Scripts 2015

Forums Herbalist Scripts Scripts 2015

  • This topic has 33 replies, 1 voice, and was last updated 1 year ago by AvatarEK.
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  • #2710
    AvatarEK
    Keymaster

    Baby Food ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Nabisco (Phillip Morris)
    -Arrowroot Teething Biscuits
    -Infant formula Carnation Infant Formulas(Nestle)
    -AlSoy
    -Good Start
    -Follow-Up
    -Follow-Up Soy
    Enfamil Infant Formulas (Mead Johnson)
    -Enfamil with Iron
    -Enfamil Low Iron
    -Enfamil A.R.
    -Enfamil Nutramigen
    -Enfamil Lacto Free
    -Enfamil 22
    -Enfamil Next step (soy and milk-based varieties)
    -Enfamil Pro-Soybee
    Isomil Infant Formulas (Abbot Labs)
    -Isomil Soy
    -Isomil Soy for Diarrhea
    -Similac(Abbot Labs)
    -Similac Lactose Free
    -Similac with Iron
    -Similac Low Iron
    -Similac Alimentum
    Baking ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Aunt Jemima (Quaker)
    -Complete Pancake & Waffle Mix
    -Buttermilk Pancake & Waffle Mix
    -Cornbread Mix
    -Easy Mix Coffee Cake
    Betty Crocker (General Mills)
    -Pie Crust Mix
    -Original Pancake Mix
    -Complete Pancake Mix
    -Buttermilk Complete Pancake Mix
    -Muffin Mixes
    -Banana Nut
    -Lemon Poppy Seed
    -Blueberry
    -Wild Blueberry
    -Chocolate Chip
    -Apple Streusel
    -Quick Bread Mixes Banana
    -Cinnamon Streusel
    -Lemon Poppy Seed
    -Cranberry Orange
    -Gingerbread
    -Cookie Mixes Chocolate Chip
    -Double Chocolate Chunk
    -Sugar
    -Peanut Butter
    Bisquik (Betty Crocker/General Mills)
    -Original
    -Reduced Fat
    -Shake ‘n Pour Pancake Mix
    -Shake ‘n Pour Buttermilk Pancake Mix
    -Shake ‘n Pour Blueberry Pancake Mix
    Duncan Hines (Aurora Foods)
    -Muffin Mixes
    -Kellogg’s All-Bran Apple Cinnamon
    -Kellogg’s All-Bran Blueberry
    -Blueberry
    -Blueberry Crumb
    -Chocolate Chip
    Hungry Jack (Pillsbury)
    -Buttermilk Pancake Mix
    -Extra Light & Fluffy Pancake Mix (all varieties)
    -Jiffy
    -Corn Muffin Mix
    -Blueberry Muffin Mix
    -Raspberry Muffin Mix
    -Pie Crust Mix
    Mrs. Butterworths (Aurora Foods)
    -Complete Pancake Mix
    -Buttermilk Pancake Mix
    Pepperidge Farms (Campbell’s)
    -Buttermilk Pancake Mix
    -Pillsbury
    -Quick Bread & Muffin Mixes
    -Blueberry
    -Chocolate Chip
    -Banana
    -Cranberry
    -Lemon Poppyseed
    -Nut
    -Hot Roll Mix
    -Gingerbread
    Bakers (Kraft/Phillip Morris)
    -Unsweetened Chocolate
    -Semi-Sweet Chocolate
    -German Sweet Chocolate
    -White Chocolate
    -Hershey’s
    -Semi-Sweet Baking Chips
    -Milk Chocolate Chips
    -Mini Kisses
    -Nestle
    -Toll House Semi-Sweet Chocolate Chips
    -Milk Chocolate Chips
    -White Chocolate
    -Butterscotch Chips
    -Semi-Sweet Chocolate Baking Bars
    Bread ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Holsum (Interstate Bakeries)
    -Holsum Thin Sliced
    -Roman Meal
    -12 Grain
    -Round Top
    -Home Pride
    -Buttertop White
    -Buttertop Wheat
    Pepperidge Farms (Campbell’s)
    -Cinnamon Swirl
    -Light Oatmeal
    -Light Wheat
    -100% Whole Wheat
    -Hearty Slices
    -7 Grain
    -9 Grain
    -Crunchy Oat
    -Whole Wheat
    -Light Side
    -Oatmeal
    -Wheat
    -7 Grain
    -Soft Dinner Rolls
    -Club Rolls
    -Sandwich Buns
    -Hoagie Rolls
    Thomas’ (Bestfoods)
    -English Muffins Original
    -Cinnamon Raisin
    -Honey Wheat
    -Oat Bran
    -Blueberry
    -Maple French Toast
    Toast-r-Cakes Blueberry
    Toast-r-Cakes Corn Muffins
    Wonder (Interstate Bakeries)
    -White Sandwich Bread
    -Country Grain
    -Buttermilk
    -Thin Sandwich
    -Light Wheat
    -100% Stoneground Wheat
    -Fat Free Multigrain
    -Premium Potato
    -Beefsteak Rye
    -Wonder Hamburger Buns
    Breakfast ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Kellogg’s
    -Pop Tarts (all varieties)
    -Pop Tarts Snack Stix (all)
    -Nutri-Grain Bars (all)
    -Nutri-Grain Fruit Filled Squares (all)
    -Nutri-Grain Twists (all)
    -Fruit-Full Squares (all)
    Nabisco (Nabisco/Phillip Morris)
    -Fruit & Grain Bars (all varieties)
    -Nature Valley (General Mills)
    -Oats & Honey Granola Bars
    -Peanut Butter Granola Bars
    -Cinnamon Granola Bars
    Pillsbury (General Mills)
    -Toaster Scrambles & Strudels (all varieties)
    Quaker
    -Chewy Granola Bars (all varieties)
    -Fruit & Oatmeal Bars (all varieties)
    -Aunt Jemima Frozen Waffles
    -Buttermilk
    -Blueberry
    Eggo Frozen Waffles (Kellogg’s)
    -Homestyle
    -Buttermilk
    -Nutri-Grain Whole Wheat
    -Nutri-Grain Multi Grain
    -Cinnamon Toast
    -Blueberry
    -Strawberry
    -Apple Cinnamon
    -Banana Bread
    Hungry Jack Frozen Waffles (Pillsbury/General Mills)
    -Homestyle
    -Buttermilk
    Cereal ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    General Mills
    -Cheerios
    -Wheaties
    -Total
    -Corn Chex
    -Wheat Chex
    -Lucky Charms
    -Trix
    -Kix
    -Golden Grahams
    -Cinnamon Grahams
    -Count Chocula
    -Honey Nut Chex
    -Frosted Cheerios
    -Apple Cinnamon Cheerios
    -Multi-Grain Cheerios
    -Frosted Wheaties
    -Brown Sugar & Oat Total
    -Basic 4
    -Reeses Puffs
    -French Toast Crunch
    Kellogg’s
    -Frosted Flakes
    -Corn Flakes
    -Special K
    -Raisin Bran
    -Rice Krispies
    -Corn Pops
    -Product 19
    -Smacks
    -Froot Loops
    -Marshmallow Blasted Fruit Loops
    -Apple Jacks
    -Crispix
    -Smart Start
    -All-Bran
    -Complete Wheat Bran
    -Complete Oat Bran
    -Just Right Fruit & Nut
    -Honey Crunch Corn Flakes
    -Raisin Bran Crunch
    -Cracklin’ Oat Bran
    Country Inn Specialties (all varieties)
    -Mothers Cereals (Quaker)
    -Toasted Oat Bran
    -Peanut Butter Bumpers
    -Groovy Grahams
    -Harvest Oat Flakes
    -Harvest Oat Flakes w/Apples & Almonds
    -Honey Round Ups
    Post (Kraft-Phillip Morris)
    -Raisin Bran
    -Bran Flakes
    -Grape Nut Flakes
    -Grape Nut O’s
    -Fruit & Fibre date, raisin and walnut
    -Fruit & Fibre peach, raisin and almond
    -Honey Bunch of Oats
    -Honey Nut Shredded Wheat
    -Honey Comb
    -Golden Crisp
    -Waffle Crisp
    -Cocoa Pebbles
    -Cinna-Crunch Pebbles
    -Fruity Pebbles
    -Alpha-Bits
    -Post Selects Cranberry Almond
    -Post Selects Banana Nut Crunch
    -Post Selects Blueberry Morning
    -Post Selects Great Grains
    Quaker
    -Life
    -Cinnamon Life
    -100% Natural Granola
    -Toasted Oatmeal
    -Toasted Oatmeal Honey Nut
    -Oat Bran
    -Cap’n Crunch
    -Cap’n Crunch Peanut Butter Crunch
    -Cap’n Crunch Crunchling Berries
    Chocolate ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Cadbury (Cadbury/Hershey’s)
    -Mounds
    -Almond Joy
    -York Peppermint Patty
    -Dairy Milk
    -Roast Almond
    -Fruit & Nut
    -Hershey’s
    -Kit-Kat
    -Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups
    -Mr. Goodbar
    -Special Dark
    -Milk Chocolate
    -Kisses
    -Symphony
    Kraft (Kraft/Phillip Morris)
    -Toblerone (all varieties)
    -Mars
    -M&M (all varieties)
    -Snickers
    -Three Musketeers
    -Milky Way
    -Twix
    Nestle
    -Crunch
    -Milk Chocolate
    -Chunky
    -Butterfinger
    -100 Grand
    Carnation (Nestle)
    Hot Cocoa Mixes:
    -Rich Chocolate
    -Double Chocolate
    -Milk Chocolate
    -Marshmallow Madness
    -Mini Marshmallow
    -No Sugar
    Hershey’s
    -Chocolate Syrup
    -Special Dark Chocolate Syrup
    -Strawberry Syrup
    Nestle
    -Nesquik
    -Strawberry Nesquik
    Swiss Miss (ConAgra)
    -Chocolate Sensation
    -Milk Chocolate
    -Marshmallow Lovers
    -Marshmallow Lovers Fat Free
    -No Sugar Added
    Condiments ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Del Monte (Nabisco/Phillip Morris)
    -Ketchup
    -Heinz
    -Ketchup (regular & no salt)
    -Chili Sauce
    -Cocktail Sauce
    -Heinz 57 Steak Sauce
    Hellman’s (Bestfoods)
    -Real Mayonnaise
    -Light Mayonnaise
    -Low-Fat Mayonnaise
    Hunt’s (ConAgra)
    -Ketchup (regular & no salt)
    -KC Masterpiece
    -Original BBQ sauce
    -Garlic & Herb Marinade
    -Honey Teriyaki Marinade
    Kraft (Kraft/Phillip Morris)
    -Miracle Whip (all varieties)
    -Kraft Mayonnaise (all)
    -Thick & Spicy BBQ sauces (all varieties)
    -Char Grill BBQ sauce
    -Honey Hickory BBQ sauce
    Nabisco (Nabiso/Phillip Morris)
    -A-1 Steak Sauce
    Open Pit (Vlasic/Campbells)
    -BBQ sauces (all)
    -Chi-Chi’s (Hormel)
    -Fiesta Salsa (all varieties)
    -Old El Paso (Pillsbury)
    -Thick & Chunky Salsa
    -Garden Pepper Salsa
    -Taco Sauce
    -Picante Sauce
    Ortega (Nestle)
    -Taco Sauce
    -Salsa Prima Homestyle
    -Salsa Prima Roasted Garlic
    -Salsa Prima 3 Bell Pepper
    -Thick & Chunky Salsa
    Pace (Campbells)
    -Chunky Salsa
    -Picante Sauce
    Tostitos Salsa (Frito-Lay/Pepsi)
    -All Natural
    -All Natural Thick & Chunky
    -Roasted Garlic
    -Restaurant Style
    Cookies ~Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Delicious Brands (Parmalat)
    -Animal Crackers
    -Ginger Snaps
    -Fig Bars
    -Oatmeal
    -Sugar-Free Duplex
    -Honey Grahams
    -Cinnamon Grahams
    -Fat Free Vanilla Wafers
    -English Toffee Heath Cookies
    -Butterfinger Cookies
    -Skippy Peanut Butter Cookies
    Famous Amos (Keebler/Flowers Industries)
    -Chocolate Chip
    -Oatmeal Raisin
    -Chocolate Sandwich
    -Peanut Butter Sandwich
    -Vanilla Sandwich
    -Oatmeal Macaroon Sandwich
    Frookies (Delicious Brands/Parmalat)
    -Peanut Butter Chunk
    -Chocolate Chip
    -Double Chocolate
    -Frookwich Vanilla
    -Frookwich Chocolate
    -Frookwich Peanut Butter
    -Frookwich Lemon
    -Funky Monkeys Chocolate
    -Ginger Snaps
    -Lemon Wafers
    Keebler (Keebler/Flowers Industries)
    -Chips Deluxe
    -Sandies
    -E.L. Fudge
    -Soft Batch Chocolate Chip
    -Golden Vanilla Wafers
    -Droxies
    -Vienna Fingers
    -Fudge Shoppe Fudge Stripes
    -Fudge Shoppe Double Fudge & Caramel
    -Fudge Shoppe Fudge Stix
    -Fudge Shoppe Peanut Butter Fudge Stix
    -Country Style Oatmeal
    -Graham Originals
    -Graham Cinnamon Crisp
    -Graham Chocolate
    -Graham Honey Low Fat
    -Crème Filled Wafers
    -Chocolate Filled Wafers
    Nabisco (Nabisco/Phillip Morris)
    -Oreo,(all varieties)
