiasis
    Recently, an anticalcifying protein from the seeds of Ajowan Sprague ex Turril (Umbelliferae) deciphered its inhibitory activity against calcium oxalate crystal growth. The antilithiatic activity of the Ajowan anticalcifying protein was also shown in an urolithiatic rat model. A5
    _______________________________________________________
    Ajowan Safety Issues and Side Effects
    Though roasted ajowan have been used in Indian cuisine for many year, research studies on ajowan are limited, its side effects and toxicity are unclear.
    ______________________________________________________
    Other Potential Uses of Ajowan
    Strong insecticidal activity was observed with the essential oils of Ajowan. A6
    Reference
    1. Singh G et al J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jun 2;52(11):3292-6. [2] Indian Pediatr. 1994 Mar;31(3):340-3] [3] J Agric
    Food Chem. 2004 Jun 2;52(11):3292-6.] [4] Anilakumar KR et al, Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Feb;47(2):279-82] A1 Paul
    S, Kang SC. Studies on the viability and membrane integrity of human spermatozoa treated with essential oil of
    Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague ex Turrill fruit. Andrologia. 2011 Jun 15. A2 Khan R, et al, Novel compound from
    Trachyspermum ammi (Ajowan caraway) seeds with antibiofilm and antiadherence activities against Streptococcus
    mutans: a potential chemotherapeutic agent against dental caries. J Appl Microbiol. 2010 Dec;109(6):2151-9. A3 Khan
    R. et al, Activity of solvent extracts of Prosopis spicigera, Zingiber officinale and Trachyspermum ammi against
    multidrug resistant bacterial and fungal strains. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2010 Jun 3;4(5):292-300. A4 Singh B et al,
    Chemomodulatory effect of Trachyspermum ammi on murine skin and forestomach papillomagenesis. Nutr Cancer.
    2010;62(1):74-84. A5 Kaur T et al, In vivo efficacy of Trachyspermum ammi anticalcifying protein in urolithiatic rat
    model. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Dec 10;126(3):459-62..A6 Seo SM et al, Fumigant antitermitic activity of plant essential
    oils and components from Ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), Allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill (
    Anethum graveolens ), Geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and Litsea ( Litsea cubeba ) oils against Japanese
    termite ( Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe). J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Aug 12;57(15):6596-602.
     
     
    Uses-
    Arthritis- Do massage with it’s oil on affected joints.
    Flu- 3 gm. ajowan + 3gm cinnamon = boil with water, filter & drink or 12 gm ajowan boil in 2 cup of water ,till remain half, filter & drink.
    cough and cold- 1 tsp ajowan + 4 tsp jaggery boil in 1 glass of water, for 15 mins. filter and drink , sleep with cover.
    Chronic fever- 15 gm ajowan soak in water of mud-pot. Keep insight of home at night and in open at day time.
    Dyspepsia, Rhumetism,Urticaria , Worms= 1tsp ajowan+ salt (according to taste) take with water in the morning empty stomach.
    Digestive powder- Ajowan +Termenalia chebula(Harad,)=equal quantity, asafoetida( heeng)+ saindhav salt(Kind of Salt, which we can use in vrat-upwas) = according to taste, grind to all.take with lukewarm water after meal .
    Stone, calculus- 6 gm ajowan take daily.
    Acne- Grind 30 gm ajowan , mix in 25gm curd & again grind,use it locally at night and wash with lukewarm water to face in the morning.
    Menorrhagia- Soak 25 gm ajowan in mud pot with full of water , whole night.Grind it & drink in the morning.
    Urticaria- Ajowan 1gm+ jaggery 3gm = eat them.
    ****************************************************************************
    Biological activity of liposomal vanillin.
    J Med Food. 2013 Jun;16(6):551-7
    Authors: Castan L, Del Toro G, Fernández AA, González M, Ortíz E, Lobo D
    Abstract
    This article presents a study of vanillin encapsulation inside multilamellar liposomes, with emphasis on the evaluation of antioxidant activity, the hemolytic effect, and the antisickling properties of these products. Egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol and egg phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-1-O-decylglycerol liposomes were prepared by mechanical dispersion, all with vanillin included. Vesicles were characterized by determination of encapsulation efficiency and vanillin retention capacity. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The hemolytic effect of liposomes was also evaluated by spectrophotometry, as well as the antisickling activity by the Huck test using optical microscopy. Results showed that the lipid composition of liposomes did not significantly affect the encapsulation efficiency. Stable vesicles were obtained with a high retention percentage of vanillin. Liposomes exhibited a high capture of the DPPH radical compared to free vanillin and 1-O-decylglycerol (C10) in solution. Vesicles caused no significant hemolisys in normal erythrocytes, nor in those coming from patients with sickle cell anemia. Vanillin encapsulated in liposomes retained its antisickling activity, with a greater effect for C10-containing vesicles. Our results show that vanillin encapsulation in liposomes is a way to enhance the pharmacologic properties of this molecule using a suitable vehicle.—PMID: 23767864 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    *************************************************************************
    It’s All Coming Back to Me Now: Researchers Find Caffeine Enhances Memory
    New research shows that caffeine enhances certain memories at least up to 24 hours after it is consumed.
    Regardless of the routine, the consumption of caffeine is the energy boost of choice for millions to wake up or stay up. Now, however, researchers at the Johns Hopkins University have found another use for the stimulant: memory enhancer.–Michael Yassa, assistant professor of psychological and brain sciences in the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences at Johns Hopkins, and his team of scientists found that caffeine has a positive effect on long-term memory in humans. Their research, published by the journal Nature Neuroscience, shows that caffeine enhances certain memories at least up to 24 hours after it is consumed.–“We’ve always known that caffeine has cognitive-enhancing effects, but its particular effects on strengthening memories and making them resistant to forgetting has never been examined in detail in humans,” said Yassa, senior author of the paper. “We report for the first time a specific effect of caffeine on reducing forgetting over 24 hours.”–The Johns Hopkins researchers conducted a double-blind trial; which participants who did not regularly eat or drink caffeinated products received either a placebo or a 200-milligram caffeine tablet five minutes after studying a series of images. Salivary samples were taken from the participants before they took the tablets to measure their caffeine levels. Samples were taken again one, three and 24 hours afterwards.–The next day, both groups were tested on their ability to recognize images from the previous day’s study session. On the test, some of the visuals were the same as from the day before, some were new additions and some were similar but not the same as the items previously viewed. More members of the caffeine group were able to correctly identify the new images as “similar” to previously viewed images versus erroneously citing them as the same.–The brain’s ability to recognize the difference between two similar but not identical items, called pattern separation, reflects a deeper level of memory retention, the researchers said.–“If we used a standard recognition memory task without these tricky similar items, we would have found no effect of caffeine,” Yassa said. “However, using these items requires the brain to make a more difficult discrimination — what we call pattern separation, which seems to be the process that is enhanced by caffeine in our case.”–The memory center in the human brain is the hippocampus, a seahorse-shaped area in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. The hippocampus is the switchbox for all short-term and long-term memories. Most research done on memory — the effects of concussions in athletics to war-related head injuries to dementia in the aging population — are focused on this area of the brain.–Until now, caffeine’s effects on long-term memory had not been examined in detail. Of the few studies done, the general consensus was that caffeine has little or no effect on long-term memory retention.-The research is different from prior experiments because the subjects took the caffeine tablets only after they had viewed and attempted to memorize the images.–“Almost all prior studies administered caffeine before the study session, so if there is an enhancement, it’s not clear if it’s due to caffeine’s effects on attention, vigilance, focus or other factors. By administering caffeine after the experiment, we rule out all of these effects and make sure that if there is an enhancement, it’s due to memory and nothing else,” said Yassa.–According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 90 percent of people worldwide consume caffeine in one form or another. In the United States, 80 percent of adults consume caffeine every day. The average adult has an intake of about 200 milligrams — the same amount used in the Yassa study — or roughly one strong cup of coffee or two small cups of coffee per day.–Yassa’s team completed the research at Johns Hopkins before his lab moved to the University of California-Irvine at the start of this year.–“The next step for us is to figure out the brain mechanisms underlying this enhancement,” he said. “We can use brain-imaging techniques to address these questions. We also know that caffeine is associated with healthy longevity and may have some protective effects from cognitive decline like Alzheimer’s disease. These are certainly important questions for the future.”–The lead author of the paper is Daniel Borota, an undergraduate student in Yassa’s lab who received an undergraduate research award from Johns Hopkins to conduct the study. Additional authors, all from Johns Hopkins, are: Elizabeth Murray, a research program coordinator in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences; John Toscano, professor in the Department of Chemistry; Gizem Kecili, a graduate student also in the Chemistry Department and Allen Chang, Maria Ly and Joseph Watabe, all undergraduates in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences.–This research was supported by grants number P50 AG05146 and R01 AG034613 from the National Institute on Aging as well as CHE-1213438 from the National Science Foundation.— Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Johns Hopkins. The original article was written by Latarsha Gatlin. — Journal Reference-Daniel Borota, Elizabeth Murray, Gizem Keceli, Allen Chang, Joseph M Watabe, Maria Ly, John P Toscano, Michael A Yassa. Post-study caffeine administration enhances memory consolidation in humans. Nature Neuroscience, 2014; DOI: 10.1038/nn.3623
    *******************************************************************
    Dietary levels of pure flavonoids improve spatial memory performance and increase hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
    PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e63535
    Authors: Rendeiro C, Vauzour D, Rattray M, Waffo-Téguo P, Mérillon JM, Butler LT, Williams CM, Spencer JP
    Abstract
    Evidence suggests that flavonoid-rich foods are capable of inducing improvements in memory and cognition in animals and humans. However, there is a lack of clarity concerning whether flavonoids are the causal agents in inducing such behavioral responses. Here we show that supplementation with pure anthocyanins or pure flavanols for 6 weeks, at levels similar to that found in blueberry (2% w/w), results in an enhancement of spatial memory in 18 month old rats. Pure flavanols and pure anthocyanins were observed to induce significant improvements in spatial working memory (p = 0.002 and p = 0.006 respectively), to a similar extent to that following blueberry supplementation (p = 0.002). These behavioral changes were paralleled by increases in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (R = 0.46, p<0.01), suggesting a common mechanism for the enhancement of memory. However, unlike protein levels of BDNF, the regional enhancement of BDNF mRNA expression in the hippocampus appeared to be predominantly enhanced by anthocyanins. Our data support the claim that flavonoids are likely causal agents in mediating the cognitive effects of flavonoid-rich foods.-PMID: 23723987 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Flavonols—
    Galangin-Bee Propolis
    Kaempferol
    Horseradish 1.58 Lovage (leaves) 7.0
    Parsley 0.44 Dill 13.33
    Tarragon 11.0 Tea (black) (dry leaf) 126.96
    Tea (green) (dry leaf) 151.9
    Quercetin
    Onions (white) 30
    Onions (red) 19.93 Spring Onions 14.24
    Apples 25 Grapes (black) 2.54
    Grapes (red) 3.54 Grapes (green) 0.87
    Grapefruit 0.5 Cranberry 14.02
    Blackcurrants 5.69 Red Currants 4.95
    Elderberry 42.0 Lemon (without peel) 2.29
    Limes 0.4 Lingonberry 12.16
    Pears 0.42 Plums 1.2
    Raspberry 0.83 Strawberry 0.65
    Herbs: Hawthorn Passion Flower
    Dock 86.2 Horseradish 0.28
    Lovage (leaves) 170.0 Parsley 0.33
    Chilli (hot green) 16.8 Perilla Leaves 0.53
    Dill 55.15 Green Tea (dry leaves) 255.55
    Tarragon 10.0 Black Tea (dry leaves) 204.66
    Rutin
    Chickweed Hawthorn
    Peppermint Yerbamate
    Vegetables: Garlic Fennel
     
    TOP C
     
    [F1]Up 2 oz in about 50 gallon bath ( give or take )
    [F2]Gamma Radiation Blocker
    [F3]60 grams= 2.1 oz or ½ cup of salt
    [F4]Gentically Determined Skin Disease—this would be connected to Genetically Modifiying the DNA which would have to come from the Food or Vaccines
    [F5]Meaning this is something both genders are exposed to
    [F6]This would require a constant use of either supplements of therapies
    [F7]UV thereapies or sunlight Therapies
    this what is utilized medicinally [F8]—what also can be used as a topical as a mixture of peanut oil or even a olive oil mixed with turpentine —or a simple topical of evening primrose oils that will assist in either regulating skin or hormona balance required for cellular health
    The side efects of cortisteroid usage for this condition just exasberates the condition and is doing nothing but suppressing the symptoms rather then dealing with the actual cause [F9]
    [F10]Best thing to do with this is to dissolve the Vitamin D in a solution of say kerosene or dmso and then mix this with a lanolin til smooth –when applying this as a topical should penetrate and increase uptake of the D vitamin
    Retinoids ==Vitamin A derived materials [F11]

    #2684
    AvatarEK
    Keymaster

    Virgin olive oil administration improves the effect of aspirin on retinal vascular pattern in experimental diabetes mellitus.
    De La Cruz JP, Del Río S, López-Villodres JA, Villalobos MA, Jebrouni N, González-Correa JA.
    Author information
    Abstract
    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible influence of virgin olive oil (VOO) on the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in platelet aggregation, prostanoid and NO production and retinal vascular pattern in rats with experimental type 1-like diabetes. We used 100 male Wistar rats that were distributed into five groups: (1) non-diabetic rats (NDR); (2) untreated diabetic rats (DR); (3) DR treated with ASA (2 mg/kg per d per os (p.o.))[F1]; (4) DR treated with VOO (0.5 ml/kg per d p.o.); (5) DR treated with ASA plus VOO. The duration of diabetes was 3 months, and each treatment was administered from the first day of diabetes. Variables that were quantified were platelet aggregation (I(max)), thromboxane B(2) (TxB(2)), aortic prostacyclin (6-keto-PGF(1alpha)) and NO, and the percentage of retina with horseradish peroxidase-permeable vessels (HRP-PV). Diabetic rats showed a higher I(max) (35 %) and TxB(2) (63 %) than NDR, and a lower 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), NO and HRP-PV than NDR ( – 74.6 %). ASA and VOO administration reduced these differences and prevented the percentage of HRP-PV ( – 59.7 % with ASA and – 46.7 % with VOO). The administration of ASA plus VOO showed a strong platelet inhibition (80.2 v. 23.4 % for VOO and 50.6 % for ASA+VOO, P < 0.0001), and reduced HRP-PV differences to – 31.6 % (P < 0.001 with respect to DR and P < 0.0001 with respect to DR treated with ASA). In conclusion, the administration of VOO to rats with type 1-like diabetes mellitus improves the pharmacodynamic profile of ASA, and increases its retinal anti-ischaemic effect.
    Recipe—take the Virgin olive oil according to the ratio here .5 X your weight in kilos –example .5 X 77kilos = 38.5 mils just over an ounce—for the aspirin the used 2mg per kilo again we are looking at as an example 2 X 77= 154 mgs –
    Mix them together—and use—start with tsp increments and increase it through the day— take it in tablespoon in divided times 3 a day
    ***********************************************************************
    HR 2977 IH
    Space Preservation Act of 2001
    107th CONGRESS
    1st Session
    H. R. 2977
    To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space-based weapons.
    IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
    October 2, 2001
    Mr. KUCINICH introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Science, and in addition to the Committees on Armed Services, and International Relations, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned
    A BILL
    To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space-based weapons.
    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
    SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
    This Act may be cited as the `Space Preservation Act of 2001′.
    SEC. 2. REAFFIRMATION OF POLICY ON THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE IN SPACE.
    Congress reaffirms the policy expressed in section 102(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2451(a)), stating that it `is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind.’.
    SEC. 3. PERMANENT BAN ON BASING OF WEAPONS IN SPACE.
    The President shall–
    (1) implement a permanent ban on space-based weapons of the United States and remove from space any existing space-based weapons of the United States; and
    (2) immediately order the permanent termination of research and development, testing, manufacturing, production, and deployment of all space-based weapons of the United States and their components.
    SEC. 4. WORLD AGREEMENT BANNING SPACE-BASED WEAPONS.
    The President shall direct the United States representatives to the United Nations and other international organizations to immediately work toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing a world agreement banning space-based weapons.
    SEC. 5. REPORT.
    The President shall submit to Congress not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and every 90 days thereafter, a report on–
    (1) the implementation of the permanent ban on space-based weapons required by section 3; and
    (2) progress toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing the agreement described in section 4.
    SEC. 6. NON SPACE-BASED WEAPONS ACTIVITIES.
    Nothing in this Act may be construed as prohibiting the use of funds for–[F2]
    (1) space exploration;
    (2) space research and development;
    (3) testing, manufacturing, or production that is not related to space-based weapons or systems; or
    (4) civil, commercial, or defense activities (including communications, navigation, surveillance, reconnaissance, early warning, or remote sensing) that are not related to space-based weapons or systems.
    SEC. 7. DEFINITIONS.
    In this Act:
    (1) The term `space’ means all space extending upward from an altitude greater than 60 kilometers above the surface of the earth and any celestial body in such space.
    (2)(A) The terms weapon' andweapons system’ mean a device capable of any of the following:
    (i) Damaging or destroying an object (whether in outer space, in the atmosphere, or on earth) by–
    (I) firing one or more projectiles to collide with that object;
    (II) detonating one or more explosive devices in close proximity to that object;
    (III) directing a source of energy (including molecular or atomic energy, subatomic particle beams, electromagnetic radiation, plasma, or extremely low frequency (ELF) or ultra low frequency (ULF) energy radiation) against that object; or
    (IV) any other unacknowledged or as yet undeveloped means.
    (ii) Inflicting death or injury on, or damaging or destroying, a person (or the biological life, bodily health, mental health, or physical and economic well-being of a person)–
    (I) through the use of any of the means described in clause (i) or subparagraph (B);
    (II) through the use of land-based, sea-based, or space-based systems using radiation, electromagnetic, psychotronic, sonic, laser, or other energies directed at individual persons or targeted populations for the purpose of information war, mood management, or mind control of such persons or populations; or
    (III) by expelling chemical or biological agents in the vicinity of a person.
    (B) Such terms include exotic weapons systems such as–
    (i) electronic, psychotronic, or information weapons;
    (ii) chemtrails;
    (iii) high altitude ultra low frequency weapons systems;
    (iv) plasma, electromagnetic, sonic, or ultrasonic weapons;
    (v) laser weapons systems;
    (vi) strategic, theater, tactical, or extraterrestrial weapons; and
    (vii) chemical, biological, environmental, climate, or tectonic weapons.
    (C) The term `exotic weapons systems’ includes weapons designed to damage space or natural ecosystems (such as the ionosphere and upper atmosphere) or climate, weather, and tectonic systems with the purpose of inducing damage or destruction upon a target population or region on earth or in space.

    #2685
    AvatarEK
    Keymaster

    The Photoprotective and antioxidative properties of luteolin are synergistically augmented by tocopherol and ubiquinone.
    Planta Med. 2013 Jul;79(11):963-5
    Authors: Wölfle U, Haarhaus B, Schempp CM
    Abstract
    Ultraviolet radiation induces DNA damage and oxidative stress which can result in skin inflammation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. [F3]The flavonoid luteolin that is present in high amounts in the dyers weld, Reseda luteola, is one of the most potent antioxidative plant metabolites and also has ultraviolet-absorbing properties.The aim of this study was to determine whether tocopherol and ubiquinone add synergistic antioxidative values to luteolin. None of the substances showed cytotoxic effects in concentrations from 0.25 to 4 µg/mL. The photoprotective and antioxidant effect of equivalent concentrations of luteolin, tocopherol, and ubiquinone and their combination in a ratio of 4 : 4 : 1 were studied in solar simulator irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Luteolin had a half-maximal radical scavenging concentration of 2 µg/mL, whereas tocopherol and ubiquinone were only effective at higher concentrations. None of the substances showed a phototoxic effect, and only luteolin had a moderate photoprotective effect at 2 µg/mL. The combination of luteolin, tocopherol, and ubiquinone exerted a synergistic radical scavenging effect already at a concentration of 0.25 µg/mL and a complete photoprotection at 2 µg/mL.In summary, our findings suggest that the potent antioxidant and photoprotective effect of flavonoids like luteolin may be further increased by the addition of low concentrations of other antioxidants such as tocopherol and ubiquinone. –PMID: 23839819 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Using things like hawthorn-rosemary or sage which has a good source of Luteolin by fusing this in oil and then add Cq 10 and vitamin E ( fuse in either almond oil or olive oil which has vitamin E in them naturally) and use –the ratio is 4:4:1 4 parts luteolin-4 parts vitamin E and 1 part cq 10
    100ml would be 4 ml of luteolin- 4 mil Vitamin E 1 mil of Cq 1o
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    Codex Alimentarius-Regulation on food Safety-Lack there of
     