    -Chips Ahoy!(all varieties)
    -Fig Newtons (and all Newtons varities)
    -Lorna Doone
    -Nutter Butters
    -Barnum Animal Crackers
    -Nilla Wafers
    -Nilla Chocolate Wafers
    -Pecanz Shortbread
    -Family Favorites Oatmeal
    -Famous Wafers
    -Fudge Covered Mystic Sticks
    -Honey Maid Graham Crackers
    -Honey Maid Cinnamon Grahams
    -Honey Maid Chocolate Grahams
    -Honey Maid Oatmeal Crunch
    -Teddy Grahams
    -Teddy Grahams Cinnamon
    -Teddy Grahams Chocolate
    -Teddy Grahams Chocolate Chips
    -Café Cremes Vanilla
    -Café Crème Cappuccino
    Pepperidge Farm (Campbell’s)
    -Milano
    -Mint Milano
    -Chessmen
    -Bordeaux
    -Brussels
    -Geneva
    -Chocolate Chip
    -Lemon Nut
    -Shortbread
    -Sugar
    -Ginger Men
    -Raspberry Chantilly
    -Strawberry Verona
    -Chocolate Mocha Salzburg
    -Chocolate Chunk Chesapeake
    -Chocolate Chunk Nantucket
    -Chocolate Chunk Sausalito
    -Oatmeal Raisin Soft Baked
    Sesame Street (Keebler)
    -Cookie Monster
    -Chocolate Chip
    -Chocolate Sandwich
    -Vanilla Sandwich
    -Cookie Pals
    -Honey Grahams
    -Cinnamon Grahams
    -Frosted Grahams
    Snack Wells (Nabisco/Phillip Morris)
    -Devil’s Food
    -Golden Devil’s Food
    -Mint Crème
    -Coconut Crème
    -Chocolate Sandwich
    -Chocolate Chip
    -Peanut Butter Chip
    -Double Chocolate Chip
    Crackers ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Keebler (Keebler/Flowers Industries)
    -Town House
    -Club
    -Munch ‘Ems (all varieties)
    -Wheatables
    -Zesta Saltines
    -Toasteds (Wheat, Onion, Sesame & Butter Crisps)
    -Snax Stix (Wheat, Cheddar & original)
    -Harvest Bakery (Multigrain, Butter, Corn Bread)
    Nabisco (Nabisco/Phillip Morris)
    -Ritz (all varieties)
    -Wheat Thins (all)
    -Wheatsworth
    -Triscuits
    -Waverly
    -Sociables
    -Better Cheddars
    -Premium Saltines (all)
    -Ritz Snack Mix (all)
    -Vegetable Flavor Crisps
    -Swiss Cheese Flavor Crisps
    -Cheese Nips (all)
    -Uneeda Biscuits
    Pepperidge Farm (Campbell’s)
    -Butter Thins
    -Hearty Wheat
    -Cracker Trio
    -Cracker Quartet
    -Three Cheese Snack Stix
    -Sesame Snack Stix
    -Pumpernickel Snack Stix
    -Goldfish (original, cheddar, parmesan, pizza, pretzel)
    -Goldfish Snack Mix (all)
    Red Oval Farms (Nabisco/Phillip Morris)
    -Stoned Wheat Thin (all varieties)
    -Crisp ‘N Light Sourdough Rye
    -Crisp ‘N Light Wheat
    Sunshine (Flowers Industries)
    -Cheeze-It (original & reduced fat)
    -Cheeze-It White Cheddar
    -Cheeze-It Party Mix
    -Krispy Original Saltines
    Frozen Dinners ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Banquet (ConAgra)
    -Pot Pies (all varieties)
    -Fried Chicken
    -Salisbury Steak
    -Chicken Nugget Meal
    -Pepperoni Pizza Meal
    Budget Gourmet (Heinz)
    -Roast Beef Supreme
    -Beef Stroganoff
    -Three Cheese Lasagne
    -Chicken Oriental & Vegeatble
    -Fettuccini Primavera
    Green Giant (Pillsbury)
    -Rice Pilaf with Chicken Flavored Sauce
    -Rice Medley with Beef Flavored Sauce
    -Primavera Pasta
    -Pasta Accents Creamy Cheddar
    -Create-a-Meals Parmesan Herb Chicken
    -Cheesy Pasta and Vegetable
    -Beef Noodle
    -Sweet & Sour
    -Mushroom Wine Chicken
    Healthy Choice (ConAgra)
    -Stuffed Pasta Shells
    -Chicken Parmagiana
    -Country Breaded Chicken
    -Roast Chicken Breast
    -Beef Pot Roast
    -Chicken & Corn Bread
    -Cheese & Chicken Tortellini
    -Lemon Pepper Fish
    -Shrimp & Vegetable
    -Macaroni & Cheese
    Kid Cuisine (ConAgra)
    -Chicken Nugget Meal
    -Fried Chicken
    -Taco Roll Up
    -Corn Dog
    -Cheese Pizza
    -Fish Stix
    -Macaroni & Cheese
    Lean Cuisine (Stouffer’s/Nestle)
    -Skillet Sensations Chicken & Vegetable
    -Broccoli & Beef
    -Homestyle Beef
    -Teriyaki Chicken
    -Chicken Alfredo
    -Garlic Chicken
    -Roast Turkey
    -Hearty Portions Chicken Florentine
    -Beef Stroganoff
    -Cheese & Spinach Manicotti
    -Salisbury Steak
    -Café Classics Baked Fish
    -Baked Chicken
    -Chicken a L’Orange
    -Chicken Parmesan
    -Meatloaf with Whipped Potatoes
    -Everyday Favorites Chicken Fettuccini
    -Chicken Pie
    -Angel Hair Pasta
    -Three Bean Chili with Rice
    -Macaroni & Cheese
    Marie Callenders (ConAgra)
    -Chicken Pot Pie
    -Lasagna & Meat Sauce
    -Turkey & Gravy
    -Meat Loaf & Gravy
    -Country Fried Chicken & Gravy
    -Fettuccini with Broccoli & Cheddar
    -Roast Beef with Mashed Potatoes
    -Country Fried Pork Chop with Gravy
    -Chicken Cordon Bleu
    Ore-Ida Frozen Potatoes (Heinz)
    -Fast Fries
    -Steak fries
    -Zesties
    -Shoestrings
    -Hash Browns
    -Tater Tots
    -Potato Wedges
    -Crispy Crunchies
    Rosetto Frozen Pasta (Heinz)
    -Cheese Ravioli
    -Beef Ravioli
    -Italian Sausage Ravioli
    -Eight Cheese Stuffed Shells
    -Eight Cheese Broccoli Stuffed Shells
    Stouffer’s (Nestle)
    -Family Style Favorites Macaroni & Cheese
    -Stuffed Peppers
    -Broccoli au Gratin
    -Meat Loaf in Gravy
    -Green Bean & Mushroom Casserole
    -Homestyle Meatloaf
    -Salisbury Steak
    -Chicken Breast in Gravy
    -Hearty Portions Salisbury Steak
    -Chicken Fettucini
    -Meatloaf with Mashed Potatoes
    -Chicken Pot Pie
    Swanson (Vlasic/Campbells)
    -Meat Loaf
    -Fish & Chips
    -Salisbury Steak
    -Chicken Nuggets
    -Hungry Man Fried Chicken
    -Roast Chicken
    -Fisherman’s Platter
    -Pork Rib
    Voila! (Bird’s Eye/Agri-Link Foods)
    -Chicken Voila! Alfredo
    -Chicken Voila! Garlic
    -Chicken Voila! Pesto
    -Chicken Voila! Three Cheese
    -Steak Voila! Beef Sirloin
    -Shrimp Voila! Garlic
    Weight Watchers (Heinz)
    -Smart Ones Fiesta Chicken
    -Basil Chicken
    -Ravioli Florentine
    -Fajita Chicken
    -Roasted Vegetable Primavera
    Energy Bars & Drinks ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Power Bars
    Power Bar (Nestle)
    -Oatmeal Raisin
    -Apple Cinnamon
    -Peanut Butter
    -Vanilla Crisp
    -Chocolate Peanut Butter
    -Mocha
    -Banana
    -Wild Berry
    -Harvest Bars Apple Crisp
    -Blueberry
    -Chocolate Fudge Brownie
    -Strawberry
    -Peanut Butter Chocolate Chip
    Drink Mixes
    Carnation Instant Breakfast Mix (Nestle)
    -Creamy Milk Chocolate
    -Classic Chocolate
    -French Vanilla
    -Strawberry
    -Café Mocha
    Heat & Serve Meals ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Chef Boyardee (ConAgra)
    -Beefaroni
    -Macaroni & Cheese
    -Mini Ravioli
    -ABC’s & 123′s
    Dinty Moore (Hormel)
    -Beef Stew
    -Turkey Stew
    -Chicken & Dumplings
    -Hormel
    -Chili with Beans
    -Chili No Beans
    -Vegetarian Chili with Beans
    Kids’ Kitchen (Hormel)
    -Spaghetti Rings with Meatballs
    -Macaroni & Cheese
    -Pizza Wedges with 3 Cheese
    Franco-American (Campbell’s)
    -Spaghetti O’s
    -Mini Ravioli
    -Power Rangers Pasta in Sauce
    Meat & Dairy Alternatives ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Loma Linda(Worthington/Kellogg’s*)
    -Meatless Chik Nuggest
    Morningstar (Worthington/Kellogg’s*)
    -Harvest Burger
    -Better ‘n Burgers
    -Garden Veggie Patties
    -Grillers Burgers
    -Black Bean Burger
    -Chicken Patties
    Natural Touch (Worthington/Kellogg’s*)
    -Garden Vegetable Pattie
    -Black Bean Burger
    -Okra Pattie
    -Lentil Rice Loaf
    -Nine Bean Loaf
    Worthington (Worthington/Kellogg’s*)
    -Vegetarian Burger
    -Savory Slices
    Dairy Alternatives
    Nutra Blend Soy Beverage(Bestfoods)
    -Original
    -Vanilla
    -Apple
    -Orange
    *A company letter states that they are in the process of converting to non-genetically modified “proteins” in all products.
    Meal Mixes & Sauce Packets ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Betty Crocker (General Mills)
    -Garden Vegetable Pilaf
    -Creamy Herb Risotto
    -Garlic Alfredo Fettuccini
    -Bowl Appetit Cheddar Broccoli
    -Macaroni & Cheese
    -Pasta Alfredo
    Knorr (Bestfoods)
    -Mushroom Risotto Italian Rice
    -Broccoli au Gratin Risotto
    -Vegetable Primavera Risotto
    -Risotto Milanese
    -Original Pilf
    -Chicken Pilaf
    -Rotini with 4 Cheese
    -Bow Tie Pasta with Chicken & Vegetable
    -Penne with Sun-Dried Tomato
    -Fettuccini with Alfredo
    -Classic Sauce Packets Hollandaise
    Béarnaise
    -White
    -Brown
    -Lemon Herb
    -Mushroom Brown
    -Onion
    -Roasted Chicken
    -Roasted Pork
    -Roasted Turkey
    Pasta Sauce Packets Alfredo
    -Four Cheese
    -Carbonara
    -Pesto
    -Garlic Herb
    Lipton (Unilever)
    -Rice & Sauce Packets Chicken Broccoli
    -Cheddar Broccoli
    -Beef Flavor
    -Spanish
    -Chicken Flavor
    -Creamy Chicken
    -Mushroom
    -Sizzle & Stir Skillet Supers Lemon Garlic Chicken & Rice
    -Spanish Chicken & Rice
    -Herb Chicken & Bowties
    -Cheddar Chicken & Shells
    Near East (Quaker)
    -Spicy Tomato Pasta Mix
    -Roasted Garlic & Olive Oil Pasta Mix
    -Falafel Mix
    -Lentil Pilaf
    -Couscous
    -Tomato Lentil
    -Parmesan
    -Toasted Pinenut
    -Herb Chicken
    -Broccoli & Cheese
    -Curry
    Pasta Roni (Quaker)
    -Fettuccini Alfredo
    -Garlic Alfredo
    -Angel Hair Pasta with Herbs
    -Angel Hair Pasta with Parmesan Cheese
    -Angel Hair Pasta with Tomato Parmesan
    -Angel Hair Pasta Primavera
    -Garlic & Olive Oil with Vermicelli
    Rice-a-Roni (Quaker)
    -Rice Pilaf
    -Beef
    -Chicken
    -Fried Rice
    -Chicken & Broccoli
    -Long Grain & Wild Rice
    -Broccoli au Gratin
    Uncle Ben’s (Mars)
    -Long Grain & Wild Rice (Original & with Garlic)
    -Brown & Wild Rice Mushroom
    -Country Inn Mexican Fiesta
    -Country Inn Oriental Fried Rice
    -Country Inn Chicken & Vegetable
    -Country Inn Chicken & Broccoli
    -Natural Select Chicken & Herb
    -Natural Select Tomato & Basil
    -Chef’s Recipe Chicken & Vegetable Pilaf
    -Chef’s Recipe Beans & Rice
    -Chef’s Recipe Broccoli Rice
    Frozen Pizza ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Celeste (Aurora Foods)
    -Supreme
    -Pepperoni
    -Vegetable
    -Four Cheese
    -Deluxe
    -Cheese
    Tombstone (Kraft/Phillip Morris)
    -Pepperoni
    -Supreme
    -Sausage & Pepperoni
    -Extra Cheese
    -Stuffed Crust
    -Three Cheese
    Totino’s (Pillsbury)
    -Crisp Crust
    -Pepperoni
    -Combination
     