    The concept of “certified organic” goes deeper, though, than a display of governmental avarice. It’s a weapon in the hostile takeover of the food supply, ala Codex Alimentarius. Here are a few highlights of Codex, according to a Natural News article by Dr. Gregory D’Amato:
    * All nutrients (vitamins and minerals) are to be considered toxins/poisons and are to be removed from all food because Codex prohibits the use of nutrients to “prevent, treat or cure any condition or disease”
    * All food (including organic) is to be irradiated, removing all toxic nutrients from food (unless eaten locally and raw).
    * Nutrients allowed will be limited to a Positive List developed by Codex which will include such beneficial nutrients like Fluoride (3.8 mg daily) developed from environmental waste. All other nutrients will be prohibited nationally and internationally to all Codex-compliant countries [2].
    * All nutrients (e.g., CoQ10, Vitamins A, B, C, D, Zinc and Magnesium) that have any positive health impact on the body will be deemed illegal under Codex and are to be reduced to amounts negligible to humans’ health [3].
    * All advice on nutrition (including written online or journal articles or oral advice to a friend, family member or anyone) will be illegal.
    * All dairy cows are to be treated with Monsanto’s recombinant bovine growth hormone.
    * All animals used for food are to be treated with potent antibiotics and exogenous growth hormones.
    * The reintroduction of deadly and carcinogenic organic pesticides that in 1991, 176 countries (including the U.S.) have banned worldwide including 7 of the 12 worst at the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pesticides (e.g., Hexachlorobenzene, Toxaphene, and Aldrin) will be allowed back into food at elevated levels [4].
    * Dangerous and toxic levels (0.5 ppb) of aflotoxin in milk produced from moldy storage conditions of animal feed will be allowed. Aflotoxin is the second most potent (non-radiation) carcinogenic compound known to man.
    * Mandatory use of growth hormones and antibiotics on all food herds, fish and flocks
    * Worldwide implementation of unlabeled GMOs into crops, animals, fish and trees
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    Show of the Month March 8 2o14
    The Power of Local Unity: Small US Town Enacts Free Food Trade
    Scientists find genetic mechanism linking aging to specific diets
    The Photoprotective and antioxidative properties of luteolin are synergistically augmented by tocopherol and ubiquinone
    Damiana – Turnera diffusa
    Noah’s Ark
    Monsanto “Goes Organic” and Wins “Sustainability Award”
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    The Power of Local Unity: Small US Town Enacts Free Food Trade
    Sunday, February 2nd, 2014. Filed under: Activism
    Sedgwick, Maine, the first town in the US to legalize any kind of food transaction as free and legal in order to keep the right to produce raw milk, organic produce, free-range eggs, and more, is revolutionizing the way America keeps its food rights – including saying no to GMOs. In other words, it is the first town to declare food sovereignty while opposing both state and federal laws.
    The town has passed an ordinance that protects citizens’ rights to “produce, sell, purchase, and consume any food of their choosing.” The ordinance laughs in the face of FDA regulations and their hodge-podge way of giving food a rubber stamp of approval, especially GMO. Three additional towns in Maine are expected to pass similar ordinances as well.
    The move is somewhat similar to a move one England town made, where the citizens transformed their entire town’s landscape into a giant food-producing garden. Both are great examples of moving toward food sovereignty.
    It isn’t just a declaration on the whim of a few city council members. There is a warrant added: “It shall be unlawful for any law or regulation adopted by the state or federal government to interfere with the rights recognized by this Ordinance.” This means that federal interference is prohibited in our food supply – at least in Maine. If you can’t get Monsanto out of the government, take the government out of your food. It’s a brilliant way around the convoluted system now in place that almost gave Monsanto the right to be exempt from federal prosecution for its poison food and which tries to hoist it upon the whole Nation without consent.–David Gumpert reports-“What about potential legal liability and state or federal inspections? It’s all up to the seller and buyer to negotiate. “Patrons purchasing food for home consumption may enter into private agreements with those producers or processors of local foods to waive any liability for the consumption of that food. Producers or processors of local foods shall be exempt from licensure and inspection requirements for that food as long as those agreements are in effect.” Imagine that–buyer and seller can agree to cut out the lawyers. That’s almost un-American, isn’t it?”—A simple seller and buyer agreement is entered into where federal regulations can be bypassed by the seller agreeing to consume food grown by their neighbors organically in their garden or by the farm up the street with their own hormone-free dairy cows that customers have known for decades. It takes the feds and their dirty Monsanto money right out of the game. It is commercially grown food that is killing us all, after all – not locally grown food.–For those with their heads in a noodle about bypassing federal laws, the citizens of Maine have stated, “We the radicals who concocted this mutinous act of infamy believe that according to the Home Rule provisions of our State Constitution, the citizens of Sedgwick have the right to enact an ordinance that is “local and municipal in character.”–n Maine, citizens can take advantage of local bounty, seasonal organic crops, and the good-old-fashioned way we used to produce food without Big Ag and commercial interference. Rural America is putting the big city budget of Monsanto to shame with this innovative way of taking down the monopolizing food giant. It’s about time ‘radicals’ in every small town across this nation did the same.
    Additional Sources:
    SedgwickMaine
    +++
    ZenGardner.com
    – See more at: http://www.zengardner.com/power-local-unity-small-us-town-enacts-free-food-trade/#sthash.cBE3ISuO.dpuf
     
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    Scientists find genetic mechanism linking aging to specific diets
    Sean Curran and Shanshan Pang studied C. elegans, a one-millimeter-long worm that scientists have used as a model organism since the 1970s.Your best friend swears by the Paleo Diet. Your boss loves Atkins. Your sister is gluten-free, and your roommate is an acolyte of Michael Pollan. So who’s right? Maybe they all are.-In new research published this month in Cell Metabolism, USC scientists Sean Curran and Shanshan Pang identify a collection of genes that allow an organism to adapt to different diets and show that without them, even minor tweaks to diet can cause premature aging and death.-Finding a genetic basis for an organism’s dietary needs suggests that different individuals may be genetically predisposed to thrive on different diets — and that now, in the age of commercial gene sequencing, people might be able to identify which diet would work best for them through a simple blood test. “These studies have revealed that single gene mutations can alter the ability of an organism to utilize a specific diet. In humans, small differences in a person’s genetic makeup that change how well these genes function, could explain why certain diets work for some but not others[F4],” said Curran, corresponding author of the study and assistant professor with joint appointments in the USC Davis School of Gerontology, the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, and the Keck School of Medicine of USC.-Curran and Pang studied Caenorhabditis elegans, a one-milimeter-long worm that scientists have used as a model organism since the ’70s. Decades of tests have shown that genes in C. elegans are likely to be mirrored in humans while its short lifespan allows scientists to do aging studies on it.-In this study, Curran and Pang identified a gene called alh-6, which delayed the effects of aging depending on what type of diet the worm was fed by protecting it against diet-induced mitochondrial defects. [F5]”This gene is remarkably well-conserved from single celled yeast all the way up to mammals, which suggests that what we have learned in the worm could translate to a better understanding of the factors that alter diet success in humans,” Curran said. Future work will focus on identifying what contributes to dietary success or failure, and whether these factors explain why specific diets don’t work for everyone. This could be the start of personalized dieting based on an individual’s genetic makeup, according to Curran. “We hope to uncover ways to enhance the use of any dietary program and perhaps even figure out ways of overriding the system(s) that prevent the use of one diet in certain individuals,” he said.–Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by University of Southern California. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. -Journal Reference-Shanshan Pang, Sean P. Curran. Adaptive Capacity to Bacterial Diet Modulates Aging in C. elegans. Cell Metabolism, 2014; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2013.12.005
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    Damiana – Turnera diffusa.
    J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Jan 24;
    Authors: Szewczyk K, Zidorn C
    Abstract
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Half a dozen of the currently accepted 135 Turnera species are used in traditional medicine, most notably Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. which is one of the most highly appreciated plant aphrodisiacs. Other traditional uses of Turnera L. species include the treatment of anaemia, bronchitis, cough, diabetes, fever, fungal disease, gastrointestinal complaints, pain, pulmonary and respiratory diseases, skin disorders, and women’s health problems. Additionally, Turnera species are used as abortives, expectorants, and laxatives.
    PHYTOCHEMISTRY: Flavonoids (22 different compounds), maltol glucoside, phenolics, cyanogenic glycosides (7 different compounds), monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, the polyterpene ficaprenol-11, fatty acids, and caffeine have been found in the genus Turnera.
    BIOACTIVITY: Bioactivities experimentally proven for members of the genus Turnera encompass antianxiety, antiaromatase, antibacterial including antimycobacterial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, adapatogenic, antiobesity, antispasmodic, cytotoxic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and aphrodisiac activities. Most of these activities have so far been investigated only in chemical, cell based, or animal assays. In contrast, the antiobesity activity was also investigated in a study on healthy human subjects and with a herbal preparation containing among other ingredients T. diffusa leaves. Moreover, the enhancement of female sexual function was assessed in humans; again the product contained besides T. diffusa other potentially bioactive ingredients. However, with only few exceptions, most of the traditional uses and the experimentally verified bioactivities can currently not be related to a particular compound or compound class. A notable exception is the flavonoid apigenin, which was identified animal experiments as the antinociceptive (An antinociceptive factor reduced the sensitivity to a painful stimuli for the individual.”) principle of T. diffusa. CONCLUSION: In this review, the current knowledge on ethnobotanical uses of members of the genus Turnera, the secondary metabolites reported from Turnera, and experimentally documented bioactivities from Turnera extracts and pure compounds derived from Turnera extracts are compiled. Moreover, some of the most interesting avenues for future research projects are being discussed briefly. These include in particular the aphrodisiac activity of T. diffusa and the antibiotic activity potentiating effect of T. ulmifolia L. against aminoglycoside resistant bacteria.–PMID: 24468305 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
     
     
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    Noah’s Ark
    Everything I need to know, I learned from Noah’s Ark .
    ONE: Don’t miss the boat.
    TWO: Remember that we are all in the same boat!
    THREE: Plan ahead. It wasn’t raining when Noah built the Ark.
    FOUR: Stay fit. When you’re 60 years old, someone may ask you to do something really big.
    FIVE: Don’t listen to critics; just get on with the job that needs to be done.
    SIX: Build your future on high ground.
    SEVEN: For safety’s sake, travel in pairs.
    EIGHT: Speed isn’t always an advantage. The snails were on board with the cheetahs.
    NINE: When you’re stressed, float awhile.
    TEN: Remember, the Ark was built by amateurs; the Titanic by professionals.
    ELEVEN: No matter the storm, when you are with God, there’s always a rainbow waiting.
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    Monsanto “Goes Organic” and Wins “Sustainability Award”
    Posted By ANH-USA On February 18, 2014 @ 3:00 pm In Real, Not Phony Food Safety, Say No to GMO |
    This isn’t a spoof. In addition to this story, we’ll provide you with a round-up of GMO-related news, including why your neighbor may shortly be planting GMO grass right next to you. Action Alerts! –We won’t spend time in this article reiterating past research on why genetically modified organisms [1] (GMOs) are dangerous—you probably already know that they can randomly produce toxic effects [2]; introduce alarming levels of chemicals [3] into our ecosystems and diet; and have been shown to cause [4] serious health problems—but there have been some recent developments in GMO politics, science, and regulation that we want to share with you.
    Here are the news items we’ll cover:
    Monsanto Wins Award for…“Sustainability”? [5]
    GMOs Aren’t Enough—Monsanto Wants to Monopolize Conventional and Organic Crops, Too. Action Alert! [6]
    Is Someone Growing Unregulated GMO Grass Right Next to You? Action Alert! [7]
    All Eyes on New Global Precedent for GMO Contamination [8]
    Industrial Herbicides Are Even More Toxic Than We Thought [9]
    Is Industry Persuading Scientists to Quash Chilling Scientific Findings? [10]
    Monsanto Wins Award for…“Sustainability”?
    When most of us think of sustainability, we think of environmental practices that will allow current and future generations to enjoy nutritious, locally farmed foods, clean water, pure air, and a non-toxic, natural world. As the concept has developed, it’s also become applicable to other realms, including economics and healthcare. For example, ANH-USA advocates for [11] sustainable healthcare—practices that allow you to naturally maintain your health and extend your lifespan.
    To the EPA, [12] sustainability “creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony,[F7] that permit fulfilling the social, economic and other requirements of present and future generations.”–Taking these definitions into account, it may surprise you to learn that last month, Monsanto—yes, the same Monsanto whose expensive seeds caused an estimated 125,000 Indian farmers [13] to commit suicide—was recognized [14] as one of 2014’s Global 100 Most Sustainable Corporations in the World.[F8]–Monsanto was ranked 37th on overall sustainability, 5th among American companies, and 5th globally in the materials industry by an organization called Corporate Knights [15] (CK), a media and investment advisory company whose flagship magazine has one of the world’s largest circulations and is published quarterly as inserts in the Washington Post and the Globe and Mail (UK).
    Ubiquitous as CK is, we find their criteria for “sustainability” [16]—also called their “key performance indicators”—more than a little absurd:
    Energy productivity
    Carbon productivity
    Water productivity
    Waste productivity
    Innovation capacity
    Percent tax paid
    CEO to Average Employee Pay
    Pension fund status
    Safety performance
    Employee turnover
    Leadership diversity
    “Clean capitalism” pay link (rewards “companies that have set up mechanisms to link the remuneration of senior executives with the achievement of clean capitalism goals or targets”)
    As one University of Toronto business ethics professor noted, [17] “Only the first four actually have something to do with what most of us mean by ‘sustainability.’ The rest are…not relevant to the question of sustainable use of resources, or to the notion of sustainable economic growth that is compatible with environmental conservation.”–And even the first four have nothing to do with the environment, and everything to do with profits. After all, the award-givers define “energy productivity” as how much revenue companies can squeeze out of one unit of energy. The health of the environment literally has nothing to do with it.–For the countless natural health practitioners, organic farmers, consumers, and activists who unceasingly fight and sacrifice to “walk the walk” of sustainability, the bastardization of this important term is not a joke. It is offensive.–Perhaps “excellence in sustainability” is CK’s code for “excellence in propaganda.” As we’ve consistently reported, there is nothing sustainable about Monsanto and their GMO seeds. For example, GMOs do not increase crop yields [18]. A 2009 Union of Concerned Scientists report [19] found that GMO soybeans do not produce increased yields, that GMO corn only marginally increases yields, and that no GMO crop has even been found to have intrinsic yield (meaning, yield in “real life,” and not laboratory, conditions).—We’re not quite sure who CK thinks they’re fooling, or what they get out of this nonsense. A more interesting question is why Monsanto is trying so hard to “greenwash” its image. –Meanwhile the Geneva-based Covalence group placed Monsanto dead last on a list of 581 global companies ranked by their reputation for ethics. For more on this, see chapter 11 of Crony Capitalism in America 2008–12 [20], a book recently published by ANH-USA’s board president, Hunter Lewis.
    GMOs Aren’t Enough—Monsanto Wants to Monopolize Conventional and Organic Crops, Too. Action Alert!
    Since it purchased the company in 2008 [21], Monsanto has been quietly cultivating its Seminis brand, as well as several other semi-anonymous brands, to breed and sell seeds that aren’t GMO. –To create these seeds, Monsanto and its minions are claiming to use nothing more than traditional crossbreeding [22] (where plants with desirable qualities are laboriously “mated” until they yield progeny with the targeted traits). This process takes quite a bit of “time, land, and patience [23].”–Don’t be fooled: Monsanto isn’t using your grandparents’ crossbreeding. They’re engaging in a highly technical process that appears to takes place in a lab, not a field, and also appears to involve manipulation on the genetic level [24].Worse yet, they don’t seem to want to make foods healthier. For example, Monsanto is attempting to breed fruits and vegetables that taste sweeter than their traditional counterparts [25]. Read: they’re engineering a way to add more sugar than nature intended. The last thing that most people need is more sugar or fructose in their diet.–Is this a blatant attempt to win back the “hearts and minds” of consumers? According to one Monsanto official, “There isn’t a reputation silver bullet, but it helps.”–There is another important question to ask here: If Monsanto truly believes that GMOs are the future, why are they investing in conventional crops?–There’s no way to know for sure, but it’s possible that Monsanto doesn’t have faith in its own product: the company is already facing consumer pressure and emerging long-term health problems associated with GMOs.–For this reason, they could simply be hedging their bets. What if, in the future, the scientific consensus is that GMOs are harmful, or there’s a GMO-sparked environmental disaster, or the government decides to intervene? They may think they have to prepare for the possibility that GMOs may eventually fail. Seminis and its sister subsidies are Monsanto’s “insurance:” if GMOs crash and burn, they have a conventional cash cow to fall back on.[F9]
    Is Someone Growing Unregulated GMO Grass Right Next to You? Action Alert!
    In July 2011 [27], the USDA—often characterized as a power-hungry agency [28]—gave GMOs a regulatory hall pass. The agency determined that, thanks to a tiny technical loophole [29], they had no oversight over GMO Kentucky bluegrass [30]. This meant that the grass—and any GMOs created via the same GMO technique [31]—could be planted anywhere, at anytime, with zero government oversight.–The public backlash was immediate, though we knew at the time that the true extent of this disastrous decision wouldn’t be felt for years to come. Unfortunately, we were right.–Late last month, Scott’s Miracle-Gro quietly announced [32] that their employees will “test” the Roundup-resistant GMO grass by planting it in their home lawns in Marysville, Ohio. Scott’s hopes to have thousands more consumers planting their GMO grass by 2016—and thanks to the USDA, there’s no framework in place to keep this from happening.
    Alarmingly, if your neighbor plants GMO grass, your lawn may become full GMOs, too. Cross-contamination of non-GMO crops is already a reality. Pollen can travel anywhere from the length of three football fields to thousands of miles away [33]. Given this, and the fact there’s little to no space between suburban lawns—it’s completely unrealistic to assume GMO grass will stay where it’s planted.–It will be interesting to see whether GMO lawn grass producers sue you for having their grass when it spreads into your lawn. That is what Monsanto has done for years to innocent neighboring farmers. Since suing each suburban neighborhood is presumably not a workable model, what new one will devised?–The truth is that we are at a now-or-never moment with respect to GMOs in America[F10]. The more these seeds are released into the air, neighboring farms, and now suburban lawns, the harder it will be to stop them–Write to the USDA[F11] immediately and tell the agency to stop protecting the biotech industry at the public’s expense! GMO Kentucky bluegrass shouldn’t be allowed due to a technical loophole—otherwise, GMOs created via the same GMO technique as this grass could be planted anywhere, at anytime, with zero government oversight.
    All Eyes on New Global Precedent for GMO Contamination
    GMO crops have been known to contaminate organic crops, bringing severe economic damage to small farmers. The problem has gotten so pervasive that the Organic Seed Growers and Trade Association has had to publish a seventy-page booklet [35] on how to avoid (and test for) GMO contamination.–For example, one organic corn grower [36] whose crops were contaminated was forced to sell her corn for $1.67 a bushel—far below the $4 market price for organic corn.–All eyes are now on an Australian court case [37], wherein one farmer is suing Monsanto for the GMO contamination of his organic wheat and oat crop. The episode resulted in the farmer losing his organic certification and export license (Australia has a zero tolerance policy for GMO material in organic products)—the keys to his very livelihood.–The outcome of this case could set a global precedent, and seriously affect the regulation of organics to protect the interests of GMO growers and producers (sad to say, it will almost certainly not be vice versa). We’ll continue to watch it very closely.–Meanwhile, a recent Supreme Court ruling confirmed that Monsanto can sue farmers [38] whose crops are contaminated—even if it’s not their fault, because Monsanto has promised to behave better and not take advantage of innocent farmers!
    Industrial Herbicides Are Even More Toxic Than We Thought
    The uncontrolled GMO grass “experiment” is even more alarming in light of the growing body of evidence that glyphosate [39], a main chemical component in Monsanto’s Roundup herbicide, is a major health threat.–Keep in mind that GMO Kentucky bluegrass, like some brands of [40] Monsanto’s GMO corn, cotton, and soy seeds, is engineered to be Roundup-resistant. This means that growers can apply as much Roundup as they’d like to kill the weeds they don’t want, while leaving their plants intact. The GMO seed and the herbicide enter the environment together.–Also remember that many weeds are now learning [41] to be Roundup-resistant. To compensate, growers are forced to spray more and more Roundup [42]—which that means more glyphosate in our foods, ecosystems, and bodies, or use even more dangerous chemicals.–Despite assurances by Monsanto and the EPA [43], glyphosate is a hazard to humans, animals, plants, and organic and conventional agriculture. New research published in the International Journal of Toxicology [45] found that commercial glyphosate-based herbicides—at levels far below the normal agricultural applications—are extremely toxic to human many cells, and are lethal to human liver cells.–This research confirms Dr. Charles Benbrook’s [46] and ANH-USA’s investigation into the environmental, economic, and human health effects of glyphosate. Our research found, for example, that glyphosate is toxic to fish and essentially all plant life (if you haven’t read this comprehensive case study, you can download the PDF here [1]).-We should be focusing on reducing our addiction to chemical farming, not coming up with new ways to expose ourselves to more and more toxins. We have the opportunity to solve this problem before the disastrous health effects become widespread and irreversible. Future generations will not get the same chance.
    Is Industry Persuading Scientists to Quash Chilling Scientific Findings?
    Another recent study [47], authored by French researcher Gilles-Eric Séralini and published in BioMed Research International, confirms the International Journal of Toxicity study. It too found that herbicides and pesticides—notably those that are glyphosate-based—are far more toxic than industry and the EPA would lead you to believe. Séralini found that formulations like Roundup were “several times more toxic” than their main ingredient alone (i.e., glyphosate), and that “Roundup was by far the most toxic” of the chemical formulations tested.–Just hours after the study’s publication, Dr. Ralf Reski, a BioMed editor, immediately resigned [48], stating, “I do not want to be connected to a journal that provides [Séralini] a forum for such kind of agitation.”–We wonder: is Dr. Reski really concerned about scientific sensationalism? According to his own résumé [49], his “independent” research is 53% funded by industry. Did Dr. Reski proactively protect his source of funding? Did industry threaten him?–In September 2012, Séralini published a study [50] suggesting that a long-term diet of GMO corn can cause health problems—including breast cancer and severe organ damage—in animals. After a year of artificial controversy, the paper was retracted [51], much to the dismay and protest [52] of a significant part of the scientific community.—Séralini’s peers felt the retraction was made on invalid grounds [53]. It was withdrawn for being poorly designed, despite the fact that it followed almost exactly the same protocol [54] of a trial conducted by Monsanto and published in the same journal. Moreover, they saw in the retraction evidence of undue industry influence on the scientific community: a few months before the study was retracted, a former Monsanto scientist was appointed to the journal in a newly created editorial position [55].–To be published in journals like BioMed, studies go through a thorough editor and peer-review process. BioMed requires [56] an initial review by the editorial office; approval from an editor knowledgeable about the subject in question; and a peer review by between two and five outside evaluators. That’s three layers of intense scrutiny before a study can even be published.–It now seems that Séralini, despite of the integrity of his work, has been blacklisted—a clear warning to other objective, independent researchers.
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    Show of the Month March 15 2o14
    BEEF JUICE
    Beetroot and Hawthorn May Improve Heart Health
    1939 Cancer Act-of the UK
    Oleuropein boosts testosterone level, lowers cortisol secretion, stimulates anabolism
    Estimation of Apigenin, an Anxiolytic Constituent, in Turnera aphrodisiaca.
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    BEEF JUICE
    The body derives several benefits from regular use of beef juice. It apparently could bring about a strengthening of the body without irritating the cells in the intestinal tract which might bring about a change in the nature of the lymph and the lymphatic functioning that might in turn disturb the body, causing sleeplessness and general irritation. The following readings are commentaries on it plus descriptions of how to prepare it. — “The combinations that have been indicated for the body as to diet are very good; yet we would add the greater strengthening influence without the addition of weight or of heavy foods – which would materially aid, and would not irritate those tendencies for the accumulations or separations in the active forces of mucus that has produced and does produce in the lymph those segregations and accumulations about which the body becomes so disturbed at times. These as we find may be had in the Pure Beef Juice; not broth, but prepared in this manner:
    Take a pound to a pound and a half preferably of the round steak. No fat, no portions other than that which is of the muscle or tendon or strength; no fatty or skin portions. Dice this into half inch cubes, as it were, or practically so. Put same in a glass jar without water in same. Put the jar then into a boiler or container with the water coming about half or three-fourths toward the top of the jar, you see. Preferably put a cloth in the container to prevent the jar from cracking. Do not seal the jar tight, but cover the top. Let this boil (the water, with the jar in same) for three to four hours. Then strain off the juice, and the refuse may be pressed somewhat. It will be found that the meat or flesh itself will be worthless. Place the juice in a cool place, but do not keep too long; never longer than three days, see? Hence the quantity made up at the time depends upon how much or how often the body will take this. It should be taken two to three times a day, but not more than a tablespoonful at the time – and this sipped very slowly. Of course, this is to be seasoned to suit the taste of the body.
    “Also once a day it will be most beneficial to take beef juice as a tonic; not so much the beef itself but beef juice; followed with red wine. Do not mix these, but take both about the same time. Take about a teaspoonful of the beef juice, but spend about five minutes in sipping that much. Then take an ounce of the red wine
    “Q-5. What quantity of beef juice to be taken daily?
    A-5. At least two tablespoonsful, but no fat in same. A tablespoonful is almost equal to a pound of meat or two pounds of meat a day; and that’s right smart for a man that isn’t active!” (1424-2)
    “Beef juice should be taken regularly as medicine, a teaspoonful four times a day at least, but when taken it should be sipped, not just taken as a gulp.” (5374-1)
    “As we find, we would use small quantities at a time – but take almost as medicine – of the beef juices … This is easily assimilated, gives strength and vitality, and is needed with the vital forces of the body in the present. Take at least a tablespoonful during the day, or two tablespoonsful. But not as spoonsful; rather sips of same. This, sipped in this manner, will work towards producing the gastric flow through the intestinal system, first in the salivary reactions to the very nature of the properties themselves, second with the gastric flow from the upper portion of the stomach or through the cardiac reaction at the end of the esophagus that produces the first of the lacteals’ reaction to the gastric flows in the stomach or digestive forces themselves; thirdly making for an activity through the pylorus and the duodenum that becomes stimulating to the activity of the flows without producing the tendencies for accumulation of gases.”
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    IV. Nitrogenous Foods. Meat Teas, Meat Extracts, Meat Juices, Peptones And Peptonoids, And Dried Meat Powders
    (l) Foods prepared from meat are sold under the name of meat teas, meat extracts, meat juices, peptones and peptonoids, and dried meat powders. Some are supposed to have marvellous nutritive value because of the evaporation of a watery extract of the meat, or of the juice expressed from meat, into a fluid which is stated to contain the nutritive elements of the original muscle fibre in a concentrated form. Others base their claims on the predigestion of the protein before concentration. It is not invariably true that these preparations are made from meat. The absence of creatinin, in some specimens, suggests that these particular ones are purely artificial products.—Analyses of various meats show that the average percentage of protein is about 20 and that it is, therefore, impossible to concentrate meat down to less than a fifth of its bulk, if the total nutritive value of the protein is to be retained. Reference to the tables of analyses of these nitrogenous foods shows that in few instances does the percentage of protein equal that of the original meat from which the food is made, while in many it is very considerably less, even if undiluted. In those cases in which the percentage of protein is high, the food is usually given diluted with a large quantity of water. –The high percentage of extractives in many of these preparations proves that they are fluid extracts of meat. These extractives are of no nutritive value, throw an extra strain on the liver and kidneys, and are probably actively injurious. The high proportion of salts and extractives leads to thirst and diarrhoea, if these foods are given in large quantities.[F12] -A. In the ordinary process of making beef tea and clear soups the product is strained and the protein, coagulated by heat, which forms the nutritious sediment, deprived of its stimulating taste, is usually thrown away. A weak gelatinous fluid is left which is converted into a firm jelly on cooling, if the gelatin amounts to one per cent. Beef tea is often made in institutions from some one or other of the various meat extracts, instead of from fresh meat, so it is worth while to consider the nutritive value and the expense of these different preparations.
    Approximate Composition Of Beef Tea Preparations
    Water. Proteins. Extractives. Mineral Ash.
    Mason’s – strong beef tea . 8902 686 2.47 1.65
    Bovril Co. – Vril, albuminous beef tea…………… 84.00 1017 417 1.66
    Brand’s – fibrous beef tea . 83.21 11.40 452 086
    According to the Lancet analysis Mason’s beef tea contains meat fibre 3.74 per cent, soluble albuminoids and extractives 10.58, mineral salts 2.37.
    A comparison of the above preparations with beef tea, as ordinarily made, is distinctly to their advantage. Home made beef tea contains about 1.5 per cent of protein and, if made by the boiling process, may contain considerably less. An analysis of a sample of that made at St. Thomas’s Hospital yielded the following results (The Hospital, June 11, 1904) : –
    Water . . . . ….. 96030
    Fat………. 0199
    Insoluble protein and meat fibre . . . . 0.208
    Soluble proteins and gelatin . . . . . 1.342
    Meat bases …….. 0.608
    Non-nitrogenous extractive matters …. 0.843
    Mineral matters ……. 0.770
    The total dry solids amounted to 3.97 per cent and of that 1.55 per cent only, inclusive of gelatin, was of value as food.
    The price of beef tea made from various foods is given in the following table (The Hospital, June 1, 1907): –
    Name of Food. Price. Amount Required. Cost per Pint.
    Lemco …. 5s. 6d. per lb. 1 lb. for 60 pints Id. and a fraction
    Ramornie1 . 5s. „ 1 oz. „ 3 „ Ditto
    Oxo….. 3s. 9d. l 1b. „ 22 „ 2d.
    Nursing Oxo2 . 4s. „ l 1b. „ 22 „ 2 1/5d.
    Invalid Bovril . 4s. 6d. 3 oz. „ 4 „ 2 1/4d.
    Mason’s beef tea – – 3 1/2 d.
    Brand’s beef tea 10d. 31b. „ 7 „ 4 1/4d.
    Oxvil …. – – 5d.
    Foreign meat . 2d. – 3d. ,, – l 1/2 – 2d.
    These results are based on institutional prices. The price per pint is not an absolute criterion of the value, unless we regard these preparations as of such little use for nutritive purposes that the actual percentages of protein can be neglected. Probably this is true, for the amount of protein which can be taken in this form is really remarkably small.
    These foods may be restorative and stimulant, but they are certainly only feebly nutritive and are an expensive form of diet. The use of beef tea and meat extracts depends on the fact that in digestive disorders and in fevers, in which digestion is impaired, the appetite is bad, and the tongue furred, the patient dislikes food, but can take a hot, clean, non-cloying fluid which by virtue of the heat has some stimulating and nutritive properties [F13]. These preparations have a great influence on the minds of the patient and friends, who are apt to dread abstinence from food as a source of extreme danger and have an abounding faith in the nutritive value of beef teas, jellies and meat extracts. As a food milk is infinitely superior. There is one advantage in these foods which must not be overlooked. They encourage appetite and the secretion of gastric juice. A few tablespoonfuls of clear soup or of a diluted meat extract, taken at the beginning of dinner or just beforehand, will improve both appetite and digestion. A large amount may be harmful by unduly diluting the gastric juice. They may be regarded as concentrated flavouring substances of meat the nutritive matters being extracted. Liebig’s Extract was the first and remains the most typical of these meat extracts. As originally made it is practically free from protein and fat. It is a concentrated watery extract of meat, heated under pressure, filtered and evaporated.
    1 Liebig’s Extract of Meat as prepared by the Australian Meat Co.
    2 Peptonized.
    The Approximate Composition Of Meat Extracts
    Water. Proteins . and Gelatin Extractives. . N.free.
    Sub- Mineral stances Ash.
    etc.
    References and Remarks.
    Armour’s Extract1 24.30 ! 16.08 20.55 20.06 19.03
    15.55 10.89 43.23 4.122 25.91 Food and Sanitation,l893
    Bovril 44.40 16.94 20.32 __ 18.32 Stutzer, 1897
    39.58 912 34.10 1.292 13.52 Chittenden
    Bovril Fluid Beef1 38.10 12.24 1204 19.75 17.87 –
    Invalids’ Bovril1 21.82 21.42 39.60 – 17.16 –
    21.16 16.66 16.13 29.23 16.82 Allen’s commercial analysis
    Bouillon Fleet . 61.95 11.81 9.87 3.87 12.50 Tatlock
    Brand’s Beef Bouillon 1 36.27 9.58 19.34 19.75 15.07 –
    Brand’s Essence. 87.17 10.433 1.01
    1.39 Candy, vide Hutchison, 1904. The juice of beef, mutton, veal or chicken, without any addition
    Hipi …. 42.00 43.00 – 6.60 8.40 Medical Press, 1899. A mutton extract
    Lemco1 . 17.80 16.48 3812 6.00 21.50 –
    Liebig’s Extract 20.06 0.06 55.72 0.912 24.04 Chittenden. Fat and protein free.
    18.30 9.40 30.00 18.602 23.60 Tankard
    Mason’s Essence 77.07 303 7.47 2.92 9.51 Food and Sanitation,1896 (Hehner)
    Oxine Extract1 . 62.90 13.00 4.54 – 19.60 Hutchison
    Oxo1 . . . 38.10 18.93 2031 5.35 17-31 Meat extract, albumin and fibrin, without fat
    Viking Beef Essence 90.68 3.63 1.85 2.41 1-43 Tankard
    1 Analysis given by the manufacturers.
    2 Ether extract.
    3 Half gelatin.
    4 Including extractives.
    Read more: http://chestofbooks.com/health/nutrition/Diet-Dietetics/IV-Nitrogenous-Foods-Meat-Teas-Meat-Extracts-Meat-Juices-Peptones-And-Pepto.html#.UwenGIVyxbw#ixzz2tzS3EaTx
     
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    Meat Extract –
    A term which in popular usage embraces several products differing considerably in character. That best known and most widely used in the preparation of “Beef tea” is the commercial meat or Beef extract obtained by simple boiling, straining and evaporation without the addition of other ingredients. It consists principally of “extractives,” or meat flavor, together with a certain proportion of mineral salts. The fat is removed, as it would in time render the extract rancid, and nearly all the valuable albuminoids are also lost – they coagulate during the stewing of the meat and are strained off together with the fibrine, etc. Dry albumin is added to some preparations in the final processes, but no attempt is made to carry through the natural Beef albumen as, under the conditions in which meat extract is ordinarily made, marketed and used, it would readily decompose and spoil the product.
    Meat extract of the type described, was formerly rated as a condensed food product of high nutritive value. That position has been entirely abandoned and it is now acknowledged that it is entirely inadequate to support life, but it has retained great importance in both the medical and commercial worlds on the more solid foundation of its indisputable merit as the basis of an agreeable and thoroughly wholesome beverage of mildly stimulating properties. Physicians find it a valuable adjunct in the care of invalids and convalescents, and its meaty taste often lends zest to the necessarily restricted diet of the sick room, exercising a highly beneficial effect by enabling the digestive organs to extract more nutriment from other foods. It is especially useful for mixing with milk – persons who cannot assimilate plain milk can nearly always digest it when flavored with a little Beef extract. Its other uses include its employment in large quantities to give a relish to the condensed foods, such as those made with pease-meal, carried by army commissaries, and its similar familiar employment in the kitchen to enhance the flavor of soups, sauces, etc. It is worth remembering that extract of meat contains those flavoring properties to which is principally due the higher market value of the choice cuts.
    Many almost worthless preparations are, however, sold as “meat extracts” and it is advisable to confine purchases to houses of known reliability.
    Somewhat similar value attaches to properly made commercial preparations of meat juices or “meat extracts,” obtained by pressure of the raw meat and then preserved without cooking.
    A third class contains the soluble albumoses (peptoses) of the meat predigested – i.e., digested by artificial means. The best of these offer food values in important percentages, but their use should be regulated by medical advice
    In spite of the fact that most people enjoy – or at all events do not object to – the strong flavor of the best extracts, their taste and odor are sometimes found quite offensive by those possessing especially delicate palates. When this objection is found by a patient, it can be obviated to a considerable extent by putting a little butter, and plenty of salt in the hot Beef tea.
    Beef tea should always be served hot – if drunk cold, or nearly so, its stimulating property is much reduced.
    Following are the standards for meat extracts and similar products adopted by the Association of State and National Dairy and Food Departments and the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists.
    (1) meat Extract is the product obtained by extracting fresh meat with boiling water, and concentrating the liquid portion by evaporation after the removal of fat, and contains not less than 75% of total solids, of which not over 27% is ash and not over 12% is sodium chloride (calculated from the total chlorine present), not over 0.6% is fat and not less than 8% is nitrogen. The nitrogenous compounds contain not less than 40% of meat bases, and not less than 10% of creatin (a compound found in muscular flesh) and creatinin.
    (2) Fluid meat Extract is identical with meat extract, except that it is concentrated to a lower degree, and contains not more than 75% and not less than 50% of total solids.
    (3) Bone Extract is the product obtained by extracting fresh trimmed bones with boiling water and concentrating the liquid portion by evaporation after removal of fat, and contains not less than 75% of total solids.
    (4) Fluid Bone Extract is identical with bone extract, except that it is concentrated to a lower degree and contains not more than 75% and not less than 50% of total solids.
    (5) meat Juice is the fluid portion of muscle fibre, obtained by pressure or otherwise, and may be concentrated by evaporation at a temperature below the coagulating point of the soluble proteins. The solids contain not more than 15% of ash, not more than 2.5% of sodium chloride (calculated from the total chlorine present), not more than 4% nor less than 2% of phosphoric acid and not less than 12% of nitrogen. The nitrogenous bodies contain not less than 35% of coagulable proteins and not more than 40% of meat bases.
    For a number of years after its first introduction, the greater part of both the European and American supply came from the Argentine Republic, in which country the Liebig Company, the original manufacturer, established its first factory. The United States is now one of the principal producers.
    Home-Made Beef Tea, meat Juices, etc. In contrast to that from commercial meat Extract, home-made “Beef tea,” as generally prepared, is entitled to rank as both food and stimulant, as it contains a fair percentage of protein and fat, in addition to the gelatine and
     
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    Beetroot and Hawthorn May Improve Heart Health
    A recent study conducted by the University of Texas (UT) and Neogenis Laboratories suggests that a dietary supplement containing beetroot and hawthorn beery may boost heart health.–Beetroot and hawthorn berry both affect the body’s nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway. The resulting NO compound is important to cardiovascular health because it dilates blood vessels, thereby lowering blood pressure (one of the most significant predictors of heart disease) and improving blood flow. Researchers tested the effects of a combination of the two herbs on NO availability. Beetroot was selected for study because it contains high levels of nitrate. Similarly, hawthorn berries have a high activity of the enzyme nitrite reductase, facilitating the conversion of nitrite to NO.—Previous research on the hawthorn berry has already shown promise for its use in treating heart conditions. In a review of literature, Pittler et al. found hawthorn berry effective in improving symptoms of chronic heart failure, including impaired heart workload capacity. Other researchers found that hawthorn berry effectively reduced blood pressure in healthy subjects. The previous literature has not yet established beetroot’s effectiveness in treating heart problems.—In the UT study, 30 participants, all above the age of 40, were randomly assigned to consume either the herb blend Neo40 Daily® or a placebo twice daily for 30 days. The subjects all presented with at least three of the following known risk factors for cardiovascular disease: elevated blood pressure (hypertension), obesity, high blood lipid levels (hyperlipidemia), diabetes, family history of heart disease, sedentary lifestyle, and history of smoking.—After 30 days of therapy, the herb supplement group had significant increases in NO levels, as compared to the placebo group. Furthermore, 72 percent of the individuals in the herbal supplement group experienced statistically significant reductions in blood triglyceride levels, another risk factor for heart disease.–This study provides evidence for the herbs use in reducing risk for cardiovascular disease. However, additional research is needed to completely qualify the relationship between diet, NO availability and heart disease.
    References
    Pittler MH, Guo R, Ernst E. Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD005312. View Abstract
    Zand J, Lanza F, Garg HK, et al. All-natural nitrite and nitrate containing dietary supplement promotes nitric oxide production and reduces triglycerides in humans. Nutr Res. 2011 Apr;31(4):262-9. View Abstract
    Simple Remedy—take hawthorn leaf and add to it beets in equal weight ( example 2 oz of each) then take either red wine or alcohol ( ethanol) and add 6 oz and then blend down for 7-10 minutes—strain and use anywhere from 1 tablespoon to 1 oz daily several times a day
    ****************************************************************************
    (OMNS Aug 3, 2012) Most citizens of Great Britain are totally unaware of the 1939 Cancer Act which effectively prevents them from finding out about different treatments for cancer.
    Excerpts from the UK 1939 Cancer Act:
    “4 – (1) No person shall take any part in the publication of any advertisement – (a) containing an offer to treat any person for cancer, or to prescribe any remedy therefor, or to give any advice in connection with the treatment thereof; or (b) referring to any article, or articles of any description, in terms which are calculated to lead to the use of that article, or articles of that description, in the treatment of cancer. —In this section the expression “advertisement” includes any “notice, circular, label, wrapper or other document, and any announcement made orally or by any means of producing or transmitting sounds”. [1] –Publication of such advertisements is permitted to a very restrictive group comprising members of either House of Parliament, local authority, governing bodies of voluntary hospitals, registered or training to become registered medical practitioners, nurses or pharmacists, and persons involved in the sale or supply of surgical appliances. A very tight grip, therefore, is exercised on information that is fed to citizens of Great Britain; interestingly, the Act does not apply to Northern Ireland. —That pretty much wraps it up, and wraps us (in Britain) up in the legal stranglehold that this outdated Act still exerts. Was this enacted to protect the citizens from charlatans and “quacks” or to safeguard the interests of the National Radium Trust, to whom the British Government lent money?[F14] If no one is allowed to tell us, how can we, the general public, ever find out what alternatives there are to those offered by mainstream medicine, mainly surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy?
    No Freedom of Therapy, Information, or Assembly
    My colleague, Sarah Ling, and I unwittingly found ourselves in a maelstrom when we decided to hold a convention in Birmingham, later this year, to do just that – inform the general public about some of the other ways to tackle this hideous disease than those generally doled out to their mostly trusting, but fear-filled patients. A well-justified fear of the actual treatments as well as the disease prevails. –Last year, Sarah’s sister was diagnosed with an aggressive form of cancer. Chemotherapy was the only treatment offered, which she accepted out of fear. She nearly died within hours of having it, and very sadly died days afterwards. Sarah was determined to help prevent others from enduring such trauma and so, under the umbrella of our Institute (The Cambridge Institute of Complementary Health), we organised a convention to educate people – conventional/complementary health professionals and the general public – about different ways to treat people who have cancer. —We quickly drew up a short list of speakers that we felt would have much to contribute, including Dr Stanislaw Burzynski who agreed to come and talk about his pioneering work on antineoplastins. —After posting our speakers on our web-site, one, an oncologist, pulled out due to a malevolent e-mail she had received, questioning her wisdom at sharing a platform with Dr Burzynski. She didn’t want to cause her team any controversy. We then discovered that we had attracted a lot of adverse attention that was derogatory, critical of our speakers, casting aspersions on them and on us as an organisation. Unfortunately Dr Burzynski decided not to come – so as not to expose us to the sort of attacks that he has suffered. Regrettably, the public lost an opportunity to hear first-hand of his pioneering treatments in tackling cancers, including inoperable brain tumours.[F15] –Two speakers down, we then found ourselves possibly contravening the archaic Cancer Act. We’ve had to be extremely careful in how we word any publications relating to the convention so that the Advertising Standards Agency doesn’t come down on us like a ton of bricks and prevent us from holding it at all. Britain cherishes its long-held tradition of freedom of speech, but in recent years that seems questionable. However, we can still hold debates, and that is what we are doing.
    We are aware that efforts will be made to stop us, from those who are not seekers of truth. If they were truly interested in the welfare of people, they would be advocating most of the alternative/complementary approaches instead of deriding them and trying to close down clinics and individuals who practise them, via the Advertising Standards Agency. This ridiculous Act affords them the guise of protecting the public and gives them ammunition that they can use against persons advocating alternatives.
    We can’t hold an open day of education on treating cancer in this country: how bizarre is that? How much longer can this information be contained?
    The Cost of Ignorance
    The UK National Health Service is overstretched and, as more and more people contract cancer (one in three presently), the rising costs of expensive and often ineffective treatments will surely mean they have to look at alternatives. —
    Conventional healthcare professionals are too often ignorant of the enormous value of unconventional treatments. How can they be otherwise, as those outside of their profession are prohibited from alluding to the fact that they can help treat cancer? Shockingly, even nutrition is most often totally overlooked during orthodox cancer treatment, and the very foods that promote cancers are given to patients in our hospitals sometimes in order to maintain calorie intake. There is frequently no advice on diet, that most crucial aspect of our health. [2] –
    Thankfully, some oncologists do recognise the benefits that alternative/complementary treatments offer. [3] Hopefully more and more will come to accept that integrating the best of conventional and complementary/alternative methods is the way forward.
    It is our opinion that a reform of the 1939 Cancer Act is long overdue. The tenacious grip that it holds on treating cancer must be relinquished, so that patients and their healthcare providers can make an informed choice as to what approach may be best for their individual needs. -(Madeline C. Hickey-Smith has an honours degree in biology and is cofounder of the Cambridge Institute of Complementary Health http://cichealth.org.uk . The direct link to the convention page is http://cichealth.org.uk/#/cancer-convention/4566602766 .)
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    Oleuropein boosts testosterone level, lowers cortisol secretion, stimulates anabolism
    Oleuropein is a compound that occurs naturally in olive oil and helps the body to use proteins more economically. In a Japanese study, published in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, rats that had a protein-rich diet retained no less than 46 percent more protein when large amounts of oleuropein were added to their food. In addition, they produced more testosterone and less cortisol.
    Oleuropein is found in olives, olive oil and leaves of the olive tree. Supplements containing olive-leaf extracts have been on the market for years, and if you look carefully you’ll find cheap extracts containing 25 percent oleuropein.
    The structural formula of the substance is shown below on the left. With a bit of chemical tinkering you can remove the glucose group from the oleuropein molecule, leaving you with a pared-down version – chemists call it an aglycon – of oleuropein. The Japanese experimented with the natural version of oleuropein.
    Seven years ago the Japanese reported that virgin olive oil boosted the metabolism of rats.
    It was the phenol oleuropein that was responsible for this, they discovered later. [J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2008 Oct;54(5):363-70.] Oleuropein boosted the secretion of adrenalin and noradrenalin in rats, and made the brown fat cells burn more fatty acids.
    The discovery of the adrenergic effect of oleuropein prompted some manufacturers to add oleuropein to bodybuilding supplements..
    Fifteen years ago the same researchers discovered that garlic had approximately the same effect. And when the Japanese combined garlic supplementation with a protein-rich diet, they observed that the garlic boosted anabolism: lab animals retained more nitrogen, and produced more testosterone and less cortisol. That’s why the Japanese were curious whether oleuropein also had a similar anabolic effect.
    The researchers gave three groups of rats food containing 10, 25 or 40 percent protein [Casein] for 28 days. Half of the rats in each group were given food containing 1 g oleuropein per kg.
    The researchers counted the number of nitrogen molecules in the urine and droppings of the rats, which enabled them to calculate how much nitrogen the rats retained. The more nitrogen you retain, the more proteins your body builds up. Nitrogen is an essential component of proteins.
    The rats retained relatively more nitrogen, the more oleuropein they consumed. In the group that ate food containing the most protein, supplementation with oleuropein boosted the amount of nitrogen retained by 46 percent.
    In the rats that ate large amounts of protein, oleuropein tripled the concentration of testosterone in the testes, while the concentration of cortisol in the blood went down by more than half.
    The concentration of LH increased as the researchers introduced increasingly higher concentrations of aglycon made from oleuropein into the rats’ circulatory system. This increased secretion of LH may be a consequence of the higher adrenalin and noradrenalin levels caused by the oleuropein, the Japanese think.
    The researchers believe that these hormonal effects are the key to explaining the anabolic effect of oleuropein.
    “Oleuropein supplementation enhances protein anabolism and suppresses protein catabolism owing to hormonal regulation by the stimulation of steroid hormones via noradrenaline, leading to a higher testicular testosterone level and a lower plasma corticosterone level in rats fed a high-protein diet”, the researchers conclude.
    Interestingly, the rats that were given oleuropein did not put on weight. As far as the researchers could see – although they did not study the effect on body composition extensively – the rats became slimmer. Their fat deposits did shrink at least.
    So doing a quick calculation: a rat eats about 50 g feed per kg bodyweight daily. That means 50 mg oleuropein. Converted to human proportions, that means 8 mg oleuropein per kg bodyweight per day. So if you weigh 80 kg, you’d need 640 mg oleuropein daily. If you can get that quantity out of an olive leaf extract that consists of 25 percent oleuropein, you’d need about 2.6 g extract each day. –That’s manageable.
    Source:
    J Nutr Biochem. 2013 May;24(5):887-93.
    More:
    Diet rich in mono-unsaturated fat boosts EPOC 17.01.2012
    Animal study: olive oil is good for (old) muscles 12.08.2011
    Your body burns unsaturated fat better after exercise 11.11.2010
    Why you stay slimmer more easily with olive oil than with saturated fats 31.10.2010
    Olive oil converts cholesterol more easily into testosterone 01.09.2009
    More adrenalin through olive oil 23.06.2009
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    Estimation of Apigenin, an Anxiolytic Constituent, in Turnera aphrodisiaca.
    Kumar S, Madaan R, Sharma A.
    Author information
    Abstract
    An HPTLC densitometric method has been developed to estimate apigenin in Turnera aphrodisiaca aerial and its segregated parts (leaves, stems, flowers and fruits) so that plant can be standardized on the basis of its bioactive marker. The apigenin content in methanol extract of T. aphrodisiaca aerial parts was found to be about fourteen times less than acid hydrolyzed methanol extract of the plant indicating the presence of most of apigenin in glycosidic form. Amongst different plant parts, flowers possessed maximum content of apigenin followed by leaves. The apigenin content was also determined in three marketed formulations of T. aphrodisiaca viz., NLK, DWSG and SBL. DWSG contained higher content of apigenin. Aerial parts of the plant were collected at bimonthly intervals over a period of one year in the months of January, March, May, July, September and November. The plant material collected in September showed maximum content of apigenin.