    #2711
    AvatarEK
    Keymaster

    Snack Foods ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Act II Microwave Popcorn (ConAgra)
    -Butter
    -Extreme Butter
    -Corn on the Cob
    Frito-Lay* (PepsiCo)
    -Lays Potato Chips (all varieties)
    -Ruffles Potato Chips (all)
    -Doritos Corn Chips (all)
    -Tostitos Corn Chips (all)
    -Fritos Corn Chips (all)
    -Cheetos (all)
    -Rold Gold Pretzels (all)
    -Cracker Jack Popcorn
    Healthy Choice Microwave Popcorn (ConAgra)
    -Organic Corn (soy/canola oils)
    Mothers Corn Cakes (Quaker)
    -Butter Pop
    Orville Redenbacher Microwave Popcorn (ConAgra)
    -Original
    -Homestyle
    -Butter
    -Smart Pop
    -Pour Over
    -Orville Redenbacher Popcorn Cakes
    -Chocolate
    -Caramel
    -Orville Redenbacher Mini Popcorn Cakes
    -Butter
    -Peanut Caramel
    -Chocolate Peanut
    Pop Secret Microwave Popcorn (Betty Crocker/General Mills)
    -Natural
    -Homestyle
    -Jumbo Pop
    -Extra Butter
    -Light
    -94% Fat Free Butter
    Pringles (Procter & Gamble)
    -Original
    -Low Fat
    -Pizza-licious
    -Sour Cream & Onion
    -Salt & Vinegar
    -Cheezeums
    -Quaker Rice Cakes
    -Peanut Butter
    -Chocolate Crunch
    -Cinnamon Streusel
    -Mini
    -Chocolate
    -Ranch
    -Sour Cream & Onion
    -Apple Cinnamon
    -Caramel Corn
    -Quaker Corn Cakes
    -White Cheddar
    -Caramel Corn
    -Strawberry Crunch
    -Caramel Chocolate Chip
    *Frito has informed its corn and potato suppliers that the company wishes to avoid GE crops, but acknowledges that canola or other oils and ingredients in its products may be from GE sources.
    Soda & Juice Drinks ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Coca Cola (Coca Cola)
    Sprite
    Cherry Coke
    Barq’s Root Beer
    Minute Maid Orange
    Minute Maid Grape
    Surge
    Ultra
    PepsiCo
    Pepsi
    Slice
    Wild Cherry Pepsi
    Mug Root Beer
    Mountain Dew
    Cadbury/Schweppes
    7-Up
    Dr. Pepper
    A & W Root Beer
    Sunkist Orange
    Schweppes Ginger Ale
    Capri Sun juices (Kraft/Phillip Morris)
    -Red Berry
    -Surfer Cooler
    -Splash Cooler
    -Wild Cherry
    -Strawberry Kiwi
    -Fruit Punch
    -Pacific Cooler
    -Strawberry
    -Orange
    -Grape
    Fruitopia (Coca Cola)
    -Grape Beyond
    -Berry Lemonade
    -Fruit Integration
    -Kiwiberry Ruckus
    -Strawberry Passion
    -Tremendously Tangerine
    Fruit Works (PepsiCo)
    -Strawberry Melon
    -Peach Papaya
    -Pink Lemonade
    -Apple Raspberry
    Gatorade (Quaker)
    -Lemon Lime
    -Orange
    -Fruitpunch
    -Fierce Grape
    -Frost Riptide Rush
    Hawaiian Punch (Procter & Gamble)
    -Tropical Fruit
    -Grape Geyser
    -Fruit Juicy Red
    -Strawberry Surfin
    Hi-C (Coca Cola)
    -Pink Lemonade
    -Watermelon Rapids
    -Boppin’ Berry
    -Tropical Punch
    -Smashin’ Wildberry
    -Blue Cooler
    -Blue Moon Berry
    -Orange
    -Cherry
    Kool Aid (Kraft/Phillip Morris)
    -Blastin’ Berry Cherry
    -Bluemoon Berry
    -Kickin’ Kiwi Lime
    -Tropical Punch
    -Wild Berry Tea
    -Ocean Spray
    -Cranberry Juice Cocktail
    -Cranapple
    -CranGrape
    -CranRaspberry
    -CranStrawberry
    -CranMango
    Squeeze It (Betty Crocker/General Mills)
    -Rockin’ Red Puncher
    -Chucklin’ Cherry
    -Mystery 2000
    Sunny Delight (Procter & Gamble)
    -Sunny Delight Original
    -Sunny Delight With Calcium Citrus Punch
    -Sunny Delight California Style Citrus Punch
    Tang juices (Kraft/Phillip Morris)
    -Orange Uproar
    -Fruit Frenzy
    -Berry Panic
    Tropicana Twisters (PepsiCo)
    -Grape Berry
    -Apple Raspberry Blackberry
    -Cherry Berry
    -Cranberry Raspberry Strawberry
    -Pink Grapefruit
    -Tropical Strawberry
    -Orange Cranberry
    -Orange Strawberry Banana
    V-8 (Campbells)
    -V8 Tomato Juices (all varieties)
    -Strawberry Kiwi
    -Strawberry Banana
    -Fruit Medley
    -Berry Blend
    -Citrus Blend
    -Apple Medley
    -Tropical Blend
    -Island Blend
    Soup ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Campbell’s
    -Tomato
    -Chicken Noodle
    -Cream of Chicken
    -Cream of Mushroom
    -Cream of Celery
    -Cream of Broccoli
    -Cheddar Cheese
    -Green Pea
    -Healthy Request Chicken Noodle
    -Cream of Chicken
    -Cream of Mushroom
    -Cream of Celery
    -Campbell’s Select Roasted Chicken with Rice
    -Grilled Chicken with Sundried Tomatoes
    -Chicken Rice
    -Vegetable Beef
    -Chunky Beef with Rice
    -Hearty Chicken & Vegetable
    -Pepper Steak
    -Baked Potato with Steak & Cheese
    -New England Clam Chowder
    -Soup to Go Chicken Noodle
    -Chicken Rice
    -Garden Vegetable
    -Vegetable Beef & Rice
    Simply Home Chicken Noodle
    Chicken Rice
    Garden Vegetable
    Vegetable Beef with Pasta
    Healthy Choice (ConAgra)
    -Country Vegetable
    -Fiesta Chicken
    -Bean & Pasta
    -Chicken Noodle
    -Chicken with Rice
    -Minestrone
    Pepperidge Farms (Campbell’s)
    -Corn Chowder
    -Lobster Bisque
    -Chicken & Wild Rice
    -New England Clam Chowder
    -Crab Soup
    Progresso (Pillsbury)
    -Tomato Basil
    -Chicken Noodle
    -Chicken & Wild Rice
    -Chicken Barley
    -Lentil
    -New England Clam Chowder
    -Zesty Herb Tomato
    -Roasted Chicken with Rotini
    -Fat Free Minestrone
    -Fat Free Chicken Noodle
    -Fat Free Lentil
    -Fat Free Roast Chicken
    Tomatoes & Sauces ~ Genetically Engineered Ingredients
    Del Monte (Nabisco/Phillip Morris)
    -Tomato Sauce
    Five Brothers Pasta Sauces (Lipton/Unilever)
    -Summer Vegetable
    -Five Cheese
    -Roasted Garlic & Onion
    -Tomato & Basil
    Healthy Choice Pasta Sauces (ConAgra)
    -Traditional
    -Garlic & Herb
    -Sun-Dried Tomato & Herb
    Hunts (ConAgra)
    -Traditional Spaghetti Sauce
    -Four Cheese Spaghetti Sauce
    -Tomato Sauce
    -Tomato Paste
    Prego Pasta Sauces (Campbells)
    -Tomato, Basil & Garlic
    -Fresh Mushroom
    -Ricotta Parmesan
    -Meat Flavored
    -Roasted Garlic & Herb
    -Three Cheese
    -Mini-Meatball
    -Chicken with Parmesan
    Ragu Sauces (Lipton/Unilever)
    -Old World Traditional
    -Old World with Meat
    -Old World Marinara
    -Old World with Mushrooms
    -Ragu Robusto Parmesan & Romano
    -Ragu Robusto Roasted Garlic
    -Ragu Robusto Sweet Italian Sausage
    -Ragu Robusto Six Cheese
    -Ragu Robusto Tomato, Olive Oil & Garlic
    -Ragu Robusto Classic Italian Meat
    -Chunky Garden Style Super Garlic
    -Chunky Garden Style Garden Combo
    -Chunky Garden Style Tomato, Garlic & Onion
    -Chunky Garden Style Tomato, Basil & Italian Cheese
    -Pizza Quick Traditional
    In addition, should you want more info concerning GMO products and the companies producing them, please take a look at this excellent list put together by Stephanie Ladwig-Cooper on Facebook.
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    Polymorphism, bacteria inside us help dictate inflammation, antitumor activity
    Date:
    December 20, 2014
    Source:
    The Wistar Institute
    A common polymorphism — a variation in a person’s DNA sequence that is found with regularity in the general population — can lead to a chain of events that dictates how a tumor will progress in certain types of cancer, including a form of breast cancer as well as ovarian cancer, according to new research from The Wistar Institute that was published online by the journal Cancer Cell.–The research reveals a more explicit role about the symbiotic relationship humans have with the various bacteria that inhabit our body and their role during tumor progression.–“Our research indicates that interactions between the helpful bacteria in our bodies and immune cells at places situated away from tumors influence systemic responses in the host that alter how these tumors are able to progress,” said José Conejo-Garcia, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor and Program Leader in the Tumor Microenvironment and Metastasis Program at The Wistar Institute and lead author of the study.–Humans are colonized with trillions of bacteria — known as commensal bacteria because there are benefits to having these bacteria in our bodies — that inhabit the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and our skin. [F1]These bacteria provide a first line of defense against infection. Recent research has found that interactions between these bacteria and the immune system are critical for providing important defenses against tumors occurring outside of the intestines.–[F2]In order for the immune system to recognize commensal as well as microscopic organisms that can cause disease — or pathogens — many of our cells are programmed to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. At least 23% of the general public carries mutations in a group of pathogen recognition receptors called Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes. One of the most abundant polymorphisms, occurring in about 7.5% of the general population, or slightly more than one in fifteen people, which results in loss of function, is in TLR5. Although this polymorphism is found in completely healthy individuals, the people who do carry it are susceptible to illnesses such as Legionnaires disease, urinary tract infections, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Knowing that this variant could impact some immune responses, Wistar researchers set out to understand whether TLR5 signaling influences cancer.–The researchers found that TLR5 signaling influences certain types of cancer in different ways and is dependent upon the ability of the tumor to respond to interleukin 6 (IL-6), a small protein that can have both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties. In individuals with functional TLR5 expression, commensal bacteria are able to stimulate IL-6 production, greater mobilization of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which in turn transform gamma delta T cells, a T cell subset that possesses innate-like properties, to produce high amounts of galectin-1, a protein that suppresses antitumor immune activity and hastens tumor progression.—However, the researchers also showed that TLR5 signaling does not always mean that tumors will grow faster. TLR5-deficient mice with tumors that produce low levels of IL-6 have faster tumor progression. In this instance, IL-17, another interleukin closely associated with autoimmune diseases and inflammation, is consistently found in higher levels in TLR5-deficient mice that have tumors, but IL-17 only accelerates cancer when the tumors are unresponsive to IL-6.—Researchers observed these phenomena were dependent upon commensal bacteria. When commensal bacteria were removed with antibiotics, the differences in TLR5-mediated tumor progression were not observed. The researchers noted that the differences in inflammation and progression of tumors are recapitulated in TLR5-responsive and unresponsive patients with ovarian and luminal breast cancer. The researchers performed a survival analysis using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) on patients for whom data on their TLR5 status was known.—-“Although independent sets of data and higher numbers of patients are needed, our data suggest that ovarian cancer reflects the evolution of IL-6-dependent tumors, while luminal breast cancer appears to become more aggressive in carriers of the polymorphism that abrogates TLR5 signaling,” Conejo-Garcia said.—[F3]For ovarian cancer, which is associated with high levels of IL-6, researchers found a significantly higher number of TLR5-deficient patients alive six years after their initial diagnosis compared with patients with TLR5, indicating a correlation between the absence of TLR5 and improved survival. For luminal breast cancer, which is associated with low levels of IL-6, the long-term survival prospects were worse for patients without TLR5.—Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by The Wistar Institute. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.—Journal Reference-Melanie R. Rutkowski, Tom L. Stephen, Nikolaos Svoronos, Michael J. Allegrezza, Amelia J. Tesone, Alfredo Perales-Puchalt, Eva Brencicova, Ximena Escovar-Fadul, Jenny M. Nguyen, Mark G. Cadungog, Rugang Zhang, Mariana Salatino, Julia Tchou, Gabriel A. Rabinovich, Jose R. Conejo-Garcia. Microbially Driven TLR5-Dependent Signaling Governs Distal Malignant Progression through Tumor-Promoting Inflammation. Cancer Cell, 2014; DOI: 10.1016/j.ccell.2014.11.009
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    Extracting bioactive compounds from marine microalgae
    Date:-December 24, 2014
    Source:-Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
    Microalgae can produce high value health compounds like omega-3s , traditionally sourced from fish. With declining fish stocks, an alternative source is imperative. Published in the Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, researchers evaluated various methods for extracting fatty acids and carotenoids from two microalgae species.—Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that produce high value compounds considered essential for human health, including polyunsatured fatty acids (e.g., omega-3s like EPA and DHA), various pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoids), and vitamins. Although fish have traditionally been our principal dietary source of EPA and DHA, declining marine fish stocks, the unpleasant odour of fish oil, and other disadvantages, have prompted a search for alternative sources of these nutrients.–In a study, published in the Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, S. P. Loh and S. Lee of the Universiti Putra Malaysia evaluated various methods for extracting fatty acids and carotenoids from two microalgae species: Chaetoceros gracillis, a diatom, and Nannochloropsis occulata, a unicellular green alga. Both species play an important role in the food chain, while N. occulata is also widely cultivated for fish hatcheries and shrimp farms.—No standard extraction methods currently exist for determining the fatty acid or carotenoid content of microalgae. Therefore, the researchers selected different extraction methods based on these criteria: maximum extraction efficiency, ease of handling, and use of solvents of low toxicity.-Overall, the study found that high amounts of fatty acids and carotenoids could be obtained from both microalgae. However, for both fatty acid and carotenoid extration, one extraction method was superior in N. occulata while another method yielded the best results in C. gracillis.–The researchers also found that N. occulata had higher amounts of the omega-3 fatty acid EPA, while C. gracillis was particularly high in palmitic acid and palmitoleic acid levels. In addition, there were significantly higher carotenoid levels in N. occulata compared to C. gracillis.–Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
    ***********************************************************************
    Scientists trace nanoparticles from plants to caterpillars– Are nanoparticles getting in our food?
    Date:
    December 16, 2014
    Source:
    Rice University
     
    The buildup of fluorescent quantum dots in the leaves of Arabidopsis plants is apparent in this photograph of the plants under ultraviolet light.–In one of the most comprehensive laboratory studies of its kind, Rice University scientists traced the uptake and accumulation of quantum dot nanoparticles from water to plant roots, plant leaves and leaf-eating caterpillars.–The study, one of the first to examine how nanoparticles move through human-relevant food chains, found that nanoparticle accumulation in both plants and animals varied significantly depending upon the type of surface coating applied to the particles. The research is available online in the American Chemical Society’s journal Environmental Science & Technology.–“With industrial use of nanoparticles on the rise, there are increasing questions about how they move through the environment and whether they may accumulate in high levels in plants and animals that people eat,” said study co-author Janet Braam, professor and chair of the Department of BioSciences at Rice.–Braam and colleagues studied the uptake of fluorescent quantum dots by Arabidopsis thaliana, an oft-studied plant species that is a relative of mustard, broccoli and kale. In particular, the team looked at how various surface coatings affected how quantum dots moved from roots to leaves as well as how the particles accumulated in leaves. The team also studied how quantum dots behaved when caterpillars called cabbage loopers (Trichoplusia ni) fed upon plant leaves containing quantum dots.–“The impact of nanoparticle uptake on plants themselves and on the herbivores that feed upon them is an open question,” said study first author Yeonjong Koo, a postdoctoral research associate in Braam’s lab. “Very little work has been done in this area, especially in terrestrial plants, which are the cornerstone of human food webs.”–Some toxins, like mercury and DDT, tend to accumulate in higher concentrations as they move up the food chain from plants to animals. It is unknown whether nanoparticles may also be subject to this process, known as biomagnification.–While there are hundreds of types of nanoparticles in use, Koo chose to study quantum dots, submicroscopic bits of semiconductors that glow brightly under ultraviolet light. The fluorescent particles — which contained cadmium, selenium, zinc and sulfur — could easily be measured and imaged in the tests. In addition, the team treated the surface of the quantum dots with three different polymer coatings — one positively charged, one negatively charged and one neutral.–“In industrial applications, nanoparticles are often coated with a polymer to increase solubility, improve stability, enhance properties and for other reasons,”[F4] said study co-author Pedro Alvarez, professor and chair of Rice’s Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. “We expect surface coatings to play a significant role in whether and how nanomaterials may accumulate in food webs.”–Previous lab studies had suggested that the neutral coatings might cause the nanoparticles to aggregate and form clumps that were so large that they would not readily move from a plant’s roots to its leaves. The experiments bore this out. Of the three particle types, only those with charged coatings moved readily through the plants, and only the negatively charged particles avoided clumping altogether. [F5]The study also found that the type of coating impacted the plants’ ability to biodegrade, or break down, the quantum dots.–Koo and colleagues found caterpillars that fed on plants containing quantum dots gained less weight and grew more slowly than caterpillars that fed on untainted leaves.[F6] By examining the caterpillar’s excrement, the scientists were also able to estimate whether cadmium, selenium and intact quantum dots might be accumulating in the animals. Again, the coating played an important role.–“Our tests were not specifically designed to measure bioaccumulation in caterpillars, but the data we collected suggest that particles with positively charged coatings may accumulate in cells and pose a risk of bioaccumulation,[F7]” Koo said. “Based on our findings, more tests should be conducted to determine the extent of this risk under a broader set of ecological conditions.”–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Rice University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Yeonjong Koo, Jing Wang, Qingbo Zhang, Huiguang Zhu, E. Wassim Chehab, Vicki L. Colvin, Pedro J. J. Alvarez, Janet Braam. Fluorescence Reports Intact Quantum Dot Uptake into Roots and Translocation to Leaves ofArabidopsis thalianaand Subsequent Ingestion by Insect Herbivores. Environmental Science & Technology, 2014; 141201181933007 DOI: 10.1021/es5050562
     
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    Estrogen worsens allergic reactions in mice
    Date:December 29, 2014
    Source:NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
    Estradiol, a type of estrogen, enhances the levels and activity in mice of an enzyme that drives life-threatening allergic reactions, according to researchers from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The study results may help explain why women frequently experience more severe allergic reactions compared to men. Furthermore, the results reaffirm the importance of accounting for gender in the design of animal experiments.–Anaphylaxis is an allergic reaction triggered by food, medication or insect stings and bites. Immune cells, particularly mast cells, release enzymes that cause tissues to swell and blood vessels to widen. As a result, skin may flush or develop a rash, and in extreme cases, breathing difficulties, shock or heart attack may occur. Clinical studies have shown that women tend to experience anaphylaxis more frequently than men, but why this difference exists is unclear.—In the current study, NIAID researchers found that female mice experience more severe and longer lasting anaphylactic reactions than males. Instead of targeting immune cells, estrogen influences blood vessels, enhancing the levels and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme that causes some of the symptoms of anaphylaxis. When the researchers blocked eNOS activity, the gender disparity disappeared. In addition, giving estrogen-blocking treatments to female mice reduced the severity of their allergic responses to a level similar to those seen in males.–While the study has identified a clear role for estrogen and eNOS in driving severe anaphylactic reactions in female mice, more work is needed to see if the effects are similar in people and may be applied toward future preventive therapies.-Story Source:-The above story is based on materials provided by NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Valerie Hox, Avanti Desai, Geethani Bandara, Alasdair M. Gilfillan, Dean D. Metcalfe, Ana Olivera. Estrogen increases the severity of anaphylaxis in female mice through enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2014; DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2014.11.003
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    Cornstalks Everywhere But Nothing Else, Not Even A Bee
    David Liittschwager
    That cube was put there by David Liittschwager, a portrait photographer, who spent a few years traveling the world, dropping one-cubic-foot metal frames into gardens, streams, parks, forests, oceans, and then photographing whatever, or whoever came through. Beetles, crickets, fish, spiders, worms, birds — anything big enough to be seen by the naked eye he tried to capture and photograph. Here’s what he found after 24 hours in his Cape Town cube:
     
     
    There were 30 different plants in that one square foot of grass, and roughly 70 different insects. And the coolest part, said a researcher to the Guardian in Britain, “If we picked the cube up and walked 10 feet, we could get as much as 50 percent difference in plant species we encountered. If we moved it uphill, we might find none of the species.” Populations changed drastically only a few feet away — and that’s not counting the fungi, microbes, and the itsy-bitsies that Liittschwager and his team couldn’t see. Another example: Here’s a cube placed 100 feet off the ground, in the upper branches of a Strangler fig tree in Costa Rica. We’re up in the air here, looking down into a valley. What’s up? More than 150 different plants and animals live in or passed through that one square foot of tree: birds, beetles, flies, moths, bugs, bugs, then more bugs…
     
    E.O. Wilson, the Harvard biologist, in his introduction to David Liittschwager’s book of these photographs, says that it’s usually big animals that catch our attention. But if we get down on our knees and examine any small patch of ground, “gradually the smaller inhabitants, far more numerous, begin to eclipse them.” They are the critters that create and aerate the soil, that pollinate, that remove the clutter. And there are lots and lots and lots of them.
    The Corn
    Which brings me back to Iowa, where my NPR colleague, commentator and science writer Craig Childs, decided to have a little adventure. As he tells it in his new book, he recruited a friend, Angus, and together they agreed to spend two nights and three days smack in the middle of a 600-acre farm in Grundy County. Their plan was to settle in amongst the stalks (there are an “estimated three trillion” of them in Iowa) to see what’s living there, other than corn. In other words, a Liittschwager-like census. Cornfields, however, are not like national parks or virgin forests. Corn farmers champion corn. Anything that might eat corn, hurt corn, bother corn, is killed. Their corn is bred to fight pests. The ground is sprayed. The stalks are sprayed again. So, like David, Craig wondered, “What will I find?”The answer amazed me. He found almost nothing. “I listened and heard nothing, no bird, no click of insect.”-There were no bees. The air, the ground, seemed vacant. He found one ant “so small you couldn’t pin it to a specimen board.” A little later, crawling to a different row, he found one mushroom, “the size of an apple seed.” (A relative of the one pictured below.) Then, later, a cobweb spider eating a crane fly (only one). A single red mite “the size of a dust mote hurrying across the barren earth,” some grasshoppers, and that’s it. Though he crawled and crawled, he found nothing else. “It felt like another planet entirely,” he said, a world denuded.
     