    #2686
    AvatarEK
    Keymaster

    [F1]Per Os = orally
    [F2]Interesting play on words on how this is being used to explore military use in space
    [F3]May have to RE Evaluate cause due to aluminum particulates and barium and radioactive particles and nano polymers falling from the sky—this can be an issue and the real cause of this condition happening
    [F4]Almost sounds like a Marketing Game—there is some truth to the genetic acceptance but this would be contingent to the genes in the foods rather then the individual –in some cases there maybe an element to this where there maybe a mutated gene in a person causing some kind of anomaly –but the real test should be the test in the genetics of food
    [F5]We are dealing with worms who would have a direct contact to genetics
    [F6]May have to RE Evaluate cause due to aluminum particulates and barium and radioactive particles and nano polymers falling from the sky—this can be an issue and the real cause of this condition happening
    [F7]This is an Illuminati doctrine and when humans and Nature can not co exist human are to be expendable—go asked the natives you can see how this is manifesting in North America
    [F8]Now You have to Wonder was this a Self Induced entitlement—with all the wonderful science on this tech we all know there is nothing sustainable here about it
    [F9]There are 3 seed banks which have stored non GMO seeds —these are usually released after a cataclysmic event to re start the food supply again
    [F10]Never Mind Just America —the whole planet—there has been an ongoing insanity to feed animals GMO based foods—to avoid a controversy with having it grown direct—they just allowed the soil to be contaminated with these genetics and now the worms –bugs- bacteria –fungi will all be affected by this
    [F11]This is a JOKE and do not waste your time the USDA is assisting in the implementation of the Monsanto and Biotech properties
    [F12]Counterfeits will be of no value
    [F13]Due to the condition of a person in recovery stage this would be the easiest way to issue health and vitality back without exerting a high amount of energy and resources the body would need to use —
    [F14]To protect against quacks—hmm seems like parliament has failed the quackery we are dealing with today is coming from the gov’t instituted systems and the medical and pharmaceutical and medical supply places —so much for this “legal “ protection
    [F15]A coordinated attack by gov’t corporocracy that dismantled this activity before it got off he ground
    These people who were chased away by fear should be ashamed of themselves –and should have resisted instead—they gave in to nothing
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    Virgin olive oil administration improves the effect of aspirin on retinal vascular pattern in experimental diabetes mellitus
    Space Preservation Act of 2001
    The Photoprotective and antioxidative properties of luteolin are synergistically augmented by tocopherol and ubiquinone
    Codex Alimentarius-Regulation on food Safety-Lack there of
     
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    Virgin olive oil administration improves the effect of aspirin on retinal vascular pattern in experimental diabetes mellitus.
    De La Cruz JP, Del Río S, López-Villodres JA, Villalobos MA, Jebrouni N, González-Correa JA.
    Author information
    Abstract
    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible influence of virgin olive oil (VOO) on the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in platelet aggregation, prostanoid and NO production and retinal vascular pattern in rats with experimental type 1-like diabetes. We used 100 male Wistar rats that were distributed into five groups: (1) non-diabetic rats (NDR); (2) untreated diabetic rats (DR); (3) DR treated with ASA (2 mg/kg per d per os (p.o.))[F1]; (4) DR treated with VOO (0.5 ml/kg per d p.o.); (5) DR treated with ASA plus VOO. The duration of diabetes was 3 months, and each treatment was administered from the first day of diabetes. Variables that were quantified were platelet aggregation (I(max)), thromboxane B(2) (TxB(2)), aortic prostacyclin (6-keto-PGF(1alpha)) and NO, and the percentage of retina with horseradish peroxidase-permeable vessels (HRP-PV). Diabetic rats showed a higher I(max) (35 %) and TxB(2) (63 %) than NDR, and a lower 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), NO and HRP-PV than NDR ( – 74.6 %). ASA and VOO administration reduced these differences and prevented the percentage of HRP-PV ( – 59.7 % with ASA and – 46.7 % with VOO). The administration of ASA plus VOO showed a strong platelet inhibition (80.2 v. 23.4 % for VOO and 50.6 % for ASA+VOO, P < 0.0001), and reduced HRP-PV differences to – 31.6 % (P < 0.001 with respect to DR and P < 0.0001 with respect to DR treated with ASA). In conclusion, the administration of VOO to rats with type 1-like diabetes mellitus improves the pharmacodynamic profile of ASA, and increases its retinal anti-ischaemic effect.
    Recipe—take the Virgin olive oil according to the ratio here .5 X your weight in kilos –example .5 X 77kilos = 38.5 mils just over an ounce—for the aspirin the used 2mg per kilo again we are looking at as an example 2 X 77= 154 mgs –
    Mix them together—and use—start with tsp increments and increase it through the day— take it in tablespoon in divided times 3 a day
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    HR 2977 IH
    Space Preservation Act of 2001
    107th CONGRESS
    1st Session
    H. R. 2977
    To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space-based weapons.
    IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
    October 2, 2001
    Mr. KUCINICH introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Science, and in addition to the Committees on Armed Services, and International Relations, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned
    A BILL
    To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space-based weapons.
    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
    SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
    This Act may be cited as the `Space Preservation Act of 2001′.
    SEC. 2. REAFFIRMATION OF POLICY ON THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE IN SPACE.
    Congress reaffirms the policy expressed in section 102(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2451(a)), stating that it `is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind.’.
    SEC. 3. PERMANENT BAN ON BASING OF WEAPONS IN SPACE.
    The President shall–
    (1) implement a permanent ban on space-based weapons of the United States and remove from space any existing space-based weapons of the United States; and
    (2) immediately order the permanent termination of research and development, testing, manufacturing, production, and deployment of all space-based weapons of the United States and their components.
    SEC. 4. WORLD AGREEMENT BANNING SPACE-BASED WEAPONS.
    The President shall direct the United States representatives to the United Nations and other international organizations to immediately work toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing a world agreement banning space-based weapons.
    SEC. 5. REPORT.
    The President shall submit to Congress not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and every 90 days thereafter, a report on–
    (1) the implementation of the permanent ban on space-based weapons required by section 3; and
    (2) progress toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing the agreement described in section 4.
    SEC. 6. NON SPACE-BASED WEAPONS ACTIVITIES.
    Nothing in this Act may be construed as prohibiting the use of funds for–[F2]
    (1) space exploration;
    (2) space research and development;
    (3) testing, manufacturing, or production that is not related to space-based weapons or systems; or
    (4) civil, commercial, or defense activities (including communications, navigation, surveillance, reconnaissance, early warning, or remote sensing) that are not related to space-based weapons or systems.
    SEC. 7. DEFINITIONS.
    In this Act:
    (1) The term `space’ means all space extending upward from an altitude greater than 60 kilometers above the surface of the earth and any celestial body in such space.
    (2)(A) The terms weapon' andweapons system’ mean a device capable of any of the following:
    (i) Damaging or destroying an object (whether in outer space, in the atmosphere, or on earth) by–
    (I) firing one or more projectiles to collide with that object;
    (II) detonating one or more explosive devices in close proximity to that object;
    (III) directing a source of energy (including molecular or atomic energy, subatomic particle beams, electromagnetic radiation, plasma, or extremely low frequency (ELF) or ultra low frequency (ULF) energy radiation) against that object; or
    (IV) any other unacknowledged or as yet undeveloped means.
    (ii) Inflicting death or injury on, or damaging or destroying, a person (or the biological life, bodily health, mental health, or physical and economic well-being of a person)–
    (I) through the use of any of the means described in clause (i) or subparagraph (B);
    (II) through the use of land-based, sea-based, or space-based systems using radiation, electromagnetic, psychotronic, sonic, laser, or other energies directed at individual persons or targeted populations for the purpose of information war, mood management, or mind control of such persons or populations; or
    (III) by expelling chemical or biological agents in the vicinity of a person.
    (B) Such terms include exotic weapons systems such as–
    (i) electronic, psychotronic, or information weapons;
    (ii) chemtrails;
    (iii) high altitude ultra low frequency weapons systems;
    (iv) plasma, electromagnetic, sonic, or ultrasonic weapons;
    (v) laser weapons systems;
    (vi) strategic, theater, tactical, or extraterrestrial weapons; and
    (vii) chemical, biological, environmental, climate, or tectonic weapons.
    (C) The term `exotic weapons systems’ includes weapons designed to damage space or natural ecosystems (such as the ionosphere and upper atmosphere) or climate, weather, and tectonic systems with the purpose of inducing damage or destruction upon a target population or region on earth or in space.
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    The Photoprotective and antioxidative properties of luteolin are synergistically augmented by tocopherol and ubiquinone.
    Planta Med. 2013 Jul;79(11):963-5
    Authors: Wölfle U, Haarhaus B, Schempp CM
    Abstract
    Ultraviolet radiation induces DNA damage and oxidative stress which can result in skin inflammation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. [F3]The flavonoid luteolin that is present in high amounts in the dyers weld, Reseda luteola, is one of the most potent antioxidative plant metabolites and also has ultraviolet-absorbing properties.The aim of this study was to determine whether tocopherol and ubiquinone add synergistic antioxidative values to luteolin. None of the substances showed cytotoxic effects in concentrations from 0.25 to 4 µg/mL. The photoprotective and antioxidant effect of equivalent concentrations of luteolin, tocopherol, and ubiquinone and their combination in a ratio of 4 : 4 : 1 were studied in solar simulator irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Luteolin had a half-maximal radical scavenging concentration of 2 µg/mL, whereas tocopherol and ubiquinone were only effective at higher concentrations. None of the substances showed a phototoxic effect, and only luteolin had a moderate photoprotective effect at 2 µg/mL. The combination of luteolin, tocopherol, and ubiquinone exerted a synergistic radical scavenging effect already at a concentration of 0.25 µg/mL and a complete photoprotection at 2 µg/mL.In summary, our findings suggest that the potent antioxidant and photoprotective effect of flavonoids like luteolin may be further increased by the addition of low concentrations of other antioxidants such as tocopherol and ubiquinone. –PMID: 23839819 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Using things like hawthorn-rosemary or sage which has a good source of Luteolin by fusing this in oil and then add Cq 10 and vitamin E ( fuse in either almond oil or olive oil which has vitamin E in them naturally) and use –the ratio is 4:4:1 4 parts luteolin-4 parts vitamin E and 1 part cq 10
    100ml would be 4 ml of luteolin- 4 mil Vitamin E 1 mil of Cq 1o
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    Codex Alimentarius-Regulation on food Safety-Lack there of
     
    The concept of “certified organic” goes deeper, though, than a display of governmental avarice. It’s a weapon in the hostile takeover of the food supply, ala Codex Alimentarius. Here are a few highlights of Codex, according to a Natural News article by Dr. Gregory D’Amato:
    * All nutrients (vitamins and minerals) are to be considered toxins/poisons and are to be removed from all food because Codex prohibits the use of nutrients to “prevent, treat or cure any condition or disease”
    * All food (including organic) is to be irradiated, removing all toxic nutrients from food (unless eaten locally and raw).
    * Nutrients allowed will be limited to a Positive List developed by Codex which will include such beneficial nutrients like Fluoride (3.8 mg daily) developed from environmental waste. All other nutrients will be prohibited nationally and internationally to all Codex-compliant countries [2].
    * All nutrients (e.g., CoQ10, Vitamins A, B, C, D, Zinc and Magnesium) that have any positive health impact on the body will be deemed illegal under Codex and are to be reduced to amounts negligible to humans’ health [3].
    * All advice on nutrition (including written online or journal articles or oral advice to a friend, family member or anyone) will be illegal.
    * All dairy cows are to be treated with Monsanto’s recombinant bovine growth hormone.
    * All animals used for food are to be treated with potent antibiotics and exogenous growth hormones.
    * The reintroduction of deadly and carcinogenic organic pesticides that in 1991, 176 countries (including the U.S.) have banned worldwide including 7 of the 12 worst at the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pesticides (e.g., Hexachlorobenzene, Toxaphene, and Aldrin) will be allowed back into food at elevated levels [4].
    * Dangerous and toxic levels (0.5 ppb) of aflotoxin in milk produced from moldy storage conditions of animal feed will be allowed. Aflotoxin is the second most potent (non-radiation) carcinogenic compound known to man.
    * Mandatory use of growth hormones and antibiotics on all food herds, fish and flocks
    * Worldwide implementation of unlabeled GMOs into crops, animals, fish and trees
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    Show of the Month March 8 2o14
    The Power of Local Unity: Small US Town Enacts Free Food Trade
    Scientists find genetic mechanism linking aging to specific diets
    The Photoprotective and antioxidative properties of luteolin are synergistically augmented by tocopherol and ubiquinone
    Noah’s Ark
    Monsanto “Goes Organic” and Wins “Sustainability Award”
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    The Power of Local Unity: Small US Town Enacts Free Food Trade
    Sunday, February 2nd, 2014. Filed under: Activism
    Sedgwick, Maine, the first town in the US to legalize any kind of food transaction as free and legal in order to keep the right to produce raw milk, organic produce, free-range eggs, and more, is revolutionizing the way America keeps its food rights – including saying no to GMOs. In other words, it is the first town to declare food sovereignty while opposing both state and federal laws.
    The town has passed an ordinance that protects citizens’ rights to “produce, sell, purchase, and consume any food of their choosing.” The ordinance laughs in the face of FDA regulations and their hodge-podge way of giving food a rubber stamp of approval, especially GMO. Three additional towns in Maine are expected to pass similar ordinances as well.
    The move is somewhat similar to a move one England town made, where the citizens transformed their entire town’s landscape into a giant food-producing garden. Both are great examples of moving toward food sovereignty.
    It isn’t just a declaration on the whim of a few city council members. There is a warrant added: “It shall be unlawful for any law or regulation adopted by the state or federal government to interfere with the rights recognized by this Ordinance.” This means that federal interference is prohibited in our food supply – at least in Maine. If you can’t get Monsanto out of the government, take the government out of your food. It’s a brilliant way around the convoluted system now in place that almost gave Monsanto the right to be exempt from federal prosecution for its poison food and which tries to hoist it upon the whole Nation without consent.–David Gumpert reports-“What about potential legal liability and state or federal inspections? It’s all up to the seller and buyer to negotiate. “Patrons purchasing food for home consumption may enter into private agreements with those producers or processors of local foods to waive any liability for the consumption of that food. Producers or processors of local foods shall be exempt from licensure and inspection requirements for that food as long as those agreements are in effect.” Imagine that–buyer and seller can agree to cut out the lawyers. That’s almost un-American, isn’t it?”—A simple seller and buyer agreement is entered into where federal regulations can be bypassed by the seller agreeing to consume food grown by their neighbors organically in their garden or by the farm up the street with their own hormone-free dairy cows that customers have known for decades. It takes the feds and their dirty Monsanto money right out of the game. It is commercially grown food that is killing us all, after all – not locally grown food.–For those with their heads in a noodle about bypassing federal laws, the citizens of Maine have stated, “We the radicals who concocted this mutinous act of infamy believe that according to the Home Rule provisions of our State Constitution, the citizens of Sedgwick have the right to enact an ordinance that is “local and municipal in character.”–n Maine, citizens can take advantage of local bounty, seasonal organic crops, and the good-old-fashioned way we used to produce food without Big Ag and commercial interference. Rural America is putting the big city budget of Monsanto to shame with this innovative way of taking down the monopolizing food giant. It’s about time ‘radicals’ in every small town across this nation did the same.
    Additional Sources:
    SedgwickMaine
    +++
    ZenGardner.com
    – See more at: http://www.zengardner.com/power-local-unity-small-us-town-enacts-free-food-trade/#sthash.cBE3ISuO.dpuf
     
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    Scientists find genetic mechanism linking aging to specific diets
    Sean Curran and Shanshan Pang studied C. elegans, a one-millimeter-long worm that scientists have used as a model organism since the 1970s.Your best friend swears by the Paleo Diet. Your boss loves Atkins. Your sister is gluten-free, and your roommate is an acolyte of Michael Pollan. So who’s right? Maybe they all are.-In new research published this month in Cell Metabolism, USC scientists Sean Curran and Shanshan Pang identify a collection of genes that allow an organism to adapt to different diets and show that without them, even minor tweaks to diet can cause premature aging and death.-Finding a genetic basis for an organism’s dietary needs suggests that different individuals may be genetically predisposed to thrive on different diets — and that now, in the age of commercial gene sequencing, people might be able to identify which diet would work best for them through a simple blood test. “These studies have revealed that single gene mutations can alter the ability of an organism to utilize a specific diet. In humans, small differences in a person’s genetic makeup that change how well these genes function, could explain why certain diets work for some but not others[F4],” said Curran, corresponding author of the study and assistant professor with joint appointments in the USC Davis School of Gerontology, the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, and the Keck School of Medicine of USC.-Curran and Pang studied Caenorhabditis elegans, a one-milimeter-long worm that scientists have used as a model organism since the ’70s. Decades of tests have shown that genes in C. elegans are likely to be mirrored in humans while its short lifespan allows scientists to do aging studies on it.-In this study, Curran and Pang identified a gene called alh-6, which delayed the effects of aging depending on what type of diet the worm was fed by protecting it against diet-induced mitochondrial defects. [F5]”This gene is remarkably well-conserved from single celled yeast all the way up to mammals, which suggests that what we have learned in the worm could translate to a better understanding of the factors that alter diet success in humans,” Curran said. Future work will focus on identifying what contributes to dietary success or failure, and whether these factors explain why specific diets don’t work for everyone. This could be the start of personalized dieting based on an individual’s genetic makeup, according to Curran. “We hope to uncover ways to enhance the use of any dietary program and perhaps even figure out ways of overriding the system(s) that prevent the use of one diet in certain individuals,” he said.–Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by University of Southern California. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. -Journal Reference-Shanshan Pang, Sean P. Curran. Adaptive Capacity to Bacterial Diet Modulates Aging in C. elegans. Cell Metabolism, 2014; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2013.12.005
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    The photoprotective and antioxidative properties of luteolin are synergistically augmented by tocopherol and ubiquinone.
    Planta Med. 2013 Jul;79(11):963-5
    Authors: Wölfle U, Haarhaus B, Schempp CM
    Abstract
    Ultraviolet radiation induces DNA damage and oxidative stress which can result in skin inflammation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. [F6]The flavonoid luteolin that is present in high amounts in the dyers weld, Reseda luteola, is one of the most potent antioxidative plant metabolites and also has ultraviolet-absorbing properties.The aim of this study was to determine whether tocopherol and ubiquinone add synergistic antioxidative values to luteolin. None of the substances showed cytotoxic effects in concentrations from 0.25 to 4 µg/mL. The photoprotective and antioxidant effect of equivalent concentrations of luteolin, tocopherol, and ubiquinone and their combination in a ratio of 4 : 4 : 1 were studied in solar simulator irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Luteolin had a half-maximal radical scavenging concentration of 2 µg/mL, whereas tocopherol and ubiquinone were only effective at higher concentrations. None of the substances showed a phototoxic effect, and only luteolin had a moderate photoprotective effect at 2 µg/mL. The combination of luteolin, tocopherol, and ubiquinone exerted a synergistic radical scavenging effect already at a concentration of 0.25 µg/mL and a complete photoprotection at 2 µg/mL.In summary, our findings suggest that the potent antioxidant and photoprotective effect of flavonoids like luteolin may be further increased by the addition of low concentrations of other antioxidants such as tocopherol and ubiquinone. –PMID: 23839819 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Using things like hawthorn-rosemary or sage which has a good source of Luteolin by fusing this in oil and then add Cq 10 and vitamin E ( fuse in either almond oil or olive oil which has vitamin E in them naturally) and use –the ratio is 4:4:1 4 parts luteolin-4 parts vitamin E and 1 part cq 10
    100ml would be 4 ml of luteolin- 4 mil Vitamin E 1 mil of Cq 1o
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    Noah’s Ark
    Everything I need to know, I learned from Noah’s Ark .
    ONE: Don’t miss the boat.
    TWO: Remember that we are all in the same boat!
    THREE: Plan ahead. It wasn’t raining when Noah built the Ark.
    FOUR: Stay fit. When you’re 60 years old, someone may ask you to do something really big.
    FIVE: Don’t listen to critics; just get on with the job that needs to be done.
    SIX: Build your future on high ground.
    SEVEN: For safety’s sake, travel in pairs.
    EIGHT: Speed isn’t always an advantage. The snails were on board with the cheetahs.
    NINE: When you’re stressed, float awhile.
    TEN: Remember, the Ark was built by amateurs; the Titanic by professionals.
    ELEVEN: No matter the storm, when you are with God, there’s always a rainbow waiting.
    ****************************************************************************
    Monsanto “Goes Organic” and Wins “Sustainability Award”
    Posted By ANH-USA On February 18, 2014 @ 3:00 pm In Real, Not Phony Food Safety, Say No to GMO |
    This isn’t a spoof. In addition to this story, we’ll provide you with a round-up of GMO-related news, including why your neighbor may shortly be planting GMO grass right next to you. Action Alerts! –We won’t spend time in this article reiterating past research on why genetically modified organisms [1] (GMOs) are dangerous—you probably already know that they can randomly produce toxic effects [2]; introduce alarming levels of chemicals [3] into our ecosystems and diet; and have been shown to cause [4] serious health problems—but there have been some recent developments in GMO politics, science, and regulation that we want to share with you.
    Here are the news items we’ll cover:
    Monsanto Wins Award for…“Sustainability”? [5]
    GMOs Aren’t Enough—Monsanto Wants to Monopolize Conventional and Organic Crops, Too. Action Alert! [6]
    Is Someone Growing Unregulated GMO Grass Right Next to You? Action Alert! [7]
    All Eyes on New Global Precedent for GMO Contamination [8]
    Industrial Herbicides Are Even More Toxic Than We Thought [9]
    Is Industry Persuading Scientists to Quash Chilling Scientific Findings? [10]
    Monsanto Wins Award for…“Sustainability”?
    When most of us think of sustainability, we think of environmental practices that will allow current and future generations to enjoy nutritious, locally farmed foods, clean water, pure air, and a non-toxic, natural world. As the concept has developed, it’s also become applicable to other realms, including economics and healthcare. For example, ANH-USA advocates for [11] sustainable healthcare—practices that allow you to naturally maintain your health and extend your lifespan.
    To the EPA, [12] sustainability “creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony,[F7] that permit fulfilling the social, economic and other requirements of present and future generations.”–Taking these definitions into account, it may surprise you to learn that last month, Monsanto—yes, the same Monsanto whose expensive seeds caused an estimated 125,000 Indian farmers [13] to commit suicide—was recognized [14] as one of 2014’s Global 100 Most Sustainable Corporations in the World.[F8]–Monsanto was ranked 37th on overall sustainability, 5th among American companies, and 5th globally in the materials industry by an organization called Corporate Knights [15] (CK), a media and investment advisory company whose flagship magazine has one of the world’s largest circulations and is published quarterly as inserts in the Washington Post and the Globe and Mail (UK).
    Ubiquitous as CK is, we find their criteria for “sustainability” [16]—also called their “key performance indicators”—more than a little absurd:
    Energy productivity
    Carbon productivity
    Water productivity
    Waste productivity
    Innovation capacity
    Percent tax paid
    CEO to Average Employee Pay
    Pension fund status
    Safety performance
    Employee turnover
    Leadership diversity
    “Clean capitalism” pay link (rewards “companies that have set up mechanisms to link the remuneration of senior executives with the achievement of clean capitalism goals or targets”)
    As one University of Toronto business ethics professor noted, [17] “Only the first four actually have something to do with what most of us mean by ‘sustainability.’ The rest are…not relevant to the question of sustainable use of resources, or to the notion of sustainable economic growth that is compatible with environmental conservation.”–And even the first four have nothing to do with the environment, and everything to do with profits. After all, the award-givers define “energy productivity” as how much revenue companies can squeeze out of one unit of energy. The health of the environment literally has nothing to do with it.–For the countless natural health practitioners, organic farmers, consumers, and activists who unceasingly fight and sacrifice to “walk the walk” of sustainability, the bastardization of this important term is not a joke. It is offensive.–Perhaps “excellence in sustainability” is CK’s code for “excellence in propaganda.” As we’ve consistently reported, there is nothing sustainable about Monsanto and their GMO seeds. For example, GMOs do not increase crop yields [18]. A 2009 Union of Concerned Scientists report [19] found that GMO soybeans do not produce increased yields, that GMO corn only marginally increases yields, and that no GMO crop has even been found to have intrinsic yield (meaning, yield in “real life,” and not laboratory, conditions).—We’re not quite sure who CK thinks they’re fooling, or what they get out of this nonsense. A more interesting question is why Monsanto is trying so hard to “greenwash” its image. –Meanwhile the Geneva-based Covalence group placed Monsanto dead last on a list of 581 global companies ranked by their reputation for ethics. For more on this, see chapter 11 of Crony Capitalism in America 2008–12 [20], a book recently published by ANH-USA’s board president, Hunter Lewis.
    GMOs Aren’t Enough—Monsanto Wants to Monopolize Conventional and Organic Crops, Too. Action Alert!
    Since it purchased the company in 2008 [21], Monsanto has been quietly cultivating its Seminis brand, as well as several other semi-anonymous brands, to breed and sell seeds that aren’t GMO. –To create these seeds, Monsanto and its minions are claiming to use nothing more than traditional crossbreeding [22] (where plants with desirable qualities are laboriously “mated” until they yield progeny with the targeted traits). This process takes quite a bit of “time, land, and patience [23].”–Don’t be fooled: Monsanto isn’t using your grandparents’ crossbreeding. They’re engaging in a highly technical process that appears to takes place in a lab, not a field, and also appears to involve manipulation on the genetic level [24].Worse yet, they don’t seem to want to make foods healthier. For example, Monsanto is attempting to breed fruits and vegetables that taste sweeter than their traditional counterparts [25]. Read: they’re engineering a way to add more sugar than nature intended. The last thing that most people need is more sugar or fructose in their diet.–Is this a blatant attempt to win back the “hearts and minds” of consumers? According to one Monsanto official, “There isn’t a reputation silver bullet, but it helps.”–There is another important question to ask here: If Monsanto truly believes that GMOs are the future, why are they investing in conventional crops?–There’s no way to know for sure, but it’s possible that Monsanto doesn’t have faith in its own product: the company is already facing consumer pressure and emerging long-term health problems associated with GMOs.–For this reason, they could simply be hedging their bets. What if, in the future, the scientific consensus is that GMOs are harmful, or there’s a GMO-sparked environmental disaster, or the government decides to intervene? They may think they have to prepare for the possibility that GMOs may eventually fail. Seminis and its sister subsidies are Monsanto’s “insurance:” if GMOs crash and burn, they have a conventional cash cow to fall back on.[F9]
    Is Someone Growing Unregulated GMO Grass Right Next to You? Action Alert!
    In July 2011 [27], the USDA—often characterized as a power-hungry agency [28]—gave GMOs a regulatory hall pass. The agency determined that, thanks to a tiny technical loophole [29], they had no oversight over GMO Kentucky bluegrass [30]. This meant that the grass—and any GMOs created via the same GMO technique [31]—could be planted anywhere, at anytime, with zero government oversight.–The public backlash was immediate, though we knew at the time that the true extent of this disastrous decision wouldn’t be felt for years to come. Unfortunately, we were right.–Late last month, Scott’s Miracle-Gro quietly announced [32] that their employees will “test” the Roundup-resistant GMO grass by planting it in their home lawns in Marysville, Ohio. Scott’s hopes to have thousands more consumers planting their GMO grass by 2016—and thanks to the USDA, there’s no framework in place to keep this from happening.
    Alarmingly, if your neighbor plants GMO grass, your lawn may become full GMOs, too. Cross-contamination of non-GMO crops is already a reality. Pollen can travel anywhere from the length of three football fields to thousands of miles away [33]. Given this, and the fact there’s little to no space between suburban lawns—it’s completely unrealistic to assume GMO grass will stay where it’s planted.–It will be interesting to see whether GMO lawn grass producers sue you for having their grass when it spreads into your lawn. That is what Monsanto has done for years to innocent neighboring farmers. Since suing each suburban neighborhood is presumably not a workable model, what new one will devised?–The truth is that we are at a now-or-never moment with respect to GMOs in America[F10]. The more these seeds are released into the air, neighboring farms, and now suburban lawns, the harder it will be to stop them–Write to the USDA[F11] immediately and tell the agency to stop protecting the biotech industry at the public’s expense! GMO Kentucky bluegrass shouldn’t be allowed due to a technical loophole—otherwise, GMOs created via the same GMO technique as this grass could be planted anywhere, at anytime, with zero government oversight.
    All Eyes on New Global Precedent for GMO Contamination
    GMO crops have been known to contaminate organic crops, bringing severe economic damage to small farmers. The problem has gotten so pervasive that the Organic Seed Growers and Trade Association has had to publish a seventy-page booklet [35] on how to avoid (and test for) GMO contamination.–For example, one organic corn grower [36] whose crops were contaminated was forced to sell her corn for $1.67 a bushel—far below the $4 market price for organic corn.–All eyes are now on an Australian court case [37], wherein one farmer is suing Monsanto for the GMO contamination of his organic wheat and oat crop. The episode resulted in the farmer losing his organic certification and export license (Australia has a zero tolerance policy for GMO material in organic products)—the keys to his very livelihood.–The outcome of this case could set a global precedent, and seriously affect the regulation of organics to protect the interests of GMO growers and producers (sad to say, it will almost certainly not be vice versa). We’ll continue to watch it very closely.–Meanwhile, a recent Supreme Court ruling confirmed that Monsanto can sue farmers [38] whose crops are contaminated—even if it’s not their fault, because Monsanto has promised to behave better and not take advantage of innocent farmers!
    Industrial Herbicides Are Even More Toxic Than We Thought
    The uncontrolled GMO grass “experiment” is even more alarming in light of the growing body of evidence that glyphosate [39], a main chemical component in Monsanto’s Roundup herbicide, is a major health threat.–Keep in mind that GMO Kentucky bluegrass, like some brands of [40] Monsanto’s GMO corn, cotton, and soy seeds, is engineered to be Roundup-resistant. This means that growers can apply as much Roundup as they’d like to kill the weeds they don’t want, while leaving their plants intact. The GMO seed and the herbicide enter the environment together.–Also remember that many weeds are now learning [41] to be Roundup-resistant. To compensate, growers are forced to spray more and more Roundup [42]—which that means more glyphosate in our foods, ecosystems, and bodies, or use even more dangerous chemicals.–Despite assurances by Monsanto and the EPA [43], glyphosate is a hazard to humans, animals, plants, and organic and conventional agriculture. New research published in the International Journal of Toxicology [45] found that commercial glyphosate-based herbicides—at levels far below the normal agricultural applications—are extremely toxic to human many cells, and are lethal to human liver cells.–This research confirms Dr. Charles Benbrook’s [46] and ANH-USA’s investigation into the environmental, economic, and human health effects of glyphosate. Our research found, for example, that glyphosate is toxic to fish and essentially all plant life (if you haven’t read this comprehensive case study, you can download the PDF here [1]).-We should be focusing on reducing our addiction to chemical farming, not coming up with new ways to expose ourselves to more and more toxins. We have the opportunity to solve this problem before the disastrous health effects become widespread and irreversible. Future generations will not get the same chance.
    Is Industry Persuading Scientists to Quash Chilling Scientific Findings?
    Another recent study [47], authored by French researcher Gilles-Eric Séralini and published in BioMed Research International, confirms the International Journal of Toxicity study. It too found that herbicides and pesticides—notably those that are glyphosate-based—are far more toxic than industry and the EPA would lead you to believe. Séralini found that formulations like Roundup were “several times more toxic” than their main ingredient alone (i.e., glyphosate), and that “Roundup was by far the most toxic” of the chemical formulations tested.–Just hours after the study’s publication, Dr. Ralf Reski, a BioMed editor, immediately resigned [48], stating, “I do not want to be connected to a journal that provides [Séralini] a forum for such kind of agitation.”–We wonder: is Dr. Reski really concerned about scientific sensationalism? According to his own résumé [49], his “independent” research is 53% funded by industry. Did Dr. Reski proactively protect his source of funding? Did industry threaten him?–In September 2012, Séralini published a study [50] suggesting that a long-term diet of GMO corn can cause health problems—including breast cancer and severe organ damage—in animals. After a year of artificial controversy, the paper was retracted [51], much to the dismay and protest [52] of a significant part of the scientific community.—Séralini’s peers felt the retraction was made on invalid grounds [53]. It was withdrawn for being poorly designed, despite the fact that it followed almost exactly the same protocol [54] of a trial conducted by Monsanto and published in the same journal. Moreover, they saw in the retraction evidence of undue industry influence on the scientific community: a few months before the study was retracted, a former Monsanto scientist was appointed to the journal in a newly created editorial position [55].–To be published in journals like BioMed, studies go through a thorough editor and peer-review process. BioMed requires [56] an initial review by the editorial office; approval from an editor knowledgeable about the subject in question; and a peer review by between two and five outside evaluators. That’s three layers of intense scrutiny before a study can even be published.–It now seems that Séralini, despite of the integrity of his work, has been blacklisted—a clear warning to other objective, independent researchers.
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    Show of the Month March 15 2o14
    BEEF JUICE
    Beetroot and Hawthorn May Improve Heart Health
    1939 Cancer Act-of the UK
    Oleuropein boosts testosterone level, lowers cortisol secretion, stimulates anabolism
     
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    BEEF JUICE
    The body derives several benefits from regular use of beef juice. It apparently could bring about a strengthening of the body without irritating the cells in the intestinal tract which might bring about a change in the nature of the lymph and the lymphatic functioning that might in turn disturb the body, causing sleeplessness and general irritation. The following readings are commentaries on it plus descriptions of how to prepare it. — “The combinations that have been indicated for the body as to diet are very good; yet we would add the greater strengthening influence without the addition of weight or of heavy foods – which would materially aid, and would not irritate those tendencies for the accumulations or separations in the active forces of mucus that has produced and does produce in the lymph those segregations and accumulations about which the body becomes so disturbed at times. These as we find may be had in the Pure Beef Juice; not broth, but prepared in this manner:
    Take a pound to a pound and a half preferably of the round steak. No fat, no portions other than that which is of the muscle or tendon or strength; no fatty or skin portions. Dice this into half inch cubes, as it were, or practically so. Put same in a glass jar without water in same. Put the jar then into a boiler or container with the water coming about half or three-fourths toward the top of the jar, you see. Preferably put a cloth in the container to prevent the jar from cracking. Do not seal the jar tight, but cover the top. Let this boil (the water, with the jar in same) for three to four hours. Then strain off the juice, and the refuse may be pressed somewhat. It will be found that the meat or flesh itself will be worthless. Place the juice in a cool place, but do not keep too long; never longer than three days, see? Hence the quantity made up at the time depends upon how much or how often the body will take this. It should be taken two to three times a day, but not more than a tablespoonful at the time – and this sipped very slowly. Of course, this is to be seasoned to suit the taste of the body.
    “Also once a day it will be most beneficial to take beef juice as a tonic; not so much the beef itself but beef juice; followed with red wine. Do not mix these, but take both about the same time. Take about a teaspoonful of the beef juice, but spend about five minutes in sipping that much. Then take an ounce of the red wine
    “Q-5. What quantity of beef juice to be taken daily?
    A-5. At least two tablespoonsful, but no fat in same. A tablespoonful is almost equal to a pound of meat or two pounds of meat a day; and that’s right smart for a man that isn’t active!” (1424-2)
    “Beef juice should be taken regularly as medicine, a teaspoonful four times a day at least, but when taken it should be sipped, not just taken as a gulp.” (5374-1)
    “As we find, we would use small quantities at a time – but take almost as medicine – of the beef juices … This is easily assimilated, gives strength and vitality, and is needed with the vital forces of the body in the present. Take at least a tablespoonful during the day, or two tablespoonsful. But not as spoonsful; rather sips of same. This, sipped in this manner, will work towards producing the gastric flow through the intestinal system, first in the salivary reactions to the very nature of the properties themselves, second with the gastric flow from the upper portion of the stomach or through the cardiac reaction at the end of the esophagus that produces the first of the lacteals’ reaction to the gastric flows in the stomach or digestive forces themselves; thirdly making for an activity through the pylorus and the duodenum that becomes stimulating to the activity of the flows without producing the tendencies for accumulation of gases.”
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    IV. Nitrogenous Foods. Meat Teas, Meat Extracts, Meat Juices, Peptones And Peptonoids, And Dried Meat Powders
    (l) Foods prepared from meat are sold under the name of meat teas, meat extracts, meat juices, peptones and peptonoids, and dried meat powders. Some are supposed to have marvellous nutritive value because of the evaporation of a watery extract of the meat, or of the juice expressed from meat, into a fluid which is stated to contain the nutritive elements of the original muscle fibre in a concentrated form. Others base their claims on the predigestion of the protein before concentration. It is not invariably true that these preparations are made from meat. The absence of creatinin, in some specimens, suggests that these particular ones are purely artificial products.—Analyses of various meats show that the average percentage of protein is about 20 and that it is, therefore, impossible to concentrate meat down to less than a fifth of its bulk, if the total nutritive value of the protein is to be retained. Reference to the tables of analyses of these nitrogenous foods shows that in few instances does the percentage of protein equal that of the original meat from which the food is made, while in many it is very considerably less, even if undiluted. In those cases in which the percentage of protein is high, the food is usually given diluted with a large quantity of water. –The high percentage of extractives in many of these preparations proves that they are fluid extracts of meat. These extractives are of no nutritive value, throw an extra strain on the liver and kidneys, and are probably actively injurious. The high proportion of salts and extractives leads to thirst and diarrhoea, if these foods are given in large quantities.[F12] -A. In the ordinary process of making beef tea and clear soups the product is strained and the protein, coagulated by heat, which forms the nutritious sediment, deprived of its stimulating taste, is usually thrown away. A weak gelatinous fluid is left which is converted into a firm jelly on cooling, if the gelatin amounts to one per cent. Beef tea is often made in institutions from some one or other of the various meat extracts, instead of from fresh meat, so it is worth while to consider the nutritive value and the expense of these different preparations.
    Approximate Composition Of Beef Tea Preparations
    Water. Proteins. Extractives. Mineral Ash.
    Mason’s – strong beef tea . 8902 686 2.47 1.65
    Bovril Co. – Vril, albuminous beef tea…………… 84.00 1017 417 1.66
    Brand’s – fibrous beef tea . 83.21 11.40 452 086
    According to the Lancet analysis Mason’s beef tea contains meat fibre 3.74 per cent, soluble albuminoids and extractives 10.58, mineral salts 2.37.
    A comparison of the above preparations with beef tea, as ordinarily made, is distinctly to their advantage. Home made beef tea contains about 1.5 per cent of protein and, if made by the boiling process, may contain considerably less. An analysis of a sample of that made at St. Thomas’s Hospital yielded the following results (The Hospital, June 11, 1904) : –
    Water . . . . ….. 96030
    Fat………. 0199
    Insoluble protein and meat fibre . . . . 0.208
    Soluble proteins and gelatin . . . . . 1.342
    Meat bases …….. 0.608
    Non-nitrogenous extractive matters …. 0.843
    Mineral matters ……. 0.770
    The total dry solids amounted to 3.97 per cent and of that 1.55 per cent only, inclusive of gelatin, was of value as food.
    The price of beef tea made from various foods is given in the following table (The Hospital, June 1, 1907): –
    Name of Food. Price. Amount Required. Cost per Pint.
    Lemco …. 5s. 6d. per lb. 1 lb. for 60 pints Id. and a fraction
    Ramornie1 . 5s. „ 1 oz. „ 3 „ Ditto
    Oxo….. 3s. 9d. l 1b. „ 22 „ 2d.
    Nursing Oxo2 . 4s. „ l 1b. „ 22 „ 2 1/5d.
    Invalid Bovril . 4s. 6d. 3 oz. „ 4 „ 2 1/4d.
    Mason’s beef tea – – 3 1/2 d.
    Brand’s beef tea 10d. 31b. „ 7 „ 4 1/4d.
    Oxvil …. – – 5d.
    Foreign meat . 2d. – 3d. ,, – l 1/2 – 2d.
    These results are based on institutional prices. The price per pint is not an absolute criterion of the value, unless we regard these preparations as of such little use for nutritive purposes that the actual percentages of protein can be neglected. Probably this is true, for the amount of protein which can be taken in this form is really remarkably small.
    These foods may be restorative and stimulant, but they are certainly only feebly nutritive and are an expensive form of diet. The use of beef tea and meat extracts depends on the fact that in digestive disorders and in fevers, in which digestion is impaired, the appetite is bad, and the tongue furred, the patient dislikes food, but can take a hot, clean, non-cloying fluid which by virtue of the heat has some stimulating and nutritive properties [F13]. These preparations have a great influence on the minds of the patient and friends, who are apt to dread abstinence from food as a source of extreme danger and have an abounding faith in the nutritive value of beef teas, jellies and meat extracts. As a food milk is infinitely superior. There is one advantage in these foods which must not be overlooked. They encourage appetite and the secretion of gastric juice. A few tablespoonfuls of clear soup or of a diluted meat extract, taken at the beginning of dinner or just beforehand, will improve both appetite and digestion. A large amount may be harmful by unduly diluting the gastric juice. They may be regarded as concentrated flavouring substances of meat the nutritive matters being extracted. Liebig’s Extract was the first and remains the most typical of these meat extracts. As originally made it is practically free from protein and fat. It is a concentrated watery extract of meat, heated under pressure, filtered and evaporated.
    1 Liebig’s Extract of Meat as prepared by the Australian Meat Co.
    2 Peptonized.

    #2687
    AvatarEK
    Keymaster

    The Approximate Composition Of Meat Extracts
    Water. Proteins . and Gelatin Extractives. . N.free.
    Sub- Mineral stances Ash.
    etc.
    References and Remarks.
    Armour’s Extract1 24.30 ! 16.08 20.55 20.06 19.03
    15.55 10.89 43.23 4.122 25.91 Food and Sanitation,l893
    Bovril 44.40 16.94 20.32 __ 18.32 Stutzer, 1897
    39.58 912 34.10 1.292 13.52 Chittenden
    Bovril Fluid Beef1 38.10 12.24 1204 19.75 17.87 –
    Invalids’ Bovril1 21.82 21.42 39.60 – 17.16 –
    21.16 16.66 16.13 29.23 16.82 Allen’s commercial analysis
    Bouillon Fleet . 61.95 11.81 9.87 3.87 12.50 Tatlock
    Brand’s Beef Bouillon 1 36.27 9.58 19.34 19.75 15.07 –
    Brand’s Essence. 87.17 10.433 1.01
    1.39 Candy, vide Hutchison, 1904. The juice of beef, mutton, veal or chicken, without any addition
    Hipi …. 42.00 43.00 – 6.60 8.40 Medical Press, 1899. A mutton extract
    Lemco1 . 17.80 16.48 3812 6.00 21.50 –
    Liebig’s Extract 20.06 0.06 55.72 0.912 24.04 Chittenden. Fat and protein free.
    18.30 9.40 30.00 18.602 23.60 Tankard
    Mason’s Essence 77.07 303 7.47 2.92 9.51 Food and Sanitation,1896 (Hehner)
    Oxine Extract1 . 62.90 13.00 4.54 – 19.60 Hutchison
    Oxo1 . . . 38.10 18.93 2031 5.35 17-31 Meat extract, albumin and fibrin, without fat
    Viking Beef Essence 90.68 3.63 1.85 2.41 1-43 Tankard
    1 Analysis given by the manufacturers.
    2 Ether extract.
    3 Half gelatin.
    4 Including extractives.
    Read more: http://chestofbooks.com/health/nutrition/Diet-Dietetics/IV-Nitrogenous-Foods-Meat-Teas-Meat-Extracts-Meat-Juices-Peptones-And-Pepto.html#.UwenGIVyxbw#ixzz2tzS3EaTx
     