    Illustration by NPR
    Yet, 100 years ago, these same fields, these prairies, were home to 300 species of plants, 60 mammals, 300 birds, hundreds and hundreds of insects. This soil was the richest, the loamiest in the state. And now, in these patches, there is almost literally nothing but one kind of living thing. We’ve erased everything else. We need to feed our planet, of course. But we also need the teeny creatures that drive all life on earth. There’s something strange about a farm that intentionally creates a biological desert to produce food for one species. It’s efficient, yes. But it’s so efficient that the ants are missing, the bees are missing, and even the birds stay away. Something’s not right here. Our cornfields are too quiet.
     
    TOP
     
     
     
    [F1]Glyphosates Destroy this bacteria opening everyone up to a variety or host of activity which can create all kinds of imbalances—with the added metals and biofilms as well from the chemtrails —you would be able to create a considerable overload and expedite the spread of anything to create the tumours-paracitical—viral—fungal and negative bacteria over load
    [F2]This can refer to skin lesions as well
    [F3]The reasons for different cancer activity in different regions what gets turned on and what gets turned off
    [F4]And to act as a ligand so that other nanoparticles can either be aligned or cleave to the existing nano’s replicating into whatever the program is sequencing
    [F5]Negatively charged nano stopped the clumping or aggregating –so these do not seem to collect
    [F6]This will effect the plant life as well
    [F7]Bioaccumalation from positively charged nanoparticles and coatings
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    #2712
    AvatarEK
    Keymaster

    Exposure to nanoparticles may threaten heart health
    Date:
    January 8, 2015
    Source:
    American Technion Society
    Nanoparticles, extremely tiny particles measured in billionths of a meter, are increasingly everywhere, and especially in biomedical products. Their toxicity has been researched in general terms, but now a team of Israeli scientists has for the first time found that exposure nanoparticles (NPs) of silicon dioxide (SiO2) can play a major role in the development of cardiovascular diseases when the NP cross tissue and cellular barriers and also find their way into the circulatory system. Their study, published in the December issue of Environmental Toxicology.–The research team was comprised of scientists from the Technion Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Rambam Medical Center, and the Center of Excellence in Exposure Science and Environmental Health (TCEEH).–“Environmental exposure to nanoparticles is becoming unavoidable due to the rapid expansion of nanotechnology,” says the study’s lead author, Prof. Michael Aviram, of the Technion Faculty of Medicine, “This exposure may be especially chronic for those employed in research laboratories and in high tech industry where workers handle, manufacture, use and dispose of nanoparticles. Products that use silica-based nanoparticles for biomedical uses, such as various chips, drug or gene delivery and tracking, imaging, ultrasound therapy, and diagnostics, may also pose an increased cardiovascular risk for consumers as well.”–In this study, researchers exposed cultured laboratory mouse cells resembling the arterial wall cells to NPs of silicon dioxide and investigated the effects. SiO2 NPs are toxic to and have significant adverse effects on macrophages. a type of white blood cell that take up lipids, leading to atherosclerotic lesion development and its consequent cardiovascular events, such as heart attack or stroke. Macrophages accumulation in the arterial wall under atherogenic conditions such as high cholesterol, triglycerides, oxidative stress — are converted into lipids, or laden “foam cells” which, in turn, accelerate atherosclerosis development.–“Macrophage foam cells accumulation in the arterial wall are a key cell type in the development of atherosclerosis, which is an inflammatory disease” says co-author Dr. Lauren Petrick. “The aims of our study were to gain additional insight into the cardiovascular risk associated with silicon dioxide nanoparticle exposure and discover the mechanisms behind Si02’s induced atherogenic effects on macrophages. We also wanted to use nanoparticles as a model for ultrafine particle (UFP) exposure as cardiovascular disease risk factors.”–Both NPs and UFPs can be inhaled and induce negative biological effects. However, until this study, their effect on the development of atherosclerosis has been largely unknown. Here, researchers have discovered for the first time that the toxicity of silicon dioxide nanoparticles has a “significant and substantial effect on the accumulation of triglycerides in the macrophages,” at all exposure concentrations analyzed, and that they also “increase oxidative stress and toxicity.”–A recent update from the American Heart Association also suggested that “fine particles” in air pollution leads to elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, more research was needed to examine the role of “ultrafine particles” (which are much smaller than “fine particles”) on atherosclerosis development and cardiovascular risk.–“The number of nano-based consumer products has risen a thousand fold in recent years, with an estimated world market of $3 trillion by the year 2020,” conclude the researchers. “This reality leads to increased human exposure and interaction of silica-based nanoparticles with biological systems. Because our research demonstrates a clear cardiovascular health risk associated with this trend, steps need to be taken to help ensure that potential health and environmental hazards are being addressed at the same time as the nanotechnology is being developed.Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by American Technion Society. The original article was written by Kevin Hattori. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.Journal Reference-Lauren Petrick, Mira Rosenblat, Nicole Paland, Michael Aviram. Silicon dioxide nanoparticles increase macrophage atherogenicity: Stimulation of cellular cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and triglycerides accumulation. Environmental Toxicology, 2014; DOI: 10.1002/tox.22084
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    Membrane-Embedded Nanoparticles Induce Lipid Rearrangements Similar to Those Exhibited by Biological Membrane Proteins
    Abstract
    Amphiphilic monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (NPs) have recently been shown to spontaneously fuse with lipid bilayers under typical physiological conditions. The final configuration of these NPs after fusion is proposed to be a bilayer-spanning configuration resembling transmembrane proteins. In this work, we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to explore the rearrangement of the surrounding lipid bilayer after NP insertion as a function of particle size and monolayer composition. All NPs studied induce local bilayer thinning and a commensurate decrease in local lipid tail order. Bilayer thickness changes of similar magnitude have been shown to drive protein aggregation, implying that NPs may also experience a membrane-mediated attraction. Unlike most membrane proteins, the exposed surface of the NP has a high charge density that causes electrostatic interactions to condense and reorient nearby lipid head groups. The decrease in tail order also leads to an increased likelihood of lipid tails spontaneously protruding toward solvent, a behavior related to the kinetic pathway for both NP insertion and vesicle–vesicle fusion. Finally, our results show that NPs can even extract lipids from the surrounding bilayer to preferentially intercalate within the exposed monolayer.[F1] These drastic lipid rearrangements are similar to the lipid mixing encouraged by fusion peptides, potentially allowing these NPs to be tuned to perform a similar biological function. This work complements previous studies on the NP–bilayer fusion mechanism by detailing the response of the bilayer to an embedded NP and suggests guidelines for the design of nanoparticles that induce controllable lipid rearrangements.
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    Effects of Nanoparticle Charge and Shape Anisotropy on Translocation through Cell Membranes
     
    Nanotoxicity is becoming a major concern as the use of nanoparticles in imaging, therapeutics, diagnostics, catalysis, sensing, and energy harvesting continues to grow dramatically. The tunable functionalities of the nanoparticles offer unique chemical interactions in the translocation process through cell membranes. The overall translocation rate of the nanoparticle can vary immensely on the basis of the charge of the surface functionalization along with shape and size. Using advanced molecular dynamics simulation techniques, we compute translocation rate constants of functionalized cone-, cube-, rod-, rice-, pyramid-, and sphere-shaped nanoparticles through lipid membranes. The computed results indicate that depending on the nanoparticle shape and surface functionalization charge, the translocation rates can span 60 orders of magnitude. Unlike isotropic nanoparticles, positively charged, faceted, rice-shaped nanoparticles undergo electrostatics-driven reorientation in the vicinity of the membrane to maximize their contact area and translocate instantaneously, disrupting lipid self-assembly and thereby causing significant membrane damage. In contrast, negatively charged nanoparticles are electrostatically repelled from the cell membrane and are less likely to translocate.[F2] Differences in translocation rates among various shapes may have implications on the structural evolution of pathogens from spherical to rodlike morphologies for enhanced efficacy.
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    Could gut microbes help treat brain disorders? Mounting research tightens their connection with the brain
    Date:
    January 8, 2015
    Source:
    Kavli Foundation
    The trillions of microbes that inhabit the human body, collectively called the microbiome, are estimated to weigh two to six pounds — up to twice the weight of the average human brain. Most of them live in the gut and intestines, where they help us to digest food, synthesize vitamins and ward off infection. But recent research on the microbiome has shown that its influence extends far beyond the gut, all the way to the brain.–Over the past 10 years, studies have linked the gut microbiome to a range of complex behaviors, such as mood and emotion, and appetite and satiety. Not only does the gut microbiome appear to help maintain brain function but it may also influence the risk of psychiatric and neurological disorders, including anxiety, depression and autism[F3].—Three researchers at the forefront of this emerging field recently discussed the microbiome-brain connection with The Kavli Foundation.–“The big question right now is how the microbiome exerts its effects on the brain,” said Christopher Lowry, Associate Professor of Integrative Physiology at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Lowry is studying whether beneficial microbes can be used to treat or prevent stress-related psychiatric conditions, including anxiety and depression.–One surprising way in which the microbiome influences the brain is during development. Tracy Bale, Professor of Neuroscience at the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and her team have found that the microbiome in mice is sensitive to stress and that stress-induced changes to a mother’s microbiome are passed on to her baby and alter the way her baby’s brain develops.–“There are key developmental windows when the brain is more vulnerable because it’s setting itself up to respond to the world around it,” said Bale, who has done pioneering research into the effects of maternal stress on the brain. “So, if mom’s microbial ecosystem changes — due to infection, stress or diet, for example — her newborn’s gut microbiome will change too, and that can have a lifetime effect.”—Sarkis Mazmanian, Louis & Nelly Soux Professor of Microbiology at the California Institute of Technology, is exploring the link between gut bacteria, gastrointestinal disease and autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder. He has discovered that the gut microbiome communicates with the brain via molecules that are produced by gut bacteria and then enter the bloodstream. These metabolites are powerful enough to change the behavior of mice.
    “We’ve shown, for example, that a metabolite produced by gut bacteria is sufficient to cause behavioral abnormalities associated with autism and with anxiety when it is injected into otherwise healthy mice,” said Mazmanian.—The work of these three researchers raises the possibility that brain disorders, including anxiety, depression and autism, may be treated through the gut, which is a much easier target for drug delivery than the brain. But there is still much more research to be done to understand the gut-microbiome-brain connection, they said.—Mazmanian’s lab is also exploring whether the microbiome plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.”There are flash bulbs going off in the dark, suggesting that very complex neurodegenerative disorders may be linked to the microbiome. But once again this is very speculative. These seminal findings, the flash bulbs, are only just beginning to illuminate our vision of the gut-microbiome-brain connection,” said Mazmanian.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Kavli Foundation. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
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    Research linking autism symptoms to gut microbes called ‘groundbreaking’
    Date:
    December 19, 2013
    Source:
    University of Colorado at Boulder
    A new study showing that feeding mice a beneficial type of bacteria can ameliorate autism-like symptoms is “groundbreaking,” according to University of Colorado Boulder Professor Rob Knight, who co-authored a commentary piece about the research appearing in the current issue of the journal Cell.-The autism study, published today in the same issue of Cell, strengthens the recent scientific understanding that the microbes that live in your gut may affect what goes on in your brain. It is also the first to show that a specific probiotic may be capable of reversing autism-like behaviors in mice.–“The broader potential of this research is obviously an analogous probiotic that could treat subsets of individuals with autism spectrum disorder,” wrote the commentary authors, who also included CU-Boulder Research Associate Dorota Porazinska and doctoral student Sophie Weiss.–The study underscores the importance of the work being undertaken by the newly formed Autism Microbiome Consortium, which includes Knight as well as commentary co-authors Jack Gilbert of the University of Chicago and Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown of Arizona State University. The interdisciplinary consortium — which taps experts in a range of disciplines from psychology to epidemiology — is investigating the autism-gut microbiome link.
    For the new Cell study, led by Elaine Hsiao of the California Institute of Technology, the researchers used a technique called maternal immune activation in pregnant mice to induce autism-like behavior and neurology in their offspring. The researchers found that the gut microbial community of the offspring differed markedly compared with a control group of mice. When the mice with autism-like symptoms were fed Bacteriodes fragilis,[F4] a microbe known to bolster the immune system, the aberrant behaviors were reduced.–Scientific evidence is mounting that the trillions of microbes that call the human body home can influence our gut-linked health, affecting our risk of obesity, diabetes and colon cancer, for example. But more recently, researchers are discovering that gut microbes also may affect neurology — possibly impacting a person’s cognition, emotions and mental health, said Knight, also a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Early Career Scientist and an investigator at CU-Boulder’s BioFrontiers Institute.–The Autism Microbiome Consortium hopes to broaden this understanding by further studying the microbial community of autistic people, who tend to suffer from more gastrointestinal problems than the general public.-People with autism spectrum disorder who would like to have their gut microbes sequenced can do so now through the American Gut Project, a crowdfunded research effort led by Knight.-The consortium also includes Catherine Lozupone and Kimberly Johnson of CU-Boulder, James Adams of Arizona State University, Mady Hornig of Columbia University, Sarkis Mazmanian of the California Institute of Technology, John Alverdy of the University of Chicago and Janet Jansson of Lawrence Berkeley Lab.-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by University of Colorado at Boulder. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Jack A. Gilbert, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Dorota L. Porazinska, Sophie J. Weiss, Rob Knight. Toward Effective Probiotics for Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Cell, 2013; 155 (7): 1446 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.11.035
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    Bacteria in the gut of autistic children different from non-autistic children
    Date:
    January 11, 2012
    Source:
    American Society for Microbiology
    The underlying reason autism is often associated with gastrointestinal problems is an unknown, but new results to be published in the online journal mBio® on January 10 reveal that the guts of autistic children differ from other children in at least one important way: many children with autism harbor a type of bacteria in their guts that non-autistic children do not. -The study was conducted by Brent Williams and colleagues at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University.–Earlier work has revealed that autistic individuals with gastrointestinal symptoms often exhibit inflammation and other abnormalities in their upper and lower intestinal tracts. However, scientists do not know what causes the inflammation or how the condition relates to the developmental disorders that characterize autism. The research results appearing in mBio® indicate the communities of microorganisms that reside in the gut of autistic children with gastrointestinal problems are different than the communities of non-autistic children. Whether or not these differences are a cause or effect of autism remains to be seen.–“The relationship between different microorganisms and the host and the outcomes for disease and development is an exciting issue,” says Christine A. Biron, the Brintzenhoff Professor of Medical Science at Brown University and editor of the study. “This paper is important because it starts to advance the question of how the resident microbes interact with a disorder that is poorly understood.”–Bacteria belonging to the group Sutterella represented a relatively large proportion of the microorganisms found in 12 of 23 tissue samples from the guts of autistic children, but these organisms were not detected in any samples from non-autistic children. Why this organism is present only in autistic kids with gastrointestinal problems and not in unaffected kids is unclear.-“Sutterella has been associated with gastrointestinal diseases below the diaphragm, and whether it’s a pathogen or not is still not clear,” explains Jorge Benach, Chairman of the Department of Microbiology at Stony Brook University and a reviewer of the report. “It is not a very well-known bacterium.”–In children with autism, digestive problems can be quite serious and can contribute to behavioral problems, making it difficult for doctors and therapists to help their patients. Autism, itself, is poorly understood, but the frequent linkage between this set of developmental disorders and problems in the gut is even less so.–Benach says the study was uniquely powerful because they used tissue samples from the guts of patients. “Most work that has been done linking the gut microbiome with autism has been done with stool samples,” says Benach, but the microorganisms shed in stool don’t necessarily represent the microbes that line the intestinal wall.[F5] “What may show up in a stool sample may be different from what is directly attached to the tissue,” he says.–Tissue biopsy samples require surgery to acquire and represent a difficult process for the patient[F6], facts that underscore the seriousness of the gastrointestinal problems many autistic children and their families must cope with.–Benach emphasizes that the study is statistically powerful, but future work is needed to determine what role Sutterella plays, if any, in the problems in the gut. “It is an observation that needs to be followed through,” says Benach.—Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by American Society for Microbiology. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
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    TOP B
    [F1]This is how the nanoparticles can accumalte by integrating with cells fats 000using proteins or sugars in the body to align and replicate in the system
    [F2]Interesting —negative charge would repel NP from fats
    [F3]Would come from glyphosate poisoning due to the way it removes all healthy bacteria from the colon and protects all the negative—without the health bacteria in place any foreign metal—biofilm could then by pass the blood brain barrier and cause imbalances not to mention digestive disorders as well
    [F4]Anaerobic bacteria remain an important cause of bloodstream infections and account for 1–17% of positive blood cultures. This review summarizes the epidemiology, microbiology, predisposing conditions, and treatment of anaerobic bacteremia (AB) in newborns, children, adults and in patients undergoing dental procedures. The majority of AB are due to Gram-negative bacilli, mostly Bacteroides fragilis group. The other species causing AB include Peptostreptococcus, Clostridium spp., and Fusobacterium spp. Many of these infections are polymicrobial. AB in newborns is associated with prolonged labor, premature rupture of membranes, maternal amnionitis, prematurity, fetal distress, and respiratory difficulty. The predisposing conditions in children include: chronic debilitating disorders such as malignant neoplasm, hematologic abnormalities, immunodeficiencies, chronic renal insufficiency, or decubitus ulcers and carried a poor prognosis. Predisposing factors to AB in adults include malignant neoplasms, hematologic disorders, transplantation of organs, recent gastrointestinal or obstetric gynecologic surgery, intestinal obstruction, diabetes mellitus, post-splenectomy, use of cytotoxic agents or corticosteroids, and an undrained abscess. Early recognition and appropriate treatment of these infections are of great clinical importance.
    [F5]And when you consider nanoparticles and there disruptive role on cellular functions and genetics with the disrupting of gene programming and glyphosates which flush out healthy bacteria and protect the negative —these are factors that will not show up with conventional testing—we are dealing with this on a nanoscale —
    [F6]The tissue samples would be required in order to see what is actually in the lining of the intestines—with the current scopes today they cannot access the information
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    TOP C
    HOME
     