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    Meat Extract –
    A term which in popular usage embraces several products differing considerably in character. That best known and most widely used in the preparation of “Beef tea” is the commercial meat or Beef extract obtained by simple boiling, straining and evaporation without the addition of other ingredients. It consists principally of “extractives,” or meat flavor, together with a certain proportion of mineral salts. The fat is removed, as it would in time render the extract rancid, and nearly all the valuable albuminoids are also lost – they coagulate during the stewing of the meat and are strained off together with the fibrine, etc. Dry albumin is added to some preparations in the final processes, but no attempt is made to carry through the natural Beef albumen as, under the conditions in which meat extract is ordinarily made, marketed and used, it would readily decompose and spoil the product.
    Meat extract of the type described, was formerly rated as a condensed food product of high nutritive value. That position has been entirely abandoned and it is now acknowledged that it is entirely inadequate to support life, but it has retained great importance in both the medical and commercial worlds on the more solid foundation of its indisputable merit as the basis of an agreeable and thoroughly wholesome beverage of mildly stimulating properties. Physicians find it a valuable adjunct in the care of invalids and convalescents, and its meaty taste often lends zest to the necessarily restricted diet of the sick room, exercising a highly beneficial effect by enabling the digestive organs to extract more nutriment from other foods. It is especially useful for mixing with milk – persons who cannot assimilate plain milk can nearly always digest it when flavored with a little Beef extract. Its other uses include its employment in large quantities to give a relish to the condensed foods, such as those made with pease-meal, carried by army commissaries, and its similar familiar employment in the kitchen to enhance the flavor of soups, sauces, etc. It is worth remembering that extract of meat contains those flavoring properties to which is principally due the higher market value of the choice cuts.
    Many almost worthless preparations are, however, sold as “meat extracts” and it is advisable to confine purchases to houses of known reliability.
    Somewhat similar value attaches to properly made commercial preparations of meat juices or “meat extracts,” obtained by pressure of the raw meat and then preserved without cooking.
    A third class contains the soluble albumoses (peptoses) of the meat predigested – i.e., digested by artificial means. The best of these offer food values in important percentages, but their use should be regulated by medical advice
    In spite of the fact that most people enjoy – or at all events do not object to – the strong flavor of the best extracts, their taste and odor are sometimes found quite offensive by those possessing especially delicate palates. When this objection is found by a patient, it can be obviated to a considerable extent by putting a little butter, and plenty of salt in the hot Beef tea.
    Beef tea should always be served hot – if drunk cold, or nearly so, its stimulating property is much reduced.
    Following are the standards for meat extracts and similar products adopted by the Association of State and National Dairy and Food Departments and the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists.
    (1) meat Extract is the product obtained by extracting fresh meat with boiling water, and concentrating the liquid portion by evaporation after the removal of fat, and contains not less than 75% of total solids, of which not over 27% is ash and not over 12% is sodium chloride (calculated from the total chlorine present), not over 0.6% is fat and not less than 8% is nitrogen. The nitrogenous compounds contain not less than 40% of meat bases, and not less than 10% of creatin (a compound found in muscular flesh) and creatinin.
    (2) Fluid meat Extract is identical with meat extract, except that it is concentrated to a lower degree, and contains not more than 75% and not less than 50% of total solids.
    (3) Bone Extract is the product obtained by extracting fresh trimmed bones with boiling water and concentrating the liquid portion by evaporation after removal of fat, and contains not less than 75% of total solids.
    (4) Fluid Bone Extract is identical with bone extract, except that it is concentrated to a lower degree and contains not more than 75% and not less than 50% of total solids.
    (5) meat Juice is the fluid portion of muscle fibre, obtained by pressure or otherwise, and may be concentrated by evaporation at a temperature below the coagulating point of the soluble proteins. The solids contain not more than 15% of ash, not more than 2.5% of sodium chloride (calculated from the total chlorine present), not more than 4% nor less than 2% of phosphoric acid and not less than 12% of nitrogen. The nitrogenous bodies contain not less than 35% of coagulable proteins and not more than 40% of meat bases.
    For a number of years after its first introduction, the greater part of both the European and American supply came from the Argentine Republic, in which country the Liebig Company, the original manufacturer, established its first factory. The United States is now one of the principal producers.
    Home-Made Beef Tea, meat Juices, etc. In contrast to that from commercial meat Extract, home-made “Beef tea,” as generally prepared, is entitled to rank as both food and stimulant, as it contains a fair percentage of protein and fat, in addition to the gelatine and
     
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    Beetroot and Hawthorn May Improve Heart Health
    A recent study conducted by the University of Texas (UT) and Neogenis Laboratories suggests that a dietary supplement containing beetroot and hawthorn beery may boost heart health.–Beetroot and hawthorn berry both affect the body’s nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway. The resulting NO compound is important to cardiovascular health because it dilates blood vessels, thereby lowering blood pressure (one of the most significant predictors of heart disease) and improving blood flow. Researchers tested the effects of a combination of the two herbs on NO availability. Beetroot was selected for study because it contains high levels of nitrate. Similarly, hawthorn berries have a high activity of the enzyme nitrite reductase, facilitating the conversion of nitrite to NO.—Previous research on the hawthorn berry has already shown promise for its use in treating heart conditions. In a review of literature, Pittler et al. found hawthorn berry effective in improving symptoms of chronic heart failure, including impaired heart workload capacity. Other researchers found that hawthorn berry effectively reduced blood pressure in healthy subjects. The previous literature has not yet established beetroot’s effectiveness in treating heart problems.—In the UT study, 30 participants, all above the age of 40, were randomly assigned to consume either the herb blend Neo40 Daily® or a placebo twice daily for 30 days. The subjects all presented with at least three of the following known risk factors for cardiovascular disease: elevated blood pressure (hypertension), obesity, high blood lipid levels (hyperlipidemia), diabetes, family history of heart disease, sedentary lifestyle, and history of smoking.—After 30 days of therapy, the herb supplement group had significant increases in NO levels, as compared to the placebo group. Furthermore, 72 percent of the individuals in the herbal supplement group experienced statistically significant reductions in blood triglyceride levels, another risk factor for heart disease.–This study provides evidence for the herbs use in reducing risk for cardiovascular disease. However, additional research is needed to completely qualify the relationship between diet, NO availability and heart disease.
    References
    Pittler MH, Guo R, Ernst E. Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD005312. View Abstract
    Zand J, Lanza F, Garg HK, et al. All-natural nitrite and nitrate containing dietary supplement promotes nitric oxide production and reduces triglycerides in humans. Nutr Res. 2011 Apr;31(4):262-9. View Abstract
    Simple Remedy—take hawthorn leaf and add to it beets in equal weight ( example 2 oz of each) then take either red wine or alcohol ( ethanol) and add 6 oz and then blend down for 7-10 minutes—strain and use anywhere from 1 tablespoon to 1 oz daily several times a day
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    (OMNS Aug 3, 2012) Most citizens of Great Britain are totally unaware of the 1939 Cancer Act which effectively prevents them from finding out about different treatments for cancer.
    Excerpts from the UK 1939 Cancer Act:
    “4 – (1) No person shall take any part in the publication of any advertisement – (a) containing an offer to treat any person for cancer, or to prescribe any remedy therefor, or to give any advice in connection with the treatment thereof; or (b) referring to any article, or articles of any description, in terms which are calculated to lead to the use of that article, or articles of that description, in the treatment of cancer. —In this section the expression “advertisement” includes any “notice, circular, label, wrapper or other document, and any announcement made orally or by any means of producing or transmitting sounds”. [1] –Publication of such advertisements is permitted to a very restrictive group comprising members of either House of Parliament, local authority, governing bodies of voluntary hospitals, registered or training to become registered medical practitioners, nurses or pharmacists, and persons involved in the sale or supply of surgical appliances. A very tight grip, therefore, is exercised on information that is fed to citizens of Great Britain; interestingly, the Act does not apply to Northern Ireland. —That pretty much wraps it up, and wraps us (in Britain) up in the legal stranglehold that this outdated Act still exerts. Was this enacted to protect the citizens from charlatans and “quacks” or to safeguard the interests of the National Radium Trust, to whom the British Government lent money?[F14] If no one is allowed to tell us, how can we, the general public, ever find out what alternatives there are to those offered by mainstream medicine, mainly surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy?
    No Freedom of Therapy, Information, or Assembly
    My colleague, Sarah Ling, and I unwittingly found ourselves in a maelstrom when we decided to hold a convention in Birmingham, later this year, to do just that – inform the general public about some of the other ways to tackle this hideous disease than those generally doled out to their mostly trusting, but fear-filled patients. A well-justified fear of the actual treatments as well as the disease prevails. –Last year, Sarah’s sister was diagnosed with an aggressive form of cancer. Chemotherapy was the only treatment offered, which she accepted out of fear. She nearly died within hours of having it, and very sadly died days afterwards. Sarah was determined to help prevent others from enduring such trauma and so, under the umbrella of our Institute (The Cambridge Institute of Complementary Health), we organised a convention to educate people – conventional/complementary health professionals and the general public – about different ways to treat people who have cancer. —We quickly drew up a short list of speakers that we felt would have much to contribute, including Dr Stanislaw Burzynski who agreed to come and talk about his pioneering work on antineoplastins. —After posting our speakers on our web-site, one, an oncologist, pulled out due to a malevolent e-mail she had received, questioning her wisdom at sharing a platform with Dr Burzynski. She didn’t want to cause her team any controversy. We then discovered that we had attracted a lot of adverse attention that was derogatory, critical of our speakers, casting aspersions on them and on us as an organisation. Unfortunately Dr Burzynski decided not to come – so as not to expose us to the sort of attacks that he has suffered. Regrettably, the public lost an opportunity to hear first-hand of his pioneering treatments in tackling cancers, including inoperable brain tumours.[F15] –Two speakers down, we then found ourselves possibly contravening the archaic Cancer Act. We’ve had to be extremely careful in how we word any publications relating to the convention so that the Advertising Standards Agency doesn’t come down on us like a ton of bricks and prevent us from holding it at all. Britain cherishes its long-held tradition of freedom of speech, but in recent years that seems questionable. However, we can still hold debates, and that is what we are doing.
    We are aware that efforts will be made to stop us, from those who are not seekers of truth. If they were truly interested in the welfare of people, they would be advocating most of the alternative/complementary approaches instead of deriding them and trying to close down clinics and individuals who practise them, via the Advertising Standards Agency. This ridiculous Act affords them the guise of protecting the public and gives them ammunition that they can use against persons advocating alternatives.
    We can’t hold an open day of education on treating cancer in this country: how bizarre is that? How much longer can this information be contained?
    The Cost of Ignorance
    The UK National Health Service is overstretched and, as more and more people contract cancer (one in three presently), the rising costs of expensive and often ineffective treatments will surely mean they have to look at alternatives. —
    Conventional healthcare professionals are too often ignorant of the enormous value of unconventional treatments. How can they be otherwise, as those outside of their profession are prohibited from alluding to the fact that they can help treat cancer? Shockingly, even nutrition is most often totally overlooked during orthodox cancer treatment, and the very foods that promote cancers are given to patients in our hospitals sometimes in order to maintain calorie intake. There is frequently no advice on diet, that most crucial aspect of our health. [2] –
    Thankfully, some oncologists do recognise the benefits that alternative/complementary treatments offer. [3] Hopefully more and more will come to accept that integrating the best of conventional and complementary/alternative methods is the way forward.
    It is our opinion that a reform of the 1939 Cancer Act is long overdue. The tenacious grip that it holds on treating cancer must be relinquished, so that patients and their healthcare providers can make an informed choice as to what approach may be best for their individual needs. -(Madeline C. Hickey-Smith has an honours degree in biology and is cofounder of the Cambridge Institute of Complementary Health http://cichealth.org.uk . The direct link to the convention page is http://cichealth.org.uk/#/cancer-convention/4566602766 .)
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    Oleuropein boosts testosterone level, lowers cortisol secretion, stimulates anabolism
    Oleuropein is a compound that occurs naturally in olive oil and helps the body to use proteins more economically. In a Japanese study, published in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, rats that had a protein-rich diet retained no less than 46 percent more protein when large amounts of oleuropein were added to their food. In addition, they produced more testosterone and less cortisol.
    Oleuropein is found in olives, olive oil and leaves of the olive tree. Supplements containing olive-leaf extracts have been on the market for years, and if you look carefully you’ll find cheap extracts containing 25 percent oleuropein.
    The structural formula of the substance is shown below on the left. With a bit of chemical tinkering you can remove the glucose group from the oleuropein molecule, leaving you with a pared-down version – chemists call it an aglycon – of oleuropein. The Japanese experimented with the natural version of oleuropein.
    Seven years ago the Japanese reported that virgin olive oil boosted the metabolism of rats.
    It was the phenol oleuropein that was responsible for this, they discovered later. [J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2008 Oct;54(5):363-70.] Oleuropein boosted the secretion of adrenalin and noradrenalin in rats, and made the brown fat cells burn more fatty acids.
    The discovery of the adrenergic effect of oleuropein prompted some manufacturers to add oleuropein to bodybuilding supplements..
    Fifteen years ago the same researchers discovered that garlic had approximately the same effect. And when the Japanese combined garlic supplementation with a protein-rich diet, they observed that the garlic boosted anabolism: lab animals retained more nitrogen, and produced more testosterone and less cortisol. That’s why the Japanese were curious whether oleuropein also had a similar anabolic effect.
    The researchers gave three groups of rats food containing 10, 25 or 40 percent protein [Casein] for 28 days. Half of the rats in each group were given food containing 1 g oleuropein per kg.
    The researchers counted the number of nitrogen molecules in the urine and droppings of the rats, which enabled them to calculate how much nitrogen the rats retained. The more nitrogen you retain, the more proteins your body builds up. Nitrogen is an essential component of proteins.
    The rats retained relatively more nitrogen, the more oleuropein they consumed. In the group that ate food containing the most protein, supplementation with oleuropein boosted the amount of nitrogen retained by 46 percent.
    In the rats that ate large amounts of protein, oleuropein tripled the concentration of testosterone in the testes, while the concentration of cortisol in the blood went down by more than half.
    The concentration of LH increased as the researchers introduced increasingly higher concentrations of aglycon made from oleuropein into the rats’ circulatory system. This increased secretion of LH may be a consequence of the higher adrenalin and noradrenalin levels caused by the oleuropein, the Japanese think.
    The researchers believe that these hormonal effects are the key to explaining the anabolic effect of oleuropein.
    “Oleuropein supplementation enhances protein anabolism and suppresses protein catabolism owing to hormonal regulation by the stimulation of steroid hormones via noradrenaline, leading to a higher testicular testosterone level and a lower plasma corticosterone level in rats fed a high-protein diet”, the researchers conclude.
    Interestingly, the rats that were given oleuropein did not put on weight. As far as the researchers could see – although they did not study the effect on body composition extensively – the rats became slimmer. Their fat deposits did shrink at least.
    So doing a quick calculation: a rat eats about 50 g feed per kg bodyweight daily. That means 50 mg oleuropein. Converted to human proportions, that means 8 mg oleuropein per kg bodyweight per day. So if you weigh 80 kg, you’d need 640 mg oleuropein daily. If you can get that quantity out of an olive leaf extract that consists of 25 percent oleuropein, you’d need about 2.6 g extract each day. –That’s manageable.
    Source:
    J Nutr Biochem. 2013 May;24(5):887-93.
    More:
    Diet rich in mono-unsaturated fat boosts EPOC 17.01.2012
    Animal study: olive oil is good for (old) muscles 12.08.2011
    Your body burns unsaturated fat better after exercise 11.11.2010
    Why you stay slimmer more easily with olive oil than with saturated fats 31.10.2010
    Olive oil converts cholesterol more easily into testosterone 01.09.2009
    More adrenalin through olive oil 23.06.2009
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    Damiana – Turnera diffusa.
    J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Jan 24;
    Authors: Szewczyk K, Zidorn C
    Abstract
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Half a dozen of the currently accepted 135 Turnera species are used in traditional medicine, most notably Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. which is one of the most highly appreciated plant aphrodisiacs. Other traditional uses of Turnera L. species include the treatment of anaemia, bronchitis, cough, diabetes, fever, fungal disease, gastrointestinal complaints, pain, pulmonary and respiratory diseases, skin disorders, and women’s health problems. Additionally, Turnera species are used as abortives, expectorants, and laxatives.
    PHYTOCHEMISTRY: Flavonoids (22 different compounds), maltol glucoside, phenolics, cyanogenic glycosides (7 different compounds), monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, the polyterpene ficaprenol-11, fatty acids, and caffeine have been found in the genus Turnera.
    BIOACTIVITY: Bioactivities experimentally proven for members of the genus Turnera encompass antianxiety, antiaromatase, antibacterial including antimycobacterial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, adapatogenic, antiobesity, antispasmodic, cytotoxic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and aphrodisiac activities. Most of these activities have so far been investigated only in chemical, cell based, or animal assays. In contrast, the antiobesity activity was also investigated in a study on healthy human subjects and with a herbal preparation containing among other ingredients T. diffusa leaves. Moreover, the enhancement of female sexual function was assessed in humans; again the product contained besides T. diffusa other potentially bioactive ingredients. However, with only few exceptions, most of the traditional uses and the experimentally verified bioactivities can currently not be related to a particular compound or compound class. A notable exception is the flavonoid apigenin, which was identified animal experiments as the antinociceptive (An antinociceptive factor reduced the sensitivity to a painful stimuli for the individual.”) principle of T. diffusa. CONCLUSION: In this review, the current knowledge on ethnobotanical uses of members of the genus Turnera, the secondary metabolites reported from Turnera, and experimentally documented bioactivities from Turnera extracts and pure compounds derived from Turnera extracts are compiled. Moreover, some of the most interesting avenues for future research projects are being discussed briefly. These include in particular the aphrodisiac activity of T. diffusa and the antibiotic activity potentiating effect of T. ulmifolia L. against aminoglycoside resistant bacteria.–PMID: 24468305 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
     