     
    Show of the Month January 17 2015
    Morgellons Fibers in the Water Supply
    DTE & Consumers Energy Smart Meters
    Little or no benefit from nutrient additions to vitamin waters and energy drinks
    Potassium salts aid bone health, limit osteoporosis risk
    Consumption of ‘good salt’ can reduce population blood pressure levels, research finds
    Doctor who treats poor out of his car threatened with losing his license
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    Morgellons Fibers in the Water Supply
    ‘Fungihomeworld’ found that local New Jersey tapwater is riddled with fibers. He studied and changed the water filters numerous times going though Brita, Pur and Burkey purification systems. Fibers show up in all them after a short time. On a quest for clean drinking water, he began testing bottled water, then bottled distilled water—only to find a lot of ‘debris’ (fibers and other gunk) in them. He purchased a home water distiller which was better, but not great. Fibers were riding their way through the steam. He then switched to a 1 micron water filtration system and found it totally lacking.–At last he has found a system he is satisfied with. Not perfect, but close. See update, bottom
     
     
    Above and Below: Residue of gunk left in the distiller after boiling.
    Update Homeworld July 14, 2011:
    the countertop reverse osmosis filtration system arrived today.
    it came with a two gallon US made non BPA plastic water tank.
    AND a TDS [total dissolved solids] meter.-..hooked it up…everything is snug..no leaks…[!]…filtered and stashed 8 gallons of water..-testing: tap water measures about 300 ppm (parts per million) with the TDS meter.-interestingly…the water from the $150 “five stage filter” [“crystal quest”]-i’ve been using measures…300 ppm…exactly the same as the tap water. The “filtered water” looks as full of crap as the tap water. That’s not a filter. It’s an expensive paperweight.–
    The output water from the reverse osmosis filter measures about 15 ppm. A reduction in particles of whatever sort in the tapwater from 300 to 15…that’s 95 percent reduction.-Unfortunately…there are still a few particles and fibers getting through…but not very many.-…it’s really annoying to take a “pure” water sample from the triple filter reverse osmosis system..a sample thats reading a low 14-15 ppm impurities on the TDS meter..and stare at those damn translucent fibers…mostly barely visible..up to 5-7 mm long….run the gauntlet of THREE filters? The fibers are just plain evil—There is confirmation that the particulates are being reduced by 95 percent..-The concept means that the infectious particles are being reduced by 95 percent…and Possibly–the micro fibers are being reduced by 95%. This reduction allows the body defenses to deal with the 5% that might be getting thru.. –The write up stated that the output of the filter system was as advertised..[rated at 100 gallon per day approx. a gallon every 15 minutes…and it did just that.–Advertised reduction in contaminants was 93-95 percent range..and so it was…verified with the TDS meter.–
    …water tastes good too…** it seems that the KDF filter [prefilter] does a lot to control bacteria/ algal growth…the copper /zinc mojo screws with life support of the bacteria and algae.The KDF filter is ahead /in front of the reverse osmosis filter..so whatever ionic magic is happening in the KDF filter water is moved toward the reverse osmosis filter..the reverse osmosis filter should have some antibacterial benefit of the KDF filter output.
    ..in addition, the reverse osmosis filter is constantly being washed..that is where the waste water is coming from..the reverse osmosis membrane discharge /”brine.” The whole point of the discharge water is to keep the membrane clean.
    It would seem to be a very challenging place for microbes to make a home. Between the copper/zinc ions and the constant water flushing, the bacteria/algae should be kept under control.
    water filter
    Note from Ayla:
    I have purchased this unit for my apartment. Originally, I ordered it with the “pre-filter” which was supposed to save the life of one of the filters and end up being more cost effective. This was a big mistake. The pre-filter does not work well, clogs up with dirt and grime very quickly and needs to be replaced extremely often, making it much more expensive than replacing the cylinder. When I pulled the prefilter off the machine, it became less of an expense, and was less time-consuming to run. I suggest you stay away from the pre-filter.
     
    * a few links for info about the filters:
    http://pure-earth.com/pro.html
    http://www.waterfilters.net/Omnipure-K2567-BB-KDF-Inline-Water-Filter.html
    http://www.filterwater.com/asp/kdf-filters.asp
    pure-earth.com/pro.htmlhttp://www.home-water-purifiers-and-filters.com/kdf-filter.php
    and yes..300 ppm is 300 parts per million…measuring particles…ions, actually..since they are the electrical charge carriers in the water.
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    DTE & Consumers Energy Smart Meters
    Harm Your Health
    Harm the Environment
    Collect Data You Might Prefer Be Kept Private
    Will Raise Your Electric Rates
    If you have received a threatening letter from DTE that implies your service will be shut off, read our How to Respond page and contact us. These letters are not official notices. They are a ploy by DTE to raise fear.
    Our appeal of the DTE opt-out program was heard by the Michigan Court of Appeals on Tuesday, January 13 in Lansing. Read more on our DTE Opt-Out page.
    Gripping testimony of health problems at the Michigan Smart Meter Hearings. Nearly 100 people testifying about the effects on their health. Watch the videos (Part 1 and Part 2).
    Many people in Michigan are experiencing severe symptoms and health effects from DTE and Consumers Energy smart meters and their radio-off opt-out meters. (DTE calls smart meters advanced meters and uses descriptions like advanced metering technology in an effort to avoid the negative publicity associated with smart meters.) Smart meters and DTE’s radio-off opt-out meter have a dramatic impact on health because of the pulsed waves they emit, both radiofrequency (wireless) waves and what is commonly called dirty electricity. For some people, this impact is immediately apparent in the form of insomnia, tinnitus, memory problems, and many other health issues. For others, the health effects come down the road. Thousands of independent, non–industry-funded scientific studies (for example, Bioinitiative Report; Forty Scientists) have shown that the electromagnetic frequencies emitted by smart and digital meters cause severe health problems, including cancer, ADD, and the breaching of the blood-brain barrier. Read our health page for more information. For an excellent video, mp3, and Powerpoint presentation on how smart meters work, why what the utility industry tells you shades the truth, and how radiofrequency (RF) emissions affect health, click here.
    Very importantly, DTE’s opt-out meter will not protect your health! Click here to learn about the dirty electricity that both smart meters and digital meters generate. Learn what to do about it, by clicking here and here. Consumers Energy is currently allowing residential customers to keep their current meter. However, it is unlikely that this will continue. Click here to learn more.
    Privacy
    Governmental agencies, law firms, corporations, and other mainstream and nonprofit groups recognize the far-reaching privacy implications of smart meters and the radio-off opt-out meter. Because they gather usage data in such a fine-grained manner (up to every 15 seconds), they are capable of tracking when you are home and the appliances you use and when you use them. This data can be sold to third parties, with mind-boggling consequences. The European Union has issued a stunning report on the far-reaching implications of this. Smart meter data has also been used by law enforcement in an attempt to catch criminals—unfortunately, the usage patterns of law-abiding individuals can be the same as those of law-breakers, with the result that police have broken into the homes of law-abiding citizens. See our Privacy page for more information.
     
    Costs
    Your utility bills will go up. The utilities have made it clear that advanced (smart) meters will be used to bill time-of-use rates, which means you will pay more when demand is highest. Consumers Digest says: “Smart-meter conversion represents little more than a boondoggle that is being foisted on consumers by the politically influential companies that make the hardware and software that are required for the smart-meter conversion.” The former CEO of the Illinois utility ComEd agrees, as do the governors and attorney generals of a variety of states, including our own. See our Costs page for more information.
    Who We Are
    The Smart Meter Education Network is a group of citizens who have come together to educate the community, work for legislation, and take legal and other action that will protect all citizens, especially children, the elderly, and the chronically ill. Smart meters affect all of us, and will affect our children and our planet for decades to come unless we take action now.
    People come to this issue for many different reasons—health impacts, environmental impacts, privacy issues, cyber-security, costs. Whatever your particular concerns, we welcome you to our community and hope that you will join us in our effort to preserve the health of our children, ourselves, and our environment. Click the links on the sidebars to learn more.
     
    The Smart Meter Education Network is a non-partisan group dedicated to
    educating citizens, legislators and activists about
    the health and environmental impacts of smart and digital meters
    the privacy, hacking and other concerns relating to such technology
    ensuring that customers have the right to have an analog meter on their home or business
    supporting meaningful legislation that will address these concerns
    taking legal and community action to preserve health, privacy, and the environment
    promoting safe alternatives to smart meters and AMI technology
    All of these actions require money and volunteer effort. Please donate!! Your health is worth it. Call or email us to volunteer. See our What You Can Do page for more information on actions you can take.
     
    —Stay Up to Date
    Stay up to date by subscribing to our newsletter (it comes out every 1 to 4 weeks). We constantly update our website, so check back often. You can find time-sensitive actions to take under our “Take Action Now” tab. We also use Facebook to send out quick news updates. (While we understand the privacy concerns with Facebook, at this point in time it is a useful tool for us, and is a great way to spread the word about smart meters. If you only wish to use Facebook for access to our updates, you can get an account without revealing personal information—it’s all in what you choose to share, and you can give them any name or birth date you like.)
    Our newsletter comes out every 1 to 4 weeks. It will keep you informed and tell you what actions you can take to fight smart meters. Note that most email programs will filter out our newsletter unless you adjust your email settings. Even though you may receive individual emails from us, when we send the newsletter out to a large group, the emails may be placed in a folder other than your inbox. This happened to us! We weren’t even getting our own newsletter. Then we did for a while, but suddenly gmail started putting it in our Spam folder again. Please make sure you look for emails from [email protected] gmail. com in your Promotions, Junk, or other folders. Please contact your email provider to learn how to adjust your settings, or search on the internet.
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    Little or no benefit from nutrient additions to vitamin waters and energy drinks
    Date-January 12, 2015
    Source-Canadian Science Publishing (NRC Research Press)
    A new study by researchers working at the University of Toronto and Ryerson University investigated the nutritional benefits of novel beverages (vitamin waters, energy drinks, and novel juices) sold in Canadian supermarkets by assessing their micronutrient compositions. The findings were published today in the journal Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism.–According to the study novel beverages sold in Canadian supermarkets revealed extensive nutrient enrichment. On-package marketing highlighted nutritional attributes such as immune support and antioxidant properties, and some made claims related to specific nutrients. In addition, nutrients were often juxtaposed with messages related to performance and emotional well-being, benefits that are questionable.–The study found extensive micronutrient additions at levels often well in excess of nutrient requirements. The most commonly found nutrients were vitamins B6, B12, C and niacin. With the exception of vitamin of C, young Canadian adults — the likely target group for these products — are already consuming enough of these nutrients to meet their needs. [F1]Naomi Dachner, a researcher in Nutritional Science as the University of Toronto said, “While our findings suggest that consumers stand to reap little or no benefit from the nutrient additions in novel beverages, most products were being marketed as if they provided a unique benefit to the consumer through the nutrient additions.”–After novel beverages began being regulated as foods instead of Natural Health Products, their labels changed to meet food labeling requirements, but there was relatively little change in their nutrient composition or marketing. [F2]Dachner explained, “Most of the nutrients permitted for addition are allowable at levels well above nutrient requirements, and, the new guidance is not designed to steer manufacturers towards the addition of nutrients that would address existing nutrient inadequacies in the population.”–“Novel beverages are now required to display Nutrition Facts tables which may facilitate comparisons between products, but this information will not enable consumers to differentiate potentially beneficial nutrient additions from others.”[F3]–The study raises questions about what measures need to be taken to ensure that consumers of novel beverages are not misled or exposed to unnecessarily high nutrient loads with no potential benefit.Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by Canadian Science Publishing (NRC Research Press). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Naomi Dachner, Rena Mendelson, Jocelyn Sacco, Valerie Tarasuk. An examination of the nutrient content and on-package marketing of novel beverages. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2015; 1 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2014-0252
    [F1]Now Look at this statement and see through the smoke screen here to meet ones needs is as blatantly unscientific as some of the other things it is making a claim to and would make one think they are getting something in today’s food supply which we know is not the case —and a need is not necessary an adequate or right amount
    [F2]Which has little to do with anything other then the fact they are listing what is in the product which is not bad but they are making it to be —something negative because it is implying something healthy
    [F3]Again an attack on nutritionally based foods—they are not saying anything here other then they do not like the fact that the nutritional value is being exposed and they do not like the levels because they are high meaning they will have benefit—no one has suffered from to much vitamins and yet here they are putting the fear of BS in the report
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    Potassium salts aid bone health, limit osteoporosis risk
    Date-January 14, 2015
    Source-University of Surrey
    Latest research from the University of Surrey has found that the potassium salts (bicarbonate and citrate) plentiful in fruit and vegetables, play an important part in improving bone health. For the first time, the results also showed that these potassium salts reduce bone resorption, the process by which bone is broken down, therefore increasing their strength.[F1]–The study, published in the journal Osteoporosis International, also revealed that high intake of potassium salts significantly reduces the excretion of calcium and acid in urine.–“This means that excess acid is neutralized and bone mineral is preserved,” said lead author Dr Helen Lambert from the University of Surrey.–“Excess acid in the body, produced as a result of a typical Western diet high in animal and cereal protein, causes bones to weaken and fracture. Our study shows that these salts could prevent osteoporosis, as our results showed a decrease in bone resorption.”–Although bone resorption and bone formation is a natural process, allowing bones to grow, heal and adapt, in osteoporosis, the balance is shifted so that more bone is broken down than is built up, leading to fragility and fractures.–The debilitating disease affects almost three million people in the UK. One in two women and one in five men over the age of 50 will break a bone because of poor bone health.–This study shows that eating more fruits and vegetables could be a way to improve the strength of our bones and prevent osteoporosis.-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by University of Surrey. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Helen Lambert, Lynda Frassetto, J. Bernadette Moore, David Torgerson, Richard Gannon , Peter Burckhardt and Susan Lanham-New. The effect of supplementation with alkaline potassium salts on bone metabolism: a meta-analysis. Osteoporosis International, January 2015 DOI: 10.1007/s00198-014-3006-9
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    Consumption of ‘good salt’ can reduce population blood pressure levels, research finds
    Date-September 15, 2010
    Source-Wageningen University and Research Centre
    An increased intake of ‘good’ potassium salts could contribute significantly to improving blood pressure at the population level, according to new research. The favourable effect brought about by potassium is even estimated to be comparable with the blood pressure reduction achievable by halving the intake of ‘bad’ sodium salts (mostly from table salt).-Those are the conclusions drawn by Linda van Mierlo and her colleagues at Wageningen University, part of Wageningen UR, and Unilever in their investigation of the consumption of potassium in 21 countries. An article describing their findings appears in the journal Archives of Internal Medicine.-The risk of developing cardiovascular diseases rises as blood pressure increases. In Western countries only 20-30% of the population has ‘optimal’ blood pressure, with the systolic (maximum) pressure being lower than 120 mm Hg and the diastolic (minimum) pressure lower than 80 mm Hg. Blood pressure increases with age in most people. Men more often have a higher blood pressure than women.-Diet and lifestyle plays an important role in managing blood pressure. High intakes of sodium and low intakes of potassium have unfavorable effects on blood pressure. Therefore, reducing the consumption of sodium and increasing the consumption of potassium are both good ways to improve blood pressure.-The study carried out by food researchers from the Human Nutrition department at Wageningen University and from the Nutrition & Health department at Unilever demonstrates that the average potassium intake in 21 countries including the US, China, New Zealand, Germany and the Netherlands varies between 1.7 and 3.7 g a day. This is considerably lower than the 4.7 g a day, which has been recommended based on the positive health effects observed at this level of intake.-A hypothetical increase in the potassium intake to the recommended level would reduce the systolic blood pressure in the populations of these countries by between 1.7 and 3.2 mm Hg. This corresponds with the reduction that would occur if Western consumers were to take in 4 g of salt less per day. The intakes of both potassium and sodium are therefore of importance in preventing high blood pressure.–Earlier studies have shown that salt reduction of 3 g per day in food could reduce blood pressure and prevent 2500 deaths per year due to cardiovascular diseases in the Netherlands. In Western countries, salt consumption can be as high as 9-12 g a day whereas 5 g is the recommended amount according to WHO standards. Most household salt is to be found in processed foods such as bread, ready-made meals, soups, sauces and savoury snacks and pizzas. An effective way of increasing potassium intake is to follow the guidelines for healthy nutrition more closely, including a higher consumption of vegetables and fruit. In addition, the use of mineral salts in processed foods — by which sodium is partly replaced by potassium — would contribute to an improved intake of both sodium and potassium.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Wageningen University and Research Centre. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Linda A. J. van Mierlo; Arno Greyling; Peter L. Zock; Frans J. Kok; Johanna M. Geleijnse. Suboptimal Potassium Intake and Potential Impact on Population Blood Pressure. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2010; 170 (16): 1501-1502 DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2010.284
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    Doctor who treats poor out of his car threatened with losing his license
    Dr. Carrol Frazier Landrum is revered as a hero and lifesaver among his poverty-stricken patients whom he travels to in the town of Edwards. Despite that, he’s under threat for losing his license apparently because of the way he delivers help.
    BY Nina Golgowski
    NEW YORK DAILY NEWS
    Friday, January 16, 2015, 4:12 PM
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    WBTV Dr. Carrol Frazier Landrum, an 88-year-old doctor in Edwards, Miss., drives to his patients and sees them out of his car. It’s apparently a controversial practice that has placed him under fire by the state’s medical board. –A small-town Mississippi doctor who’s revered as a hero and lifesaver among his poverty-stricken patients says he’s embroiled in a fight to keep his license — apparently not because of the work he does, but where he does it.–Dr. Carrol Frazier Landrum, 88, is a traveling physician, one who carries his practice in his 2007 Toyota Camry because the majority of his Edwards patients — approximately two to three per day — need him to come to them.–“I’ve always had a heart for the poor,” Landrum told The Washington Post this week, while struggling to hold back tears.–“I grew up poor, and when the doctor would come to us, and he was happy to see us, I pictured myself doing that someday. I try not to ever turn people away — money or no money — because that’s where the need is,” he said.–Landrum’s traveling office is a relatively new thing for the 55-year medical veteran who turned to his vehicle about two years ago after his office in a low-income housing complex became too dangerous with rising gang violence, WKBT reported.–WBTV Landrum says he treats two to three patients per day out of his car. The majority of them are described as financially strapped and unable to find medical help elsewhere. –“My patients kept saying, ‘Don’t leave, don’t leave,'” he recalled to the station. “And I started working out of my automobile.”–If not making house calls he pulls into a usual parking lot. There he’ll examine patients, write prescriptions, and if he can’t help them with the equipment he keeps in his car, he refers them to a doctor who can.–But despite his apparent need in the community, with Landrum described as the only practicing physician in town, the state’s Board of Medical Licensure has asked him to surrender his license.–Landrum insists he has done nothing wrong.–WBTV Landrum said he has been asked to hand in his medical license but he plans to fight the state’s medical board once a hearing is scheduled. — Board of Medical Licensure investigation is said to be investigating Landrum’s case.–Its executive director, reached by the Washington Post, declined to publicly address any “complaints” there may be with Landrum until “action is taken by the board.”–Until then, his patients are also defending him.–“I’ve lived (in Edwards) all my life, and Dr. Landrum has always been my doctor,” 62-year-old Leroy Mitchell told the Clarion Ledger. “Edwards is a poor town. Us poor folks cannot afford to drive to Jackson or Vicksburg to go to the doctor. He isn’t out for money. He’s doing this because he truly loves helping us.”
    MSNewsNow.com – Jackson, MS –“He’s doing a great service here, really, a great service, because these people can’t afford to go to doctors,” Dan Mashburn told WBTV.–As of Friday an online petition for Landrum to keep his license has pulled in more than 1,200 signatures — several hundred short of a Jan. 17 goal of 2,000.–Those signatures come as far away as Spain, Argentina, Sweden, Norway, Poland, South Africa, and Australia.–But his fate appears to now rest with a yet-to-be scheduled hearing by the board.–“I really am hoping this gets worked out and I can continue helping the people I’ve come to love,” Landrum told the Ledger. “I’m worried about the hearing, but I hope it all works out.”
     