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    Estimation of Apigenin, an Anxiolytic Constituent, in Turnera aphrodisiaca.
    Kumar S, Madaan R, Sharma A.
    Author information
    Abstract
    An HPTLC densitometric method has been developed to estimate apigenin in Turnera aphrodisiaca aerial and its segregated parts (leaves, stems, flowers and fruits) so that plant can be standardized on the basis of its bioactive marker. The apigenin content in methanol extract of T. aphrodisiaca aerial parts was found to be about fourteen times less than acid hydrolyzed methanol extract of the plant indicating the presence of most of apigenin in glycosidic form. Amongst different plant parts, flowers possessed maximum content of apigenin followed by leaves. The apigenin content was also determined in three marketed formulations of T. aphrodisiaca viz., NLK, DWSG and SBL. DWSG contained higher content of apigenin. Aerial parts of the plant were collected at bimonthly intervals over a period of one year in the months of January, March, May, July, September and November. The plant material collected in September showed maximum content of apigenin.
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    Show of the Month March 22 2o14
    Recent U.S. snowstorms found to contain elements of entomological warfare
    Epigenetic changes could explain type 2 diabetes
    Top 5 reasons sprouted garlic is good for your health
    The Gut Microbiome and Cancer
    The photoprotective and antioxidative properties of luteolin are synergistically augmented by tocopherol and ubiquinone
    Active extracts of black tea (Camellia Sinensis) induce apoptosis of PC-3 prostate cancer cells via mitochondrial dysfunction
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    Recent U.S. snowstorms found to contain elements of entomological warfare
    The U.S. is now a designated military testing ground for real-time biological and entomological warfare applications using Americans as test subjects under public law 105-85
    “Entomological warfare (EW) is a type of biological warfare that uses insects to attack the enemy. The concept has existed for centuries and research and development have continued into the modern era. EW has been used in battle by Japan and several other nations have developed and been accused of using an entomological warfare program.” – –[F16](INTELLIHUB) —Reporting on the “fake snow” or “polymer snow” that has been found in several U.S. cities, including Atlanta, which was mocked by some including “truther” Mark Dice, who wrote it off as a joke early on.[F17]—However, after researching nearly one-hundred accounts or claims of this “fake snow” that seemly won’t melt, burning oddly under flame, smelling like plastic– There is specualtion that there is something else to this issue and that we are not being told the real truth about the recent cold spells.—So far what we do know is that strange polymer fibers have been found in the snow in several states.–We know that snow recently found in several parts of the eastern U.S. smells like burnt plastic when melted under a flame or in a pan (using no butane).[F18] Samples of the snow have even been taken and dried by Henning Kemner, a researcher who posts videos on YouTube, under controlled circumstances. So far, at least one test conducted by Kimner using 2 pounds of fresh snow has shown a rather impressive yield of an ample amount of a dry white powdery residue which Kemner plans to get analyzed spectrally.–However, even to my surprise, new findings posted on YouTube show that America may be under attack by entomological warfare as vast quantities of fleas [insects] have now been found in new snowfall following low-altitude passes by aircraft in Craig, Montana.–Shockingly, this matches up with diabolical tests conducted on human beings by Biological Warfare Unit #731 during the World War II era.–sadly, Don Tow writes—The largest Japanese biological/chemical warfare laboratory was in Ping Fan, a small village near the city of Harbin, Heilongjiang Province in northeast China, known as Unit 731. Unit 731 was a gigantic complex covering six square kilometers and consisted of more than 150 buildings, with living quarters and amenities for up to 3,000 Japanese staff members, 300-500 of whom were medical doctors and scientists. The complex contained various factories. It had 4,500 containers for raising fleas, six giant cauldrons to produce various chemicals, and around 1,800 containers to produce biological agents. Approximately 30 kg of bubonic plague bacteria could be produced there in several days. Especially in the area of biological weapons, Unit 731 could be considered to be the largest such laboratory ever in the world. Not only that it was state of the art, it significantly extended the state of the art, partially because the Japanese had no reluctance at all to experiment with live patients, including doing autopsies while the victims were still alive.
    You see under public law substantiated in 1997, all of this has been made possible, allowing the testing of chemicals and biological agents on “Civilian population” as pointed out in my documentary film SHADE the Motion Picture.
    Public Law 105–85 105th Congress
    PUBLIC LAW 105-85- NOV. 18, 1997: USE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS FOR TESTING OF CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL AGENTSSEC. 1078. RESTRICTIONS ON THE USE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS FOR TESTING OF CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL AGENTS.(a) PROHIBITED ACTIVITIES. – The Secretary of Defense may not conduct (directly or by contract)(1) any test or experiment involving the use of a chemical agent or biological agent on a civilian population; or(2) any other testing of a chemical agent or biological agent on human subjects.(b) EXCEPTIONS.- Subject to subsections (c), (d), and (e), the prohibition in subsection (a) does not apply to a test or experiment carried out for any of the following purposes:(1) Any peaceful purpose that is related to a medical, therapeutic, pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial, or research activity.[F19]
    (2) Any purpose that is directly related to protection against toxic chemicals or biological weapons and agents.
    (3) Any law enforcement purpose, including any purpose related to riot control.
    So section (a) prohibits these cruel and inhumane chemical and biological tests on humans. Then section (b) says that the prohibitions in section (a) do not apply to tests carried out for virtually any purpose. So section (b) completely negates the prohibitions of section (a).
    Aircrap.org
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    Epigenetic changes could explain type 2 diabetes
    Source-Lund University
    People with type 2 diabetes have epigenetic changes on their DNA that healthy individuals do not have. This has been shown in a major study by researchers at Lund University. The researchers also found epigenetic changes in a large number of genes that contribute to reduced insulin production.–“This shows that the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is not only genetic, but also epigenetic,” said Charlotte Ling, who led the study.–Epigenetic changes occur as a result of factors including environment and lifestyle, and can affect the function of genes. Charlotte Ling and her colleagues have analysed insulin- producing cells of both healthy individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes. The analysis revealed epigenetic changes in approximately 800 genes in those with type 2 diabetes. Over 100 of the genes also had altered expression and many of these could contribute to reduced insulin production. Reduced insulin production is one of the underlying causes of type 2 diabetes.—In order to work out which is the chicken and which is the egg, i.e. whether the epigenetic changes are a consequence of the disease or if the disease is a result of the changes, the researchers also investigated whether healthy individuals had epigenetic changes caused by age, BMI and raised blood sugar levels.–“We were able to observe that a number of epigenetic changes had already taken place in healthy subjects as a result of age or high BMI, and were therefore able to conclude that these changes could contribute to the development of the disease,” said Charlotte Ling. “Unlike genes that can’t be changed, epigenetic changes are reversible,” added Tasnim Dayeh, first author of the publication in PLOS Genetics.–Drugs that cause epigenetic changes have long been used in the treatment of cancer and epilepsy. The new survey changes the view of epigenetics in relation to diabetes, according to Charlotte Ling.–“It shows that epigenetics is of major significance for type 2 diabetes, and can help us to understand why people develop the condition. This also opens the way for the development of future drugs.”—Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by Lund University. —Journal Reference–Tasnim Dayeh, Petr Volkov, Sofia Salö, Elin Hall, Emma Nilsson, Anders H. Olsson, Clare L. Kirkpatrick, Claes B. Wollheim, Lena Eliasson, Tina Rönn, Karl Bacos, Charlotte Ling. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis of Human Pancreatic Islets from Type 2 Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Donors Identifies Candidate Genes That Influence Insulin Secretion. PLoS Genetics, 2014; 10 (3): e1004160 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004160
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    Sprouting Garlic — it has heart-healthy antioxidants
    “Garlic Sprouting Is Associated with Increased Antioxidant Activity and Concomitant Changes in the Metabolite Profile”
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    Scientists are reporting in ACS’ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry that this type of garlic has even more heart-healthy antioxidant activity than its fresher counterparts.–Jong-Sang Kim and colleagues note that people have used garlic for medicinal purposes for thousands of years. Today, people still celebrate its healthful benefits. Eating garlic or taking garlic supplements is touted as a natural way to reduce cholesterol”Click to Continue > by Isaver” levels, blood pressure and heart disease risk. It even may boost the immune system and help fight cancer. But those benefits are for fresh, raw garlic. Sprouted garlic has received much less attention. When seedlings grow into green plants, they make many new compounds, including those that protect the young plant against pathogens. Kim’s group reasoned that the same thing might be happening when green shoots grow from old heads of garlic. Other studies have shown that sprouted beans and grains have increased antioxidant activity, so the team set out to see if the same is true for garlic.—They found that garlic sprouted for five days had higher antioxidant activity than fresher, younger bulbs, and it had different metabolites, suggesting that it also makes different substances. Extracts from this garlic even protected cells in a laboratory dish from certain types of damage. “Therefore, sprouting may be a useful way to improve the antioxidant potential of garlic,” they conclude.
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    Top 5 reasons sprouted garlic is good for your health
    A number of people believe that vegetables and fruits that have sprouted are bad for health as they release chemicals that are toxic for the body. While this might be true for certain fruits and vegetables it does not apply to garlic. That might not necessarily be true, especially in the case of sprouted garlic. While unsprouted garlic is known to help reduce cholesterol”Click to Continue > by Isaver”, keep heart disease at bay, beat cancers, heal skin infections and even help in decongesting a clogged up nose; sprouted garlic has now been found to have amazing benefits for your heart health. Read more about the health benefits of garlic. –According to a study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry [1] sprouted garlic actually has stronger health benefits than unsprouted ones. They conjectured that the pod when sprouted for five days showed the maximum ability to help the human body. -Wondering how it helps? Here are the health benefits of eating sprouted garlic:
    Can fight against cancer: The process of sprouting in garlic stimulates the production of phytochemicals, that have amazing properties like the ability to block the further spread of malignant cancer cells and inhibit the activity of carcinogens (cancer causing chemicals) on the body. Apart from that, garlic also produces a large amount of anti-oxidants that are very useful in scavenging free”Click to Continue > by Isaver” oxygen radicals – one of the main reasons for the formation of cancers.
    Protects your heart: The same way that phytochemicals block the activity of carcinogens, they also boost enzyme activity and block the activities that leads to plaque formation – an important factor in the formation of blockages in the heart. This thereby helps protect you from suffering from heart disease and heart attacks.
    Can prevent strokes: Garlic on its own is a rich source of anjoene a substance that prevents the formation of blood clots. It also is packed with nitrites – a compound that helps dilate (or widen) the arteries. Both these activities in tandem help prevent the onset of strokes (a condition caused by the formation of a blood clot in the blood vessels of the brain). How is sprouted garlic better in preventing strokes? Well during sprouting the amount of phytochemicals present in the garlic pods helps not only enhance the activity of the already present chemicals in garlic but it also blocks the activity of blood clot forming chemicals – making it a better agent against strokes.
    Helps prevent wrinkles”Click to Continue > by Isaver” and premature ageing: We all know that antioxidants help prevent premature ageing by scavenging free”Click to Continue > by Isaver” radicals in our body – the leading cause of ageing in our body. But according to the study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, garlic pods sprouted for five days have the highest antioxidant activity – making them an elixir for your body. Not only will it prevent the appearance of wrinkles”Click to Continue > by Isaver” but also has the potential to stop the deterioration of organs (something that takes place as we age).
    Strengthens your immune system: If you suffer from frequent cold and cough or infections its time you ate some sprouted garlic. That is because sprouted garlic – especially those that have been sprouted for five days – gives your body a strong dose of anti-oxidants. These anti-oxidants in turn strengthen your immune system by protecting the very cells that kill off infections. So, if you want to stay healthy all year round, here is your chance”Click to Continue > by Isaver” – load up on sprouted garlic.
    How to sprout garlic
    Garlic normally sprouts on its own if left in the open. But if you want to sprout them at home without drying them out here is how you can do it:–Take a pod of garlic and without peeling it gently poke in two tooth picks on either side of the garlic. Make sure you place the toothpicks on the more fleshy part of the pod. Now take a small and narrow glass cup and fill it with water (tap water should do. Do not add anything to the water). Next, using the two toothpicks as stands, balance the garlic pod on the rim of the glass, such that the narrow part is partly submerged in the water.–Keep this glass on a window sill where it will get enough sunlight. Allow it to stay there for five days, making sure the tip is submerged in the water. Once it is sprouted you can wash and eat the garlic
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    The Gut Microbiome and Cancer
    Our gut microbiota influence cancer susceptibility of our digestive tract as well as distant organs including the skin, lungs, breasts and liver
    Dr Eva Sirinathsinghji
    Cancer is a leading disease in industrialised nations and the incidence is
    rising sharply in developing nations as a result of aging demographics,
    “westernised” diets, exposure to chemical carcinogens and inactivity. Though
    there are genetic causes for certain cancers that give a significant risk to the
    individual carrier e.g. BRCA1 mutations and breast cancer, most cancers are
    linked to environmental factors. Despite this overriding environmental determinant in cancer susceptibility, we still know relatively little about the environmental factors involved. Recent research on the gut microbiota reveals a complex and important role that this ‘forgotten organ’ may play, not only in preventing or promoting carcinogenesis, but also in modifiying the efficacy of different therapies.–Clues that the bugs in our guts may influence cancer development have been around at least since the late 19th century when anti-tumour effects were observed in sarcoma patients after bacterial infections or following the
    injection of heat-killed bacteria (Coley’s toxin) [1, 2]. In the 1970s, studies
    of germ-free mice suggested tumour-promoting effects of the microbiota in spontaneous, carcinogen-induced and genetically-induced cancer models. Indeed, there is now a well known association of the gut microbiota with inflammation and metabolism, two hallmarks of cancer, with germ-free animals displaying decreased weight gain and resistance to obesity, hypoglycaemia and low insulin. With the advent of metabolomics and deep sequencing techniques, researchers are beginning to decipher the role of specific microbes as well as specific global microbiotic profiles associated with different cancers. These discoveries are leading to new avenues of research into cancer prevention and treatment.
    One bug, two bugs, all or none?
    The relationship between our gut microbiota and cancer appears to be complex,
    involving both specific microbial species as well as dysregulation of the global
    microbiota, called dysbiosis. Epidemiological studies have linked a number of
    cancers to individual microbes, e.g. the human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical
    cancer; H.pylori in gastric cancer; chronic infection in hepatitis B virus
    (HBV); hepatitis c virus (HCV) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); chronic
    Salmonella enterica subsp infection in gallbladder cancer; infection with
    Chlamydia pneumonia in the development of lung cancer; and infection with
    Haemophilus influenza and Candida albicans in the development of lower
    respiratory tract malignancies [3-6]. The clearest example for bacterially
    driven carcinogenesis is H.pylori infection, with epidemiological studies
    suggesting it is responsible for 1-3 % of gastric cancer cases of H.pylori
    infected individuals. This microbe has been widely defined as a carcinogen by public health institutions including the International Agency for Research on Cancer [7].—Most of the microbiome differences seen in cancer studies involve dysbiosis of the overall microbial community. Even in those ‘one microbe –one disease’ cases, the story appears more complicated than it seems. With H. pylori infection and gastric cancer, mice colonised with this species alone develop fewer gastric tumours than those colonised with a complex mixture of species [8]. It is interesting to note that H.pylori is also linked to a lower risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in humans, emphasising the organ-specific effect of bacterial communities on carcinogenesis [9]. The emerging understanding of colorectal cancer is similarly complex, with metagenomic studies showing underrepresentation of two bacterial phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes as well as overrepresentation of the invasive Fusobacterium nuculeatum species (previously associated with periodontis and appendicitis) in the tumours [10, 11]. Even though there were consistent patterns of dysbiosis between the patients in these studies, the overall microbiotas between tumours and noncancerous regions of the colon of individual patients were more similar to
    each other than they were to tumours of other patients or colon samples from unaffected patients. This intricate association with cancer suggests that any therapy involving the gut microbiota many rely on individualised therapies for successful treatment. Furthermore, these associations to do not prove causation so further analysis is much needed. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has also been linked to cancers of distant organs, exemplified by cancers of the liver and pancreas, which do not have a known microbiota of their own. The role of the gut microbiota therefore appears wide-reaching, affecting much more than the gut itself [12-14].
    How do microbiota influence cancer susceptibility?
    There are many mechanisms by which gut microbiota may alter susceptibility to
    cancers including activation of the innate immune system, modulation of
    inflammation, influencing gene expression as well as the genomic stability of
    host cells. A failure of the intestinal barrier to limit host-microbiota
    interactions is also thought to be important. Anatomical separation between the host and microbes is a crucial first line of defence and is maintained through an intact epithelial lining and mucosal layer, as well as a sensing system that detects and eliminates bacteria. Consistently, ulcerative colitis, a condition that disrupts the barrier, increases the risk of colon cancers. Studies that have induced barrier failure in lab animals have also shown that carcinogens are more likely to pass through a disrupted gut lining, leading to increased tumour formation in local and distant organs [15]

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    Planta Med. 2013 Jul;79(11):963-5
    Authors: Wölfle U, Haarhaus B, Schempp CM
    Abstract
    Ultraviolet radiation induces DNA damage and oxidative stress which can result in skin inflammation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. [F20]The flavonoid luteolin that is present in high amounts in the dyers weld, Reseda luteola, is one of the most potent antioxidative plant metabolites and also has ultraviolet-absorbing properties.The aim of this study was to determine whether tocopherol and ubiquinone add synergistic antioxidative values to luteolin. None of the substances showed cytotoxic effects in concentrations from 0.25 to 4 µg/mL. The photoprotective and antioxidant effect of equivalent concentrations of luteolin, tocopherol, and ubiquinone and their combination in a ratio of 4 : 4 : 1 were studied in solar simulator irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Luteolin had a half-maximal radical scavenging concentration of 2 µg/mL, whereas tocopherol and ubiquinone were only effective at higher concentrations. None of the substances showed a phototoxic effect, and only luteolin had a moderate photoprotective effect at 2 µg/mL. The combination of luteolin, tocopherol, and ubiquinone exerted a synergistic radical scavenging effect already at a concentration of 0.25 µg/mL and a complete photoprotection at 2 µg/mL.In summary, our findings suggest that the potent antioxidant and photoprotective effect of flavonoids like luteolin may be further increased by the addition of low concentrations of other antioxidants such as tocopherol and ubiquinone. –PMID: 23839819 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Using things like hawthorn-rosemary or sage which has a good source of Luteolin by fusing this in oil and then add Cq 10 and vitamin E ( fuse in either almond oil or olive oil which has vitamin E in them naturally) and use –the ratio is 4:4:1 4 parts luteolin-4 parts vitamin E and 1 part cq 10
    100ml would be 4 ml of luteolin- 4 mil Vitamin E 1 mil of Cq 1o
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    Active extracts of black tea (Camellia Sinensis) induce apoptosis of PC-3 prostate cancer cells via mitochondrial dysfunction.
    Oncol Rep. 2013 Aug;30(2):763-72
    Authors: Sun S, Pan S, Miao A, Ling C, Pang S, Tang J, Chen D, Zhao C
    Abstract
    Cancer of the prostate gland is the most common invasive malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in human males. Many studies have shown that black tea reduces the risk of several types of cancer. We studied the effects of active extracts of black tea and the black tea polyphenols theaflavins (TFs), on the cellular proliferation and mitochondria of the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3. Our studies revealed that Yinghong black tea extracts (YBT), Assam black tea extracts (ABT) and TFs inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. We also showed that TFs, YBT and ABT affected the morphology of PC-3 cells and induced apoptosis or even necrosis in PC-3 cells. In addition, it was observed that the samples significantly caused loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c from the intermembrane space into the cytosol, decrease of the ATP content and activation of caspase-3 compared with the control. Taken together, these findings suggest that black tea could act as an effective anti-proliferative agent in PC-3 cells, and TFs, YBT and ABT induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells through mitochondrial dysfunction.—PMID: 23715786 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Recipe—Either extract the black Tea in alcohol ( wine –brandy-cognac-vodka or a clear based rum or ethanol in a clear base) or in water and use the teas throughout the day or the use of the tinctures in 10-30 drop increments
     
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    Show of the Month March 29 2o14
    Water filter from the sapwood in pine tree branches
    REPORT CARD ON PRIMARY PREVENTION Chronic Disease- 1998-2008
    Link found between pollutants, certain complications of obesity
    Persistent organic pollutants affect the stress hormone cortisol
    Pollutants may contribute to illness and becoming overweight
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    Water filter from the sapwood in pine tree branches
    Date:
    February 26, 2014
    Source:
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology
     
    A false-color electron microscope image showing E. coli bacteria (green) trapped over xylem pit membranes (red and blue) in the sapwood after filtration.-If you’ve run out of drinking water during a lakeside camping trip, there’s a simple solution: Break off a branch from the nearest pine tree, peel away the bark, and slowly pour lake water through the stick. The improvised filter should trap any bacteria, producing fresh, uncontaminated water.—In fact, an MIT team has discovered that this low-tech filtration system can produce up to four liters of drinking water a day — enough to quench the thirst of a typical person. In a paper published this week in the journal PLoS ONE, the researchers demonstrate that a small piece of sapwood can filter out more than 99 percent of the bacteria E. coli from water. They say the size of the pores in sapwood — which contains xylem tissue evolved to transport sap up the length of a tree — also allows water through while blocking most types of bacteria.-Co-author Rohit Karnik, an associate professor of mechanical engineering at MIT, says sapwood is a promising, low-cost, and efficient material for water filtration, particularly for rural communities where more advanced filtration systems are not readily accessible.-“Today’s filtration membranes have nanoscale pores that are not something you can manufacture in a garage very easily,” Karnik says. “The idea here is that we don’t need to fabricate a membrane, because it’s easily available. You can just take a piece of wood and make a filter out of it.”–The paper’s co-authors include Michael Boutilier and Jongho Lee from MIT, Valerie Chambers from Fletcher-Maynard Academy in Cambridge, Mass., and Varsha Venkatesh from Jericho High School in Jericho, N.Y.
    Tapping the flow of sap
    There are a number of water-purification technologies on the market today, although many come with drawbacks: Systems that rely on chlorine treatment work well at large scales, but are expensive. Boiling water to remove contaminants requires a great deal of fuel to heat the water. Membrane-based filters, while able to remove microbes, are expensive, require a pump, and can become easily clogged.–Sapwood may offer a low-cost, small-scale alternative. The wood is composed of xylem[F21], porous tissue that conducts sap from a tree’s roots to its crown through a system of vessels and pores. Each vessel wall is pockmarked with tiny pores called pit membranes, through which sap can essentially hopscotch, flowing from one vessel to another as it feeds structures along a tree’s length. The pores also limit cavitation, a process by which air bubbles can grow and spread in xylem, eventually killing a tree. The xylem’s tiny pores can trap bubbles, preventing them from spreading in the wood.–“Plants have had to figure out how to filter out bubbles but allow easy flow of sap,” Karnik observes. “It’s the same problem with water filtration where we want to filter out microbes but maintain a high flow rate. So it’s a nice coincidence that the problems are similar.”
    Seeing red
    To study sapwood’s water-filtering potential, the researchers collected branches of white pine and stripped off the outer bark. They cut small sections of sapwood measuring about an inch long and half an inch wide, and mounted each in plastic tubing, sealed with epoxy and secured with clamps.–Before experimenting with contaminated water, the group used water mixed with red ink particles ranging from 70 to 500 nanometers in size. After all the liquid passed through, the researchers sliced the sapwood in half lengthwise, and observed that much of the red dye was contained within the very top layers of the wood, while the filtrate, or filtered water, was clear. This experiment showed that sapwood is naturally able to filter out particles bigger than about 70 nanometers.–However, in another experiment, the team found that sapwood was unable to separate out 20-nanometer particles from water, suggesting that there is a limit to the size of particles coniferous sapwood can filter.
    Picking the right plant
    Finally, the team flowed inactivated, E. coli-contaminated water through the wood filter. When they examined the xylem under a fluorescent microscope, they saw that bacteria had accumulated around pit membranes in the first few millimeters of the wood. Counting the bacterial cells in the filtered water, the researchers found that the sapwood was able to filter out more than 99 percent of E. coli from water.–Karnik says sapwood likely can filter most types of bacteria, the smallest of which measure about 200 nanometers. However, the filter probably cannot trap most viruses, which are much smaller in size.–Karnik says his group now plans to evaluate the filtering potential of other types of sapwood. In general, flowering trees have smaller pores than coniferous trees, suggesting that they may be able to filter out even smaller particles. However, vessels in flowering trees tend to be much longer, which may be less practical for designing a compact water filter.–Designers interested in using sapwood as a filtering material will also have to find ways to keep the wood damp, or to dry it while retaining the xylem function. In other experiments with dried sapwood, Karnik found that water either did not flow through well, or flowed through cracks, but did not filter out contaminants.–“There’s huge variation between plants,” Karnik says. “There could be much better plants out there that are suitable for this process. Ideally, a filter would be a thin slice of wood you could use for a few days, then throw it away and replace at almost no cost. It’s orders of magnitude cheaper than the high-end membranes on the market today.”——-This research was supported by the James H. Ferry Jr. Fund for Innovation in Research Education.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The original article was written by Jennifer Chu. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Michael S. H. Boutilier, Jongho Lee, Valerie Chambers, Varsha Venkatesh, Rohit Karnik. Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (2): e89934 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089934
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    REPORT CARD ON PRIMARY PREVENTION, 1998-2008
    AGE ZERO CD (%)* FOUR + CD (%)*
    1998 2008 1998 2008
    ALL ≥ 65 13.1 7.8 11.6 17.4
    ALL ≥ 65 MALE 13.6 8.9 11.3 17.5
    ALL ≥ 65 FEMALE 12.8 6.9 11.7 17.3
    RANGE 65-69 17.0 11.7 9.1 12.7
    RANGE 70-74 14.8 7.5 9.8 16.8
    *CD—Chronic diseases. Source: Hung, W. et al. BMC Geriatrics. 2011;11:1-12
    From this report card, it is clear that the percentage of the population in the US free of chronic disease decreased dramatically, i.e. the prevalence of chronic disease increased dramatically, and this was independent of gender and was seen in the total ≥ 65 population as well as in two age groups which represent the traditional initial retirement years and the following half-decade leading up to approximately life expectancy. This continues a trend seen in the 1990s and, if this trend were to continue, it eventually will be hard to find anyone over 65 who does not have a chronic disease. And omitted in this study are mental diseases. The World Health Organization is predicting a 70% increase in cancer over the next 20 years. The elderly having four or more chronic diseases by 2008 was approaching 20% prevalence. This is perhaps the most shocking observation. The data in this table represent bad news for those concerned with healthcare costs, but more importantly, for those who view healthy aging as an important goal. Furthermore, it can be argued that the data cannot be dismissedby citing increased efficiency of diagnoses. Mainstream preventive medicine appears to have failed. We are on our own. The study from which the above table was derived also looked at impairment, including impaired cognition, vision, hearing, mobility, urinary continence and the presence of disabilities which impacted daily living. The good news is that the prevalence of impairment International Health News March 2014 Page 2 and disability did not increase in the decade examined, although because of the increase in the number of individuals in the ≥ 65 age group, the absolute numbers increased. Thus not surprisingly, modern medicine appears better at dealing with some of the problems which arise after one has a chronic disease of aging than preventing these diseases in the first place, although earlier diagnosis may be a factor due to some with less severe disease. The authors of the study from which the above data was derived also comment that the main goal of successful aging is the maintenance of independence and they emphasize the stability of the prevalence of impairment and disability. However, it can be argued that the primary goal should be to prevent the disorder in the first place, or arresting or reversing progression.
     
    DETOXIFICATION
    Detoxification has become a very hot topic in the popular health literature. There are books about detoxification diets, juice fasting for detoxification, detoxification and longevity, liver detoxification, etc, etc. Since concern for toxic overload is
    unfortunately justified, it is of interest to attempt to separate mythology from
    approaches to detoxification associated with at least some more or less scientific
    evidence of human efficacy. The need for human studies is based on the fact that animals in general have different physiological and biochemical mechanisms for eliminating acquired toxic substances and animal studies are only partly transferable. This is unfortunate since the type of experiments routinely performed on animals cannot be carried out with humans for obvious reasons. This review relies heavily on the pioneering and ongoing research and publications of Dr. Stephen J. Genuis and his colleagues at the University of Alberta.
     