     
     
    [F1]This is hilarious they knew this in the 50’s and 60’s and to make this statement is showing a real sign of lagging info from mainstream science—just goes to show where the priorities are–
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    Show of the Month January 24 2015
    Viruses may play unexpected role in inflammatory bowel diseases
    More than just bacteria— Importance of microbial diversity in gut health, disease
    Glyphosate- tolerances for residues
    Damaged DNA amplified by activities such as smoking
    Aging impacts epigenome in human skeletal muscle
    Cellular Pentration with silver nanoparticles toxic to Cells
    How silver turns people blue
    More dangerous chemicals in everyday life- Now experts warn against nanosilver
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    Viruses may play unexpected role in inflammatory bowel diseases
    Date:
    January 22, 2015
    Source:
    Washington University in St. Louis
    Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with a decrease in the diversity of bacteria in the gut, but a new study led by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has linked the same illnesses to an increase in the diversity of viruses.–The scientists found that patients with inflammatory bowel diseases had a greater variety of viruses in their digestive systems than healthy volunteers, suggesting viruses likely play a role in the diseases.–The research appears online Jan. 22 in Cell and in the journal’s print edition on Jan. 29.–Scientists only recently started recognizing the role of the microbiome — the bacteria in and on the body, and the bacteria’s genes — in illness. For example, changes in the gut microbiome have been linked to obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and inflammatory bowel diseases[F1].–The new research is the first to associate disease with changes in the virome, or the viruses in the human body and their genes. According to the researchers, the results raise the possibility that viruses may have unrecognized roles in obesity and diabetes and the two most common inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.–The findings suggest that scientists should be studying the virome as closely as the microbiome, said senior author Herbert W. Virgin IV, MD, PhD.–“This is the tip of the iceberg,” he said. “A significant portion of the viral DNA we identified in these patients is unfamiliar to us — it comes from newly identified viruses we don’t know much about[F2]. We have a great deal of groundwork to do, including sequencing the genetic material of these viruses and learning how they interact with the gut and gut bacteria, before we can determine if changes in the virome cause these conditions or result from them.”-The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that inflammatory bowel diseases affect about 1 million people in the United States. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are thought to involve misdirected immune attacks on gut tissue and can lead to weight loss, bleeding in the gut and rectum, and loss of appetite. Surgery to remove part of the bowel is often necessary to treat Crohn’s disease.–Virgin and his colleagues studied three groups of patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis living in Chicago, Boston and the United Kingdom. In each group, they compared viral DNA purified from the feces of participants with viral DNA from the feces of healthy people living in the same areas and, in some cases, the same homes.–“Much of the increased viral diversity in participants with inflammatory bowel diseases was in the form of bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect bacteria and can incorporate themselves into the bacteria’s genetic material[F3],” said Virgin, the Edward Mallinckrodt Professor of Pathology and head of the Department of Pathology and Immunology.–Changes in the gut that eliminate bacteria in inflammatory bowel diseases may unleash bacteriophages in the dying bacteria, Virgin speculated. Or the introduction of a new bacteriophage to the gut, perhaps through the foods in a person’s diet, may trigger a reaction in the digestive system or the microbiome that causes the disorders[F4], he said. It’s also possible that a combination of these mechanisms may contribute.–To develop better treatments for inflammatory bowel diseases, scientists need to learn more about how the gut microbiome and the gut virome interact with a patient’s genes[F5].–“We know that mutations in human genes affect the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases, and scientists also are exploring how bacterial genes may influence risk,” Virgin said. “Our results show that the virome’s potential effects on the gut also need to be a part of these investigations.”–The researchers are developing an animal model of inflammatory bowel diseases to make it possible to determine whether human, bacterial or viral genes, or some mixture of all three, are driving these illnesses.—-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Washington University in St. Louis. The original article was written by Michael C. Purdy. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Jason M. Norman, Scott A. Handley, Megan T. Baldridge, Lindsay Droit, Catherine Y. Liu, Brian C. Keller, Amal Kambal, Cynthia L. Monaco, Guoyan Zhao, Phillip Fleshner, Thaddeus S. Stappenbeck, Dermot P.B. McGovern, Ali Keshavarzian, Ece A. Mutlu, Jenny Sauk, Dirk Gevers, Ramnik J. Xavier, David Wang, Miles Parkes, Herbert W. Virgin. Disease-Specific Alterations in the Enteric Virome in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Cell, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.01.002

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    More than just bacteria— Importance of microbial diversity in gut health, disease
    Date:
    March 10, 2014
    Source:
    American Gastroenterological Association
    The gut microbiota contains a vast number of microorganisms from all three domains of life, including bacteria, archaea and fungi, as well as viruses. These interact in a complex way to contribute towards both health and the development of disease — interactions that are only now being elucidated thanks to the application of advanced DNA sequencing technology in this field.–“Using novel metagenomic approaches, scientists are at last beginning to characterize the taxonomic abundance and community relationships not only of bacteria, but also the other microbes that inhabit the gut environment,”1 says Professor Gary Wu, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. “This exciting work is bringing us one step closer to understanding the importance of microbial diversity in intestinal health and disease and could ultimately lead to new ways of diagnosing and treating gastrointestinal (GI) disease.”–His talk was one of the topics presented at the Gut Microbiota for Health World Summit in Miami, FL, USA. On March 8-9, 2014, internationally leading experts discussed the latest advances in gut microbiota research and its impact on health.–The microorganisms that inhabit the gut can be broadly divided into prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), bacteriophages (viruses that infect prokaryotes), eukaryotic viruses, and the meiofauna (microscopically small benthic invertebrates that live in both marine and fresh water environments — primarily fungi and protozoa).1 Of these, bacteria have been the most extensively studied. The gastrointestinal tract is now considered one of the most complex microbial ecosystems on earth and understanding how the multiple communities interact presents both opportunities and challenges.–“We have known for some time that the bacteria in the gut play an important role in both health and disease,” says Prof. Wu. “It is also now becoming clear that the non-bacterial microbiota interacts in a complex way with the bacterial microbiota to contribute to these processes.”
    Viruses in the gut—The most common viruses in the gut are the bacteriophages. These rapidly-evolving viruses can outnumber bacteria by a factor of 10 to one; they infect and destroy bacterial cells and have the ability to transfer genetic material from one bacterium to another, with potentially profound implications for GI health and disease.–“There is a predator-prey relationship between bacteriophages and bacteria that may play a role in altering the bacterial microbiota in conditions such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD),” says Prof. Wu. “The fact that bacteriophages induce immune responses in bacteria and may also transmit genomic material into bacteria that may alter their function makes these viruses extremely important and we need to know much more about them.”–Meiofauna in the microbiota—DNA sequencing techniques have also confirmed the presence of commensal meiofauna in the GI tract that may be important in promoting health and disease.1 Certain types of meiofauna (e.g. helminths and Blastocystis) are thought to protect against IBD by suppressing inflammation, and others believe that increased fungal diversity may contribute to GI diseases, including IBD.–“Decreases in fungal diversity have been shown to correlate with an increase in healthy bacterial colonisation following probiotic therapy, suggesting niche competition between fungi and bacteria,” says Prof. Wu. “This effect is also evident in the development of mucosal Candida infection following antibiotic treatment.”–Non-bacterial microbes and the future–Prof. Wu and others believe that the importance of trans-domain interactions in health and disease are only just beginning to emerge. By studying the complex relationships between bacterial and non-bacterial microbes in the gut, it is hoped that a greater understanding of pathogenic mechanisms will be gained, leading ultimately to novel approaches to diagnosis and treatment.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by American Gastroenterological Association. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference- Jason M. Norman, Scott A. Handley, Herbert W. Virgin. Kingdom-agnostic Metagenomics and the Importance of Complete Characterization of Enteric Microbial Communities. Gastroenterology, 2014; DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.02.001
     
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    Glyphosate- tolerances for residues.
    (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of glyphosate, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the commodities listed below resulting from the application of glyphosate, the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate, the ethanolamine salt of glyphosate, the dimethylamine salt of glyphosate, the ammonium salt of glyphosate, and the potassium salt of glyphosate. Compliance with the following tolerance levels is to be determined by measuring only glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine).
    Commodity
    Parts per million
    Acerola
    0.2
    Alfalfa, seed
    0.5
    Almond, hulls
    25
    Aloe vera
    0.5
    Ambarella
    0.2
    Animal feed, nongrass, group 18
    400
    Artichoke, globe
    0.2
    Asparagus
    0.5
    Atemoya
    0.2
    Avocado
    0.2
    Bamboo, shoots
    0.2
    Banana
    0.2
    Barley, bran
    30
    Beet, sugar, dried pulp
    25
    Beet, sugar, roots
    10
    Beet, sugar, tops
    10
    Berry and small fruit, group 13-07
    0.20
    Betelnut
    1.0
    Biriba
    0.2
    Blimbe
    0.2
    Breadfruit
    0.2
    Cacao bean, bean
    0.2
    Cactus, fruit
    0.5
    Cactus, pads
    0.5
    Canistel
    0.2
    Carrot
    5.0
    Chaya
    1.0
    Cherimoya
    0.2
    Citrus, dried pulp
    1.5
    Coconut
    0.1
    Coffee, bean, green
    1.0
    Corn, pop, grain
    0.1
    Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed
    3.5
    Cotton, gin byproducts
    210
    Custard apple
    0.2
    Date, dried fruit
    0.2
    Dokudami
    2.0
    Durian
    0.2
    Epazote
    1.3
    Feijoa
    0.2
    Fig
    0.2
    Fish
    0.25
    Fruit, citrus, group 10-10
    0.50
    Fruit, pome, group 11-10
    0.20
    Fruit, stone, group 12
    0.2
    Galangal, roots
    0.2
    Ginger, white, flower
    0.2
    Gourd, buffalo, seed
    0.1
    Governor’s plum
    0.2
    Gow kee, leaves
    0.2
    Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, except field corn, forage and field corn, stover
    100
    Grain, cereal, group 15 except field corn, popcorn, rice, sweet corn, and wild rice
    30
    Grass, forage, fodder and hay, group 17
    300
    Guava
    0.2
    Herbs subgroup 19A
    0.2
    Hop, dried cones
    7.0
    Ilama
    0.2
    Imbe
    0.2
    Imbu
    0.2
    Jaboticaba
    0.2
    Jackfruit
    0.2
    Kava, roots
    0.2
    Kenaf, forage
    200
    Leucaena, forage
    200
    Longan
    0.2
    Lychee
    0.2
    Mamey apple
    0.2
    Mango
    0.2
    Mangosteen
    0.2
    Marmaladebox
    0.2
    Mioga, flower
    0.2
    Noni
    0.20
    Nut, pine
    1.0
    Nut, tree, group 14
    1.0
    Oilseeds, group 20, except canola
    40
    Okra
    0.5
    Olive
    0.2
    Oregano, Mexican, leaves
    2.0
    Palm heart
    0.2
    Palm heart, leaves
    0.2
    Palm, oil
    0.1
    Papaya
    0.2
    Papaya, mountain
    0.2
    Passionfruit
    0.2
    Pawpaw
    0.2
    Pea, dry
    8.0
    Peanut
    0.1
    Peanut, hay
    0.5
    Pepper leaf, fresh leaves
    0.2
    Peppermint, tops
    200
    Perilla, tops
    1.8
    Persimmon
    0.2
    Pineapple
    0.1
    Pistachio
    1.0
    Pomegranate
    0.2
    Pulasan
    0.2
    Quinoa, grain
    5.0
    Rambutan
    0.2
    Rice, grain
    0.1
    Rice, wild, grain
    0.1
    Rose apple
    0.2
    Sapodilla
    0.2
    Sapote, black
    0.2
    Sapote, mamey
    0.2
    Sapote, white
    0.2
    Shellfish
    3.0
    Soursop
    0.2
    Spanish lime
    0.2
    Spearmint, tops
    200
    Spice subgroup 19B
    7.0
    Star apple
    0.2
    Starfruit
    0.2
    Stevia, dried leaves
    1.0
    Sugar apple
    0.2
    Sugarcane, cane
    2.0
    Sugarcane, molasses
    30
    Surinam cherry
    0.2
    Sweet potato
    3.0
    Tamarind
    0.2
    Tea, dried
    1.0
    Tea, instant
    7.0
    Teff, forage
    100
    Teff, grain
    5.0
    Teff, hay
    100
    Ti, leaves
    0.2
    Ti, roots
    0.2
    Ugli fruit
    0.5
    Vegetable, bulb, group 3-07
    0.20
    Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9
    0.5
    Vegetable, foliage of legume, subgroup 7A, except soybean
    0.2
    Vegetable, fruiting, group 8-10 (except okra)
    0.10
    Vegetable, leafy, brassica, group 5
    0.2
    Vegetable, leafy, except brassica, group 4
    0.2
    Vegetable, leaves of root and tuber, group 2, except sugar beet tops
    0.2
    Vegetable, legume, group 6 except soybean and dry pea
    5.0
    Vegetables, root and tuber, group 1, except carrot, sweet potato, and sugar beet
    0.20
    Wasabi, roots
    0.2
    Water spinach, tops
    0.2
    Watercress, upland
    0.2
    Wax jambu
    0.2
    Yacon, tuber
    0.2
    (2) Tolerances are established for residues of glyphosate, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the commodities listed below resulting from the application of glyphosate, the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate, the ethanolamine salt of glyphosate, the dimethylamine salt of glyphosate, the ammonium salt of glyphosate, and the potassium salt of glyphosate. Compliance with the following tolerance levels is to be determined by measuring only glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and its metabolite N-acetyl-glyphosate (N-acetyl-N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine; calculated as the stoichiometric equivalent of glyphosate).
    Commodity
    Parts per Million
    Canola, seed
    20
    Cattle, meat byproducts
    5.0
    Corn, field, forage
    13
    Corn, field, grain
    5.0
    Corn, field, stover
    100
    Egg
    0.05
    Goat, meat byproducts
    5.0
    Grain aspirated fractions
    310.0
    Hog, meat byproducts
    5.0
    Horse, meat byproducts
    5.0
    Poultry, meat
    0.10
    Poultry, meat byproducts
    1.0
    Sheep, meat byproducts
    5.0
    Soybean, forage
    100.0
    Soybean, hay
    200.0
    Soybean, hulls
    120.0
    Soybean, seed
    20.0
    (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. [Reserved]
    (c) Tolerances with regional registrations. [Reserved]
    (d) Indirect or inadvertent residues. [Reserved]
    [45 FR 64911, Oct. 1, 1980]
    Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §180.364, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at http://www.fdsys.gov.
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    Damaged DNA amplified by activities such as smoking
    Date:
    January 15, 2015
    Source:
    ETH Zurich
    In the majority of cases, the onset of cancer is characterised by a minor change in a person’s genetic material. A cell’s DNA mutates in a particular area to the extent that the cell no longer divides in a controlled manner, but begins to grow uncontrollably. In many cases, this type of genetic mutation involves chemical changes to individual building blocks of DNA. These changes are induced by smoking tobacco and consuming foods such as cured meats[F6]. This is because the contents of these materials can chemically react with and change building blocks of cellular DNA, thereby creating DNA adducts. Up to now, scientists have been able to determine whether gene samples contain adducts and if so, how many. However, the procedure is laborious and finding out exactly where a building block in the genetic code has been altered into an adduct has not been possible.—Researchers from the team led by Shana Sturla, professor of Food and Nutrition Toxicology, have succeeded for the first time in amplifying gene samples containing DNA adducts while retaining references to these adducts. This type of amplification is a prerequisite for the majority of technologies used by researchers to determine a gene’s DNA sequence. In the future, it may therefore be possible to expand DNA sequencing from the four basic DNA building blocks to include adducts. “The scientific community would have an important tool for making a detailed analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in the initiation of cancer and the corresponding risk factors,” says Sturla.—Artificial counterpart found—The researchers focused their efforts on a specific, typical DNA adduct, an alkylguanine called O-6-benzylguanine. They recreated an enzyme reaction in a test tube to obtain a negative copy of the genetic material — analogous to how DNA is replicated naturally in cells. The scientists first had to find an artificial counterpart of the alkylguanine to be incorporated into the negative copy in its position — due to the fact that nature produces molecular counterparts to the basic DNA building blocks, but not to DNA adducts. This is why replicating genes usually leads to copy errors (or mutations) when adducts are present.–The ETH researchers produced several artificial derivatives of the basic DNA building blocks in the laboratory and tested them as potential counterparts to the alkylguanine. One proved particularly suitable. The researchers were then able to produce a negative copy of a gene containing the alkylguanine.–The aim of the work carried out by Sturla and her colleagues was to demonstrate that it is feasible to amplify genes even when adducts are present. It should now be possible for researchers to find artificial counterparts to other adducts using the same method. As the ETH Professor points out, this means that altered genes could be amplified in the future and their sequences more easily ascertained. In 2010, Shana Sturla was awarded a five-year ERC Starting Grant from the European Research Council. The current project was partly financed by this award.-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by ETH Zurich. The original article was written by Fabio Bergamin. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Laura A. Wyss, Arman Nilforoushan, Fritz Eichenseher, Ursina Suter, Nina Blatter, Andreas Marx, Shana J. Sturla. Specific Incorporation of an Artificial Nucleotide Opposite a Mutagenic DNA Adduct by a DNA Polymerase. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2015; 137 (1): 30 DOI: 10.1021/ja5100542
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    Aging impacts epigenome in human skeletal muscle
    Date:
    November 20, 2013
    Source:
    Buck Institute for Research on Aging
    Our epigenome is a set of chemical switches that turn parts of our genome off and on at strategic times and locations. These switches help alter the way our cells act and are impacted by environmental factors including diet, exercise and stress. Research at the Buck Institute reveals that aging also effects the epigenome in human skeletal muscle. The study, appearing on line in Aging Cell, provides a method to study sarcopenia, the degenerative loss of muscle mass that begins in middle age.—The results came from the first genome-wide DNA methylation study in disease-free individuals. DNA methylation involves the addition of a methyl group to the DNA and is involved in a particular layer of epigenetic regulation and genome maintenance. In this study researchers compared DNA methylation in samples of skeletal muscle taken from healthy young (18 — 27 years of age) and older (68 — 89 years of age) males. Buck faculty and lead scientist Simon Melov, PhD, said researchers looked at more than 480,000 sites throughout the genome. “We identified a suite of epigenetic markers that completely separated the younger from the older individuals — there was a change in the epigenetic fingerprint,” said Melov. “Our findings were statistically significant; the chances of that happening are infinitesimal.”–Melov said scientists identified about six-thousand sites throughout the genome that were differentially methylated with age and that some of those sites are associated with genes that regulate activity at the neuromuscular junction which connects the nervous system to our muscles. “It’s long been suspected that atrophy at this junction is a weak link in sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass we get with age,” said Melov. “Maybe this differential methylation causes it. We don’t know.”–Studying the root causes and development of sarcopenia in humans is problematic; the research would require repeated muscle biopsies taken over time, something that would be hard to collect. Melov says now that the epigenetic markers have been identified in humans, the goal would be to manipulate those sites in laboratory animals. “We would be able to observe function over time and potentially use drugs to alter the rate of DNA methylation at those sites,” he said. Melov says changes in DNA methylation are very common in cancer and that the process is more tightly controlled in younger people.-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Buck Institute for Research on Aging. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Simon Melov, PhD et al. Genome-wide DNA methylation changes with age in disease-free human skeletal muscle. Aging Cell, November 2013
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    Cellular Pentration with silver nanoparticles toxic to Cells
    Date:
    January 21, 2015
    Source:
    Plataforma SINC
     
    This is a microscope image of a cell with silver nanoparticles with green fluorescence and red-stained nucleus.
    Credit: MPIKG
    The use of colloidal silver to treat illnesses has become more popular in recent years, but its ingestion, prohibited in countries like the US, can be harmful to health. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute in Germany have now confirmed that silver nanoparticles are significantly toxic when they penetrate cells, although the number of toxic radicals they generate can vary by coating them with carbohydrates.–Silver salts have been used externally for centuries for their antiseptic properties in the treatment of pains and as a surface disinfectant for materials. There are currently people who use silver nanoparticles to make homemade potions to combat infections and illnesses such as cancer and AIDS, although in some cases the only thing they achieve is argyria or gray-tinged skin.–Health authorities warn that there is no scientific evidence that supports the therapeutic efficiency of colloidal silver and in fact, in some countries like the US, its ingestion is prohibited. On the contrary, there are numerous studies which demonstrate the toxicity of silver nanoparticles on cells.–One of these studies has just been published in the ‘Journal of Nanobiotechnology’ by an international team of researchers coordinated from the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces (Germany). “We have observed that it is only when silver nanoparticles enter inside the cells that they produce serious harm, and that their toxicity is basically due to the oxidative stress they create,” explained the chemist Guillermo Orts-Gil, project co-ordinator.–To carry out the study, the team has analysed how different carbohydrates act on the surface of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) of around 50 nanometres, which have been introduced into cultures of liver cells and tumour cells from the nervous system of mice. The results reveal that, for example, the toxic effects of the Ag-NP are much greater if they are covered with glucose instead of galactose or mannose.
    ‘Trojan horse’ mechanism—-Although not all the details on the complex toxicological mechanisms are known, it is known that the nanoparticles use a ‘Trojan horse’ mechanism to trick the membrane’s defences and get inside the cell. “The new data shows how the different carbohydrate coatings regulate the way in which they do this, and this is hugely interesting for controlling their toxicity and designing future trials,” points out Orts-Gil.–The researcher highlights that there is a “clear correlation between the coating of the nanoparticles, the oxidative stress and toxicity, and thus, these results open up new perspectives on regulating the bioactivity of the Ag-NP through the use of carbohydrates.”—Silver nanoparticles are not only used to make homemade remedies; they are also increasingly used in drugs such as vaccines, as well as products such as clothes and cleaning cloths.[F7]–Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by Plataforma SINC. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference–David C Kennedy, Guillermo Orts-Gil, Chian-Hui Lai, Larissa Müller, Andrea Haase, Andreas Luch, Peter H Seeberger. Carbohydrate functionalization of silver nanoparticles modulates cytotoxicity and cellular uptake. Journal of Nanobiotechnology, 2014; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s12951-014-0059-z
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    How silver turns people blue
    Date:
    October 30, 2012
    Source:
    Brown University
     
    Too much of a good thing. Scientists have known for years argyria — a condition that turns the skin blue ( actually grey ) — had something to do with silver. Brown scientists have figured out the complex chemistry behind it.–Ingesting silver — in antimicrobial health tonics or for extensive medical treatments involving silver — can cause argyria, condition in which the skin turns grayish-blue. Brown researchers have discovered how that happens. The process is similar to developing black-and-white photographs, and it’s not just the silver.–Researchers from Brown University have shown for the first time how ingesting too much silver can cause argyria, a rare condition in which patients’ skin turns a striking shade of grayish blue.–“It’s the first conceptual model giving the whole picture of how one develops this condition,” said Robert Hurt, professor of engineering at Brown and part of the research team. “What’s interesting here is that the particles someone ingests aren’t the particles that ultimately cause the disorder.”–Scientists have known for years argyria had something to do with silver. The condition has been documented in people who drink antimicrobial health tonics containing silver nanoparticles and in people who have had extensive medical treatments involving silver. Tissue samples from patients showed silver particles actually lodged deep in the skin, but it wasn’t clear how they got there.–As it turns out, argyria is caused by a complex series of chemical reactions, Hurt said. His paper on the subject, authored with Brown colleagues Jingyu Liu, Zhongying Wang, Frances Liu, and Agnes Kane, is published in the journal ACS Nano.–“The particles someone ingests aren’t the particles that ultimately cause the disorder.”Hurt and his team show that nanosilver is broken down in the stomach, absorbed into the bloodstream as a salt and finally deposited in the skin, where exposure to light turns the salt back into elemental silver and creates the telltale bluish hue. That final stage, oddly, involves the same photochemical reaction used to develop black-and-white photographs.
    From silver to salt and back again
    Hurt and his team have been studying the environmental impact of silver, specifically silver nanoparticles, for years. They’ve found that nanosilver tends to corrode in acidic environments, giving off charged ions — silver salts — that can be toxic in large amounts. Hurt’s graduate student, Jingyu Liu (now a postdoctoral fellow at the National Institute of Standards and Technology), thought those same toxic ions might also be produced when silver enters the body, and could play a role in argyria.–To find out, the researchers mixed a series chemical treatments that could simulate what might happen to silver inside the body. One treatment simulated the acidic environment in the gastrointestinal tract; one mimicked the protein content of the bloodstream; and a collagen gel replicated the base membranes of the skin.–They found that nanosilver corrodes in stomach acid in much the same way it does in other acidic environments. Corrosion strips silver atoms of electrons, forming positively charged silver salt ions.[F8] Those ions can easily be taken into the bloodstream through channels that absorb other types of salt. That’s a crucial step, Hurt said. Silver metal particles themselves aren’t terribly likely to make it from the GI tract to the blood, but when they’re transformed into a salt, they’re ushered right through.–From there, Hurt and his team showed that silver ions bind easily with sulfur present in blood proteins, which would give them a free ride through the bloodstream. Some of those ions would eventually end up in the skin, where they’d be exposed to light.–To re-create this end stage, the researchers shined ultraviolet light on collagen gel containing silver ions. The light caused electrons from the surrounding materials to jump onto the unstable ions, returning them to their original state — elemental silver. This final reaction is ultimately what turns patients’ skin blue. The photoreaction is similar to the way silver is used in black and white photography. When exposed to light, silver salts on a photographic film reduce to elemental silver and darken, creating an image.
    Implications for nanosilver
    Despite its potential toxicity, silver has been valued for centuries for its ability to kill germs, which is why silver nanoparticles are used today in everything from food packaging to bandages. There are concerns however that this nanoparticle form of silver might pose a unique health threat all its own.–This research, however, “would be one piece of evidence that you could treat nanoparticles in the same way as other forms of silver,” Hurt says.–That’s because the bioavailable form of silver — the form that is absorbed into the bloodstream — is the silver salt that’s made in the stomach. Any elemental silver that’s ingested is just the raw material to make that bioavailable salt. So ingesting silver in any form, be it nano or not, would have basically the same effect, Hurt said.–“The concern in this case is the total dose of silver, not what form it’s in,” Hurt said. “This study implies that silver nanoparticles will be less toxic than an equivalent amount of silver salt, at least in this exposure scenario.”–The National Science Foundation and the Superfund Research Program of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences funded the research.–Story Source—The above story is based on materials provided by Brown University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference–Jingyu Liu, Zhongying Wang, Frances D. Liu, Agnes B. Kane, Robert H. Hurt. Chemical Transformations of Nanosilver in Biological Environments. ACS Nano, 2012; 121017162703002 DOI: 10.1021/nn303449n
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    More dangerous chemicals in everyday life- Now experts warn against nanosilver
    Date:
    February 27, 2014
    Source:
    University of Southern Denmark
     