    TOXINS AND CHRONIC ILLNESS
    What are the determinants of the occurrence of adult chronic illness? The
    consensus appears to be infectious agents, genetics, psychological factors,
    nutrient deficiencies and toxins. Among these, according to the conventional wisdom, genetics appears to be the most important. It is called the genetic predestination paradigm, the short form of which implies the misfortune of having the wrong parents.1 However the paradigm is challenged by the following: (a) Identical twin studies are not consistent with the paradigm; (b) ancestry frequently is a poor predictor of risks; (c) genomes have not significantly changed over eons but some disorders have escalated dramatically over periods extremely short by comparison; (d) migration and adoption of new lifestyles can profoundly change disease incidence. In fact, it has been estimated that 70% to 90% of disease risks are instead probably due to environmental issues.2—Genetic predisposition to disease has been well established. However, directly and permanently modifying genes does not appear to be the answer and thus the predisposition to specific diseases appears immutable. However, environmental factors interact with an individual’s genome and can cause illness.1 These are called epigenetic influences.[F22] Included are toxic chemicals, viral and fungal exposure and radiation, which are external and internal agents generated for example by a toxic excess of biochemicals associated with inflammation and metabolism and toxins associated with psychological stress. However, epigenetic actions represent only one of many ways that toxins adversely interact with human biochemistry and microbiology. The huge variety of toxins assures a significant variety of mechanisms. If one also considers deficiencies in biochemicals required for humans to thrive, then the combination of toxins and these deficiencies represent together the environmental component of the etiology of illness.1 In practice, mainstream medicine tends to ignore both. The belief that humans, if not undernourished, get everything by way of essential nutrients from their diet has the status of dogma. With external toxins, there is general agreement regarding heavy metals. For externally derived toxins, there is inadequate information regarding thresholds for toxicity since human studies are impossible, animal studies in general not definitive, knowledge of accumulation and locations of storage is lacking and it is not possible to adequately measure distributed body stores. Furthermore, clinical
    manifestations may require years to develop. The fetus gets its toxins from the mother through the common blood circulation. Studies of cord blood typically reveal significant levels. The newborn is particularly sensitive to toxins
    which can adversely impact critical aspects of the development process all the way throughto adulthood, especially with regard to the brain. This is called the silent epidemic and is the subject of a frightening study from Harvard just published in journal Lancet Neurology.3 With
    the fetus or newborn there is obviously an incredibly complex developmental process involved and it is exquisitely sensitive to toxic interference. Consider four common toxins, mercury, lead, glyphosate (in Roundup) and the much publicized bisphenol A. All have atomic weights or molecular weights around 200 g. A rough approximation for the number of cells in the newborn child is a bit less than 1012,, i.e. a thousand billion.4. Using Avogadro’s number, it is easy to calculate the amount required of any one of these toxins in order to have enough for one toxic atom or molecule for every cell in the newborn child’s body. The number
    is about 0.3 ng, a third of a billionth of a gram. However, toxins are not evenly distributed and this fraction of a nanogram would in fact concentrate such that some cell contained considerably more, some less or zero. If the toxin accumulates with each exposure, then the
    toxic load constantly increases. Thus much smaller amounts are potentially dangerous. The brain’s development is uniquely sensitive to toxic chemicals. The theme of a recent book by Professor Philippe Grandjean (University of Southern Denmark and Harvard School of Public Health) is that the developing brain has only one chance to get it right, and how environmental pollution impairs normal brain developmet.5 It is remarkable that women living in the modern, developed, chemical-saturated world can even give birth to normal babies who will then go on to develop normally. In fact, abnormalities at birth or miscarriage are not uncommon. Child mortality in the US is higher than in most developed countries. The mother probably exhibits no clinical symptoms associated with her toxic burden. The problem of maternal toxins appears to be getting worse.5 However, toxins measured in the mother and in the cord blood provide a starting point for epidemiological studies involving follow-up of newborns which eventually will yield important information. At present, the only solution appears to be either avoidance of exposure before and during pregnancy and while nursing, which is very difficult if not impossible, or detoxification prior to conception, which is almost entirely off the radar of modern medicine. Ignoring or denying environmental toxins is common. The argument that there is no “scientific” evidence of risk at current exposure levels is in fact the traditional approach proven effective years ago by the tobacco industry. For example, many would agree that chemicals that mimic hormones are potentially bad, but maintain that the threshold of risk is above normal exposure, when in fact in many cases the threshold is unknown. When animal studies raise red flags, the response may be that the results are flawed or not transferable, even if normalized to body mass. But animal studies are routinely used by industry to establish “safe” human limits. In the absence of definitive evidence based on human studies, it appears that the zero tolerance is the correct attitude. But with 80,000 chemicals out there, the number of potential toxins is too great, and therefore one must assume that one has an unavoidable toxic burden, the only question being what and how much. Thus the importance of detoxification not specific to any one toxin.
     
    THE TOXIC ZOO
    The following is a general account of substances implicated as toxins. The importance and pathophysiology have been reviewed.6 • Naturally occurring organic substances. These include moulds and their metabolites and allergy-causing substance of plant and animal origin. • Inorganic or elemental toxins. Included are the heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury. Found in dust, drinking water, foods, dental amalgams, and consumer products. Some react strongly with sulphur containing proteins and inhibit enzyme controlled reactions. Heavy metals accumulate in the brain, liver, kidney and bone.
     
    • Pesticides. These are intentionally distributed into the environment because they are toxic and act as insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. Yearly use is measured in tons. Human toxicity has been linked to neurological, endocrine, developmental, reproductive, respiratory and immunological disorders as well as cancer.7 • Persistent organic molecular pollutants. These include chemicals used as flame retardants, stain repellents, anti-wrinkle and non-stick chemicals, fragrances, chemicals added during food preparation, cleaning and cosmetic agents, etc., etc. Also, toxins leached from or released by plastics. Bisphenol-A, a so-called xenoestrogen, is the poster child of this class. Other chemicals include phthalates, stabilizers and dyes. This list includes many synthetic chemicals to which humans have been exposed in only recently evolutionary history. Food borne pollutants increase in concentration as one goes up the food chain and by accumulation in organs and fatty tissue, form a pool of toxic substances in humans with many adverse health effects. Therefore one cannot assume human natural detoxification mechanisms that evolved over eons will be able to deal with this onslaught, a problem which intensified in a post-WWII chemical revolution with synthetic substances designed to enhance taste, flavour, efficiency, convenience, beauty, comfort and so it was claimed, safety. Today both naturally occurring and synthetic toxic substances are ubiquitous in the environment and in humans and unfortunately appear to be a significant cause of illness.1,6 The manufacturers strongly dispute this suggestion, inevitably citing no absolute proof or evidence, a powerful approach which seems to work with at least some governments and regulatory agencies.When these toxic chemicals accumulate in the body, they can reside in a number of locations and thus blood levels or urine levels or hair analysis fail to provide an accurate or even in some cases informative picture of the body burden. Inability to establish individual body burdens impacts not only toxicological studies but also attempts to determine the success of detoxification protocols.
    AVOIDANCE OF TOXINS
    This obviously should have high priority but the devil is in the details. Sources of most toxic exposure are suggested in the above list of toxins. Thus it appears advisable to consider drinking and cooking with only reverse osmosis water, to regard tap water as suitable for washing and toilets, and shower heads should have carbon filters. Attempts to achieve a chemical-free home are obviously important. Attention is directed to cosmetics and personal care items, cleaning and laundry chemicals, fabrics, carpets and other materials containing fire retardants and/or stain resistant chemicals, and weed and pest control substances. Highly efficient air filters may be important for air pollutants including moulds and small particulate matter. Avoiding frequent consumption of foods known to commonly contain toxins can reduce the body toxic burden. This includes not only some species of fish but also commercial canned food. The problem here is that the levels of toxins in food are highly variable and largely unknown, nor are official safe limits credible. In addition, some suggestions are simply not practical such as living only in older houses to avoid the outgassing of building materials including insulation and particle board as well as new carpets and drapes. It is important to buy rugs, carpets, drapes and mattresses with great care because of toxic organic substances which these items emit, especially fire retardants. A independent lab had recently set up state-of-the-art laboratory for testing levels of toxin in foods, beverages, personal care products and supplements. The initial reports are shocking. From the laboratory, had reported a general conclusion from the analysis of over 1000 foods, supplements, junk foods and popular beverages for heavy metals and other toxins. The conclusion was that unless something is done about this problem, we are doomed. [F23]
     
    DETOXIFICATION INTERVENTIONS
    The variety of toxins potentially present requiring elimination is so large that it should be evident there is no single detoxification protocol that is comprehensive. However, the problem is even greater since there is very little research on detoxification protocols, and the compartmentalization of toxins in the body further complicates the issue. Some detoxification protocols have been studied only in the context of individuals with very high toxic loads or frank poisoning. Drops in blood or urine levels may conceal large unaffected body stores.–Hair analysis offers problems in interpretation. In what follows, the detoxification protocols that have received some scientific study will be discussed, and as well those without convincing evidence will be listed. The first step in detoxification is to attempt to optimize the body’s own mechanisms. In an important review of detoxification, Sears and Genuis list the following dietary and supplemental intervention for which there is some evidence:7
     
    • Glutathione and sulphur-containing foods such as eggs, fermented cabbage, [F24]onions and garlic are important. Supplementing with N-acetyl cysteine, selenium, taurine and/or methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) can support glutathione and metallothionein synthesis. • Folate may assist arsenic metabolism and elimination. • Alpha-lipoic acid or R-lipoic acid may assist in the detoxification of compounds resulting from mould exposure.
    • Adequate calcium and zinc can reduce the absorption of heavy metals.
    • Chlorella has been found to decrease absorption and increase excretion of toxicants. Evidence is for mercury, cadmium and dioxin.
    • Pectin will reduce absorption and increase elimination
    • Some evidence exists for the benefit of restoration of normal flora in the gut with probiotics in order to facilitate removal of toxins from the GI tract.8
    Taurine decreases oxidative stress markers resulting from heavy metal exposure. Alpha lipoic acid regenerates reduced glutathione which is an important endogenous defence against heavy metals. N-acetyl cysteine is a chelator of toxic elements and may stimulate glutathione synthesis, especially in the presence of vitamins C and E. Glutathione itself is not generally recommended as supplement since it is destroyed by digestion. However, there are novel delivery systems such as liposomes under development and one formulation is now available over-the-counter. Selenium is important in the context of detoxification. Selenium incorporated in an organic molecule is the indicated form and has been shown to increase mercury secretion and decrease stress-related biomarkers. Supplements not mentioned by Genuis and Sears include milk thistle, curcumin and green tea extract.
    **************************************************************************
    Link found between pollutants, certain complications of obesity
    Date:
    February 27, 2014
    Source:
    Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal
    A team of researchers at the IRCM in Montréal led by Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, in collaboration with Jérôme Ruzzinfrom the University of Bergen in Norway, found a link between a type of pollutants and certain metabolic complications of obesity. Their breakthrough, published online this week by The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, could eventually help improve the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiometabolic risk associated with obesity, such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease.–Although obesity is strongly linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, a subset of obese individuals, termed “metabolically healthy but obese,” appears relatively protected from the development of such cardiometabolic complications. IRCM researchers are studying the factors that seem to protect obese individuals who remain metabolically healthy, in an attempt to find therapeutic avenues to prevent complications for others who are at risk.–“Recently, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been found to accelerate the development of prediabetes and obesity in mice, thereby mimicking the unfavourable cardiometabolic profile characteristic of certain obese individuals,” says Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, MD, PhD, endocrinologist and Director of the Metabolic Diseases research unit at the IRCM. “As a result, the aim of our study was to test whether metabolically healthy but obese individuals have lower circulating levels of POPs than obese individuals with cardiometabolic complications.”–Persistent organic pollutants are human-made chemicals used in agricultural, industrial and manufacturing processes. Due to their toxicity, POPs have been strictly and internationally regulated to ensure public health. However, because they have the ability to resist environmental degradation, POPs can still be found all around the world, even in areas where they have never been used, and remain omnipresent in our environment and food products. Thus, virtually all humans are exposed to POPs daily.–“Exposure to POPs comes primarily from the environment and the consumption of food such as fatty fish, meat and milk products,” explains Jérôme Ruzzin, PhD, expert in the field of research on POPs. “One important characteristic of POPs is their lipid solubility, meaning they accumulate in the body’s fatty tissues. As their name suggests, they are also persistent so the body cannot easily eliminate them. POPs can therefore have significant impacts on human health, and have been shown to affect reproduction, promote cancer, and be involved in the development of metabolic diseases.”–IRCM researchers conducted a study of 76 obese women of similar age, body mass index and fat mass index, in which they analyzed the concentration of 21 POPs, as well as cardiometabolic risk factors. Among 18 detectable pollutants, the women with cardiometabolic complications had higher concentrations of 12 POPs.–“Remarkably, close to 70 per cent of the detectable POPs were significantly higher in individuals with cardiometabolic complications compared to metabolically healthy but obese subjects,” adds Marie-Soleil Gauthier, PhD, co-first author of the study and research associate at the IRCM. “Our study confirms that the two groups have distinct POP profiles, and that metabolically healthy but obese individuals have significantly lower circulating levels of various classes of POPs than patients with complications. A better understanding of the role of POPs could lead to new directions for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiometabolic risk associated with obesity.”–“Although this study does not show a causal link, it suggests that pollutants found abundantly in our environment could promote the development of cardiometabolic diseases like diabetes,” concludes Dr. Rabasa-Lhoret. “If future studies confirm this increased risk, such observations could have a significant impact on public health decisions because we will need to dramatically reduce our exposure to these pollutants.”
    The abstract to the report can be found at: http://press.endocrine.org/doi/abs/10.1210/jc.2013-3935
    Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Marie-Soleil Gauthier, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Denis Prud’homme, Antony D. Karelis, Dawei Geng, Bert Van Bavel, and Jérôme Ruzzin. The metabolically healthy but obese phenotype is associated with lower plasma levels of persistent organic pollutants as compared to the metabolically abnormal obese phenotype. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, February 2014
    *************************************************************************
    Persistent organic pollutants affect the stress hormone cortisol
    Date:
    December 28, 2010
    Source:
    Norwegian School of Veterinary Science
     
    Cross section of an adrenal gland from a sheep foetus. Exposure to PCB through foetal life caused changes in adrenal cortex thickness and its ability to produce the stress hormone cortisol. Karin E Zimmer’s PhD research shows that persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as PCB and mixtures of different POPs, affect the way the adrenal cortex functions and thereby the synthesis of the stress hormone cortisol. Cortisol plays an important role in normal foetal development and, later in life, in retaining normal body functions during periods of stress. Less research has been carried out on the effects of POPs on cortisol levels than on sex hormones.
    POPs are widespread in nature and all animals and humans are exposed to them daily, mainly through food. There have been great concerns regarding the potential ability of these pollutants to affect the body’s hormone balance. Zimmer’s thesis sheds light on how exposure during early life stages interferes with hormone levels and may therefore cause harm to health later in life. Zimmer also investigated how the production of hormones such as cortisol and sex hormones were affected by environmental mixtures of POPs extracted from fish. —The thesis reveals that exposure to PCBs during foetal life and the suckling period caused altered cortisol levels in the blood of both foetuses and adult animals. This indicates that exposure during these sensitive, initial stages of life may have long-term consequences. Her findings are important because altered cortisol balance during early life may lead to a predisposition to develop several diseases in adulthood, such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.–Knowledge about how POPs work and how different POPs act together is important for the assessment of human health risks. Zimmer used human hormone-producing cells in her study. High levels of brominated flame retardants in a POP mixture extracted from fish in Lake Mjøsa in Norway did not make this mixture more potent as regards increasing hormone synthesis than a similar fish mixture from another lake with considerably lower levels.[F32] Another POP mixture extracted from crude, unprocessed cod liver also had a pronounced affect on the synthesis of cortisol and sex hormones, whereas a mixture from processed, commercial cod liver oil, which is frequently consumed as a dietary supplement, was shown to have only limited effects.[F33]–Karin Zimmer concludes that cortisol synthesis appears to be a sensitive target for POPs and that efforts should be made to find out to what degree this may threaten human and animal health.–Karin Zimmer Cand.med.vet. defended her thesis entitled “Persistent organic pollutants as endocrine disruptors: effects on adrenal development and steroidogenesis” at The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science on 2nd December 2010.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Norwegian School of Veterinary Science. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
    ***********************************************************************
    Pollutants may contribute to illness and becoming overweight
    Date:
    June 26, 2012
    Source:
    The Research Council of Norway
    Lack of physical activity and poor diet alone cannot explain the dramatic rise in obesity and diabetes occurring in many countries, believe some researchers. It is time to face the possibility that hazardous chemicals may also share part of the blame.
    The population of the Western world is increasingly falling prey to metabolic syndrome, which is the name for a group of risk factors — such as overweight and insulin resistance — that occur together and increase the risk for coronary artery disease, stroke, and type-2 diabetes.—What can explain this sharp upsurge in the incidence of metabolic syndrome? Both genetics and environmental factors such as diet and physical exercise play a part, but researchers are still missing some key pieces to the puzzle.–“Many studies now indicate that persistent organic pollutants play a major role,” says Jerome Ruzzin, a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Bergen.
    From fatty foods
    For several years, Dr Ruzzin has been receiving funding from the Research Council of Norway’s Programme on Environmental Exposures and Health Outcomes (MILPAAHEL) to study the effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). He believes these substances have much more of a health impact than most people realize.—“Today’s adults are the first generation to experience serious health problems from these substances. If we do not take this challenge seriously,” he cautions, “there is every reason to be concerned about the coming generations as well.”–POPs enter our bodies when we consume fatty foods such as dairy products, meat, and particularly fatty fish. One of Dr Ruzzin’s research findings on mice is that eating salmon that contains high levels of POPs can lead to insulin resistance, one of the main causes of metabolic syndrome. Popping up everywhere–In two recent scientific articles, Dr Ruzzin has sounded the alarm about the harmful health effects of POPs.–“A great number of studies are now showing that people with high concentrations of POPs in their body are developing metabolic syndrome. We are talking about ordinary people who live in normal environments,” stress Dr Ruzzin, “so this means that we are being exposed to far too high levels of POPs that may have a major impact on our health.”–Typically, dietary changes are prescribed to treat metabolic syndrome. But according to Dr Ruzzin, too little is known about the effects of pollutants in specific foods to make any detailed health recommendations. This is why he believes we should waste no time in launching more studies that examine the combination of pollutants and nutrients in humans.
    Dangerous cocktail effect
    Studies have shown that POPs, even at concentrations below their danger level individually, can interact with other POPs or hazardous substances to cause serious consequences. This combined “cocktail effect” worries Dr Ruzzin.–“Current threshold values for pollutants are probably too high,” says Dr Ruzzin, “which means that the regulatory framework needs changing. Food producers need to eliminate hazardous substances to a far greater extent than they do at present, and we consumers need more information about the kinds of chemicals we could be ingesting with their food products.”
    Deformed genitalia
    Danish studies have shown that even small amounts of different chemicals found in everyday products can have a cocktail effect. Malformations of the sex organs are one possible consequence. [F34]Researcher Sofie Christiansen of the Technical University of Denmark is concerned.–“There is no doubt that the importance of interactions between different hormone-disrupting chemicals has been underestimated,” she asserted in connection with a conference on environmentally hazardous substances co-hosted by the Research Council and the Norwegian Climate and Pollution Agency this January.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by The Research Council of Norway. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
    TOP D
     
    [F1]Per Os = orally
    [F2]Interesting play on words on how this is being used to explore military use in space
    [F3]May have to RE Evaluate cause due to aluminum particulates and barium and radioactive particles and nano polymers falling from the sky—this can be an issue and the real cause of this condition happening
    [F4]Almost sounds like a Marketing Game—there is some truth to the genetic acceptance but this would be contingent to the genes in the foods rather then the individual –in some cases there maybe an element to this where there maybe a mutated gene in a person causing some kind of anomaly –but the real test should be the test in the genetics of food
    [F5]We are dealing with worms who would have a direct contact to genetics
    [F6]May have to RE Evaluate cause due to aluminum particulates and barium and radioactive particles and nano polymers falling from the sky—this can be an issue and the real cause of this condition happening
    [F7]This is an Illuminati doctrine and when humans and Nature can not co exist human are to be expendable—go asked the natives you can see how this is manifesting in North America
    [F8]Now You have to Wonder was this a Self Induced entitlement—with all the wonderful science on this tech we all know there is nothing sustainable here about it
    [F9]There are 3 seed banks which have stored non GMO seeds —these are usually released after a cataclysmic event to re start the food supply again
    [F10]Never Mind Just America —the whole planet—there has been an ongoing insanity to feed animals GMO based foods—to avoid a controversy with having it grown direct—they just allowed the soil to be contaminated with these genetics and now the worms –bugs- bacteria –fungi will all be affected by this
    [F11]This is a JOKE and do not waste your time the USDA is assisting in the implementation of the Monsanto and Biotech properties
    [F12]Counterfeits will be of no value
    [F13]Due to the condition of a person in recovery stage this would be the easiest way to issue health and vitality back without exerting a high amount of energy and resources the body would need to use —
    [F14]To protect against quacks—hmm seems like parliament has failed the quackery we are dealing with today is coming from the gov’t instituted systems and the medical and pharmaceutical and medical supply places —so much for this “legal “ protection
    [F15]A coordinated attack by gov’t corporocracy that dismantled this activity before it got off he ground
    These people who were chased away by fear should be ashamed of themselves –and should have resisted instead—they gave in to nothing
    [F16]In 1984 the USA and Canada Gentically Engineered Mosquitos and released them along the St Lawrence Sea way and in Punta Florida—shortly people were having Fibro and Restless Leg issue
    [F17]More like a Double agent even on some sites where they are reporting sensationalism they are basically disinfoing what is going on
    [F18]Which was the excuse of these disinformants –that the type of flame that was used was contaminating the results —when in fact it had nothing to do with the results—anyone who Is 50 or older knows when you light a match or any flame to real snow irregardless of location it melts into water
    [F19]A Loophole to enact a Biowarfare like attack or in this case the GE insects that can spread the disease
    [F20]May have to RE Evaluate cause due to aluminum particulates and barium and radioactive particles and nano polymers falling from the sky—this can be an issue and the real cause of this condition happening
    [F21]a compound tissue in vascular plants that helps provide support and that conducts water and nutrients upward from the roots, consisting of tracheids, vessels, parenchyma cells, and woody fibers.
    in botany, part of the vascular system that conveys water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant and may also furnish mechanical support. Xylem consists of specialized water-conducting tissues made up mostly of narrow, elongated, hollow cells. These cells may be of several types, including tracheids (the basic cell type), vessel members, fibres, and parenchyma. Xylem constitutes the major part of a mature woody stem or root; the wood of a tree is composed of xylem
    [F22]Chemtrails-Smart Meters – ELF’s-GMO’s-GE-Vaccinations-_Flouride-Chlorine( in excess) MetalloEstrogens-Pesticides-Glyphosates-Frequencies-Nanoparticles—all of these wil have an epigenetic effect on your DNA and Genetic code
    [F23]Your only doomed if you rely on the current system and allow yourself to be in a comfort zone without the awareness of what is out there —even in the supposed safe GRAS and USDA and Organic —you cannot allow your self the comfort of trust to these institutions since they can be paid off to look elsewhere and avoid dealing with a contaminant or poison or eve refute studies indicating the dangers of GE or GMO or Chemically laden or Colour loaded food supplies
    [F24]Utilize STS as well with Ascorbic Acid
    [F25]This is an Illuminati doctrine and when humans and Nature can not co exist human are to be expendable—go asked the natives you can see how this is manifesting in North America
    [F26]Now You have to Wonder was this a Self Induced entitlement—with all the wonderful science on this tech we all know there is nothing sustainable here about it
    [F27]There are 3 seed banks which have stored non GMO seeds —these are usually released after a cataclysmic event to re start the food supply again
    [F28]Never Mind Just America —the whole planet—there has been an ongoing insanity to feed animals GMO based foods—to avoid a controversy with having it grown direct—they just allowed the soil to be contaminated with these genetics and now the worms –bugs- bacteria –fungi will all be affected by this
    [F29]This is a JOKE and do not waste your time the USDA is assisting in the implementation of the Monsanto and Biotech properties
    [F30]Almost sounds like a Marketing Game—there is some truth to the genetic acceptance but this would be contingent to the genes in the foods rather then the individual –in some cases there maybe an element to this where there maybe a mutated gene in a person causing some kind of anomaly –but the real test should be the test in the genetics of food
    [F31]We are dealing with worms who would have a direct contact to genetics
    [F32]In other words the exposure alone was the cause—irrespective of the amounts of exposure
    [F33]Again this is worded in such a way to make one have a false sense of security the levels as we have just seen in the previous sentence is showing whether high or low levels is showing lethal effects and this does not justify the fish oils —remember Norway is one of largest fish oil producing countries so the reports may not necessarily complete
    [F34]Interesting since the endocrine system is a main target to reduce the population this would stand to reason why so little is going on to properly protect the population

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