    This is a photo of Thiago Verano-Braga, Ph.D., of the University of Southern Denmark, whose work alongside other scientists is bringing the dangers of nano-silver to light.–Endocrine disrupters are not the only worrying chemicals that ordinary consumers are exposed to in everyday life. Also nanoparticles of silver, found in e.g. dietary supplements, cosmetics and food packaging, now worry scientists. A new study from the University of Southern Denmark shows that nano-silver can penetrate our cells and cause damage.–Silver has an antibacterial effect and therefore the food and cosmetic industry often coat their products with silver nanoparticles. Nano-silver can be found in e.g. drinking bottles, cosmetics, band aids, toothbrushes, running socks, refrigerators, washing machines and food packagings.–“Silver as a metal does not pose any danger, but when you break it down to nano-sizes, the particles become small enough to penetrate a cell wall. If nano-silver enters a human cell, it can cause changes in the cell,” explain Associate Professor Frank Kjeldsen and PhD Thiago Verano-Braga, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Southern Denmark.–Together with their research colleagues they have just published the results of a study of such cell damages in the journal ACS Nano.–The researchers examined human intestinal cells, as they consider these to be most likely to come into contact with nano-silver, ingested with food.–“We can confirm that nano-silver leads to the formation of harmful, so called free radicals in cells. We can also see that there are changes in the form and amount of proteins. This worries us,” say Frank Kjeldsen and Thiago Verano-Braga.–A large number of serious diseases are characterized by the fact that there is an overproduction of free radicals in cells. This applies to cancer and neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.–Kjeldsen and Verano-Braga emphasizes that their research is conducted on human cells in a laboratory, not based on living people. They also point out that they do not know how large a dose of nano-silver, a person must be exposed to for the emergence of cellular changes.–“We don’t know how much is needed, so we cannot conclude that nano-silver can make you sick. But we can say that we must be very cautious and worried when we see an overproduction of free radicals in human cells,” they say.–Nano-silver is also sold as a dietary supplement, promising to have an antibacterial, anti-flu and cancer-inhibatory effect. The nano-silver should also help against low blood counts and bad skin. In the EU, the marketing of dietary supplements and foods with claims to have medical effects is not allowed. But the nano-silver is easy to find and buy online.–In the wake of the Uiversity of Southern Denmark-research, the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration now warns against taking dietary supplements with nano-silver.–“The recent research strongly suggests that it can be dangerous,” says Søren Langkilde from the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration to the Danish Broadcasting Corporation (DR).–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by University of Southern Denmark. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Thiago Verano-Braga, Rona Miethling-Graff, Katarzyna Wojdyla, Adelina Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Jonathan R. Brewer, Helmut Erdmann, Frank Kjeldsen. Insights into the Cellular Response Triggered by Silver Nanoparticles Using Quantitative Proteomics. ACS Nano, 2014; 140220105558007 DOI: 10.1021/nn4050744
     
    TOP D
    [F1]Glyphosates nano particles—soy—grains—GMO’s—are the real culprits going on with this—when these are eliminated and the microbiome is restored the health of a perso returns
    [F2]A new virus—it could be coincidental —but there is a mosaic virus that is utilized in genetics that may alter as well due to the glyphosate being incorporated
    [F3]Incorporating into the bacterias genetic material—sounds like something that would have to be extremely small in order to enter into the bacteria—
    [F4]Genettics—NANO—Glyphosates—Chemtrail Fallout….
    [F5]This is really wreaking of Genetics
    [F6]This is an old report —we know today that almost anything being consumed with genetics—glyphosates –endocrine disrupting chemicals—nanoparticles—metals –phytoestrogenic foods will also cause this kind of mutation
    [F7]Being overloaded with nano
    [F8]Which can be attracted to cells causing further translocation of the silver —into the cell causing the oxidative stress to destroy the cells

    #2714
    AvatarEK
    Keymaster

    Researchers Conclude Wireless Radiation Causes Cancer After Latest Scientific Findings Announced
    National advocacy group calls on major children’s health organizations to promote safe technology in schools with the “Turn It Off 4 Kids” Initiative—PRLog Feb. 3, 2015 – The National Association for Children and Safe Technology (NACST) is taking action after two recently published studies indicate there is sufficient evidence demonstrating exposure to wireless radiation, also known as RF-EMF, causes cancer. Wireless routers and devices such as tablets, laptops, baby monitors and cell phones all emit this type of radiation.-NACST is calling on children’s health and cancer prevention organizations to make the issue of children’s health and exposure to wireless radiation in educational settings an immediate priority for 2015.
    The State of the Science: The Debate is Over
    Professor of Oncology Lennart Hardell, MD, PhD, and Statistician Michael Carlberg of Orebro University Hospital, Sweden found a 3-fold risk with 25 or more years of cell and cordless phone use in a study published October 2014 in Pathophysiology. Very significant was the finding that people who first used mobile or cordless phones before the age of 20 had the highest risk.-Increased wireless phone use also correlated with lower survival rates for people diagnosed with the most malignant gliomas in a second study published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health by the same researchers. Hardell and Carlberg stated, “Due to the relationship with survival, the classification is strengthened.” In both studies, the authors state that RF-EMF should be regarded as a human carcinogen, “requiring urgent revision of current exposure guidelines.”–These two studies followed the July 2014 Occupational and Environmental Medicine Journal publication of the CERENAT case controlled study where French researchers found almost a 3-fold increase in brain cancer with 896 or more hours of lifetime cell phone use.–Based on the accumulation of research demonstrating the health effects from wireless radiation, Professor Olle Johansson of the Karolinska Department of Neuroscience has stated, “the debate is over” on wireless.–
    “Given the established and emerging science, it only follows that students be provided a safe learning environment, free from wireless radiation,” stated an NACST spokesperson.
    Scientists Call for the World Health Organization to Reclassify RF-EMF
    In 2011, the WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified RF radiation as a Class 2B, “possible human carcinogen.” Since 2011, several of the World Health Organization invited scientists have called for a reclassification to an increased risk level. The abstracts of these 2014 studies state that RF should now be regarded as a “Group 1 Human Carcinogen,”[F1] placing it in the same category as tobacco, asbestos and benzene.
    NACST’s Turn It Off 4 Kids Initiative
    In light of these recent scientific publications and expert warnings, NACST is reaching out to health organizations asking them to prioritize the issue of children’s health and wireless exposures in educational settings for 2015 in the following ways:
    1. Call for all new school technology to be hardwired.
    2. Call to replace existing wireless technology systems with hardwired systems.
    3. Call for the implementation of primary prevention efforts such as educating the public about simple steps to reduce exposure, especially in regard to children and pregnant women.
    4. Educate their organization’s members and audience on this issue by emails, informational web pages, updated materials, and all other means possible.
    Expert Endorsements
    NASCT’s Initiative has been endorsed by several prominent scientists, physicians and safety advocates including Drs. Lennart Hardell, Olle Johansson, Anthony Miller and Dariusz Leszczynski. Dr. Leszczynski was a participating scientist in the WHO IARC panel on RF-EMF and cancer, and Dr. Miller has served as Director of the Epidemiology Unit, National Cancer Institute of Canada, Toronto.–Details on NACST’s Turn It Off 4 Kids Initiative, including endorsements, are here: http://www.nacst.org/nacst-turn-it-off-4-kids.html
    About NACST
    The National Association for Children and Safe Technology is dedicated to raising awareness about the health impacts of wireless radiation on children as well as advancing policies that safeguard children’s health and well being.
    http://www.NACST.org
    http://www.prlog.org/12421346-researchers-conclude-wireless-radiation-causes-cancer-after-latest-scientific-findings-announced.html
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    Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum-Parsley and Rosmarinus officinalis[F2] against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections.
    Braz J Microbiol. 2013;44(3):829-34
    Authors: Petrolini FV, Lucarini R, de Souza MG, Pires RH, Cunha WR, Martins CH
    Abstract
    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. -PMID: 24516424 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Recipe for this take equal parts of each and boil as a tea or make an extract or tincture by using the alcohol to pull out the components—you can use either the blender method or the soaking for this
    When done would use teaspoon increments 1 tsp every 3 hours
     
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    Chinese Hawthorn Berry
    Effects of vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside and vitexin-4″-O-glucoside on growth and oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis of human adipose-derived stem cells.
    J Pharm Pharmacol. 2014 Jul;66(7):988-97
    Authors: Wei W, Ying X, Zhang W, Chen Y, Leng A, Jiang C, Liu J
    Abstract
    OBJECTIVES: Vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside (VOR) and vitexin-4″-O-glucoside (VOG) are the two main flavonoid glycosides of the leaves of Cratagus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N. E. Br.[F3] that has been widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular system diseases. In this study, we simultaneously investigated the influence of VOR and VOG on human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) to further characterize their anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activity. METHODS: hADSCs were isolated, cultured in vitro and pretreated with 62.5 μm VOR or 120 μm VOG for 24 h and then exposed to 500 μm H2 O2 for an additional 4 h. KEY FINDINGS: Pretreatment of hADSCs with VOR and VOG was demonstrated to significantly ameliorate the toxicity and apoptosis effects, such as morphological distortion, nuclear condensation, decreased intracellular caspase-3 activity and percentage of cells in apoptosis/necrosis by using morphological assay, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometric evaluation[F4]. In addition, VOR and VOG caused no cytotoxic effect on hADSCs at concentrations up to 250 and 480 μm, respectively.–CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that both VOR and VOG contribute to the protection against H2 O2 -mediated oxidative stress damage and could be safely used for a wide range of concentrations.[F5] PMID: 24533889 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Recipe—Percolate the leaves and or fruits of hawthorn berry—make jams—preserves—fuse in oil—and access it as needed or take daily as a tea tincture or fused with a good oil
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    New study postulates the role of dietary advanced glycation end products in the risk of Alzheimer’s disease
    Date:
    February 3, 2015
    Source:
    IOS Press BV
    A new paper published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease provides evidence that cooking foods at high temperatures increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. This study looked at the content of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in national diets and clinical studies comparing and compared total AGEs to Alzheimer’s disease rates.—AGEs are a group of compounds that are combinations of sugars and proteins and other large molecules.[F6] They can be formed in the body, and there is a large body of literature on AGEs and Alzheimer’s disease. However, AGEs are also formed when food is cooked at high temperatures or aged for a long time such as in hard cheese. AGEs increase the risk of various chronic diseases through several mechanisms including increased inflammation and oxidative stress. They can also bind to the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). RAGE transports beta-amyloid proteins across the blood-brain barrier and contributes to the development of Alzheimer’s disease.–Our newly published paper is the first that estimated the AGE content of diets from observational studies in various countries, which estimated the link between dietary factors and risk of Alzheimer’s disease.[F7] For this purpose, the values for AGE for many types of food were taken from a study by researchers at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. They cooked 549 foods by different methods and measured the AGE content of the cooked food..–To use their findings in our study They found that the higher the cooking temperature, the higher the AGE content. For example, 100 grams of raw beef had 707 kU of AGEs, but 100 grams of roast beef had 6071 kU, we obtained information from observational studies in which diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires or from national dietary supply values from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. We then used either a range of cooking temperatures or methods for the observational studies or an estimate of average cooking methods and temperatures for the national dietary supply data.–In typical national diets, we found that meat made the highest contribution of AGEs, followed by vegetable oils, cheese, and fish. Foods such as cereals/grains, eggs, fruit, legumes, milk, nuts, starchy roots, and vegetables generally make low contributions to the total amount of AGEs in a diet, either because they are generally prepared at low temperatures or since they comprise smaller portions of diet[F8]s.–According to Drs. Jaime Uribarri and Weijing Cai of The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, “This epidemiological study supports our previous findings in animals and humans of an important role for dietary AGEs in Alzheimer’s disease. We found that mice kept on a diet high in AGEs, similar to Western diet, had high levels of AGEs in their brains together with deposits of amyloid-β, a component of the plaques characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease, while at the same time developed declines in cognitive and motor abilities. The mice fed a low AGE diet remained free of these conditions. In addition, clinical studies have shown that subjects with higher blood AGE levels, in turn resulting from high AGE diets, are more likely to develop cognitive decline on follow up.–[F9]The findings point to an easily achievable goal that could reduce the risk of dementia through the consumption of non-AGE-rich foods, for example, foods that cooked or processed under lower heat levels and in the presence of more water, raising the importance of not just what we eat, but also how we prepare what we eat.[F10]”–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by IOS Press BV. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference–Perrone L, Grant WB. Observational and ecological studies of dietary advanced glycation end products in national diets and Alzheimer’s disease incidence and prevalence. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, February 2015 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-140720
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    Damaged DNA amplified by activities such as smoking
    Date:
    January 15, 2015
    Source:
    ETH Zurich
    In the majority of cases, the onset of cancer is characterised by a minor change in a person’s genetic material. A cell’s DNA mutates in a particular area to the extent that the cell no longer divides in a controlled manner, but begins to grow uncontrollably. In many cases, this type of genetic mutation involves chemical changes to individual building blocks of DNA. These changes are induced by smoking tobacco and consuming foods such as cured meats[F11]. This is because the contents of these materials can chemically react with and change building blocks of cellular DNA, thereby creating DNA adducts. Up to now, scientists have been able to determine whether gene samples contain adducts and if so, how many. However, the procedure is laborious and finding out exactly where a building block in the genetic code has been altered into an adduct has not been possible.—Researchers from the team led by Shana Sturla, professor of Food and Nutrition Toxicology, have succeeded for the first time in amplifying gene samples containing DNA adducts while retaining references to these adducts. This type of amplification is a prerequisite for the majority of technologies used by researchers to determine a gene’s DNA sequence. In the future, it may therefore be possible to expand DNA sequencing from the four basic DNA building blocks to include adducts. “The scientific community would have an important tool for making a detailed analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in the initiation of cancer and the corresponding risk factors,” says Sturla.—Artificial counterpart found—The researchers focused their efforts on a specific, typical DNA adduct, an alkylguanine called O-6-benzylguanine. They recreated an enzyme reaction in a test tube to obtain a negative copy of the genetic material — analogous to how DNA is replicated naturally in cells. The scientists first had to find an artificial counterpart of the alkylguanine to be incorporated into the negative copy in its position — due to the fact that nature produces molecular counterparts to the basic DNA building blocks, but not to DNA adducts. This is why replicating genes usually leads to copy errors (or mutations) when adducts are present.–The ETH researchers produced several artificial derivatives of the basic DNA building blocks in the laboratory and tested them as potential counterparts to the alkylguanine. One proved particularly suitable. The researchers were then able to produce a negative copy of a gene containing the alkylguanine.–The aim of the work carried out by Sturla and her colleagues was to demonstrate that it is feasible to amplify genes even when adducts are present. It should now be possible for researchers to find artificial counterparts to other adducts using the same method. As the ETH Professor points out, this means that altered genes could be amplified in the future and their sequences more easily ascertained. In 2010, Shana Sturla was awarded a five-year ERC Starting Grant from the European Research Council. The current project was partly financed by this award.-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by ETH Zurich. The original article was written by Fabio Bergamin. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Laura A. Wyss, Arman Nilforoushan, Fritz Eichenseher, Ursina Suter, Nina Blatter, Andreas Marx, Shana J. Sturla. Specific Incorporation of an Artificial Nucleotide Opposite a Mutagenic DNA Adduct by a DNA Polymerase. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2015; 137 (1): 30 DOI: 10.1021/ja5100542
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    Aging impacts epigenome in human skeletal muscle
    Date:
    November 20, 2013
    Source:
    Buck Institute for Research on Aging
    Our epigenome is a set of chemical switches that turn parts of our genome off and on at strategic times and locations. These switches help alter the way our cells act and are impacted by environmental factors including diet, exercise and stress[F12]. Research at the Buck Institute reveals that aging also effects the epigenome in human skeletal muscle. The study, appearing on line in Aging Cell, provides a method to study sarcopenia, the degenerative loss of muscle mass that begins in middle age.—The results came from the first genome-wide DNA methylation study in disease-free individuals. DNA methylation involves the addition of a methyl group to the DNA and is involved in a particular layer of epigenetic regulation and genome maintenance. In this study researchers compared DNA methylation in samples of skeletal muscle taken from healthy young (18 — 27 years of age) and older (68 — 89 years of age) males. Buck faculty and lead scientist Simon Melov, PhD, said researchers looked at more than 480,000 sites throughout the genome. “We identified a suite of epigenetic markers that completely separated the younger from the older individuals — there was a change in the epigenetic fingerprint,” said Melov. “Our findings were statistically significant; the chances of that happening are infinitesimal.”–Melov said scientists identified about six-thousand sites throughout the genome that were differentially methylated with age and that some of those sites are associated with genes that regulate activity at the neuromuscular junction which connects the nervous system to our muscles. “It’s long been suspected that atrophy at this junction is a weak link in sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass we get with age,” said Melov. “Maybe this differential methylation causes it. We don’t know.”–Studying the root causes and development of sarcopenia in humans is problematic; the research would require repeated muscle biopsies taken over time, something that would be hard to collect.[F13] Melov says now that the epigenetic markers have been identified in humans, the goal would be to manipulate those sites in laboratory animals. “We would be able to observe function over time and potentially use drugs to alter the rate of DNA methylation at those sites,” he said. Melov says changes in DNA methylation are very common in cancer and that the process is more tightly controlled in younger people.-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Buck Institute for Research on Aging. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Simon Melov, PhD et al. Genome-wide DNA methylation changes with age in disease-free human skeletal muscle. Aging Cell, November 2013
     
    TOP
     
     
     
    [F1]This is huge—the implication here should lead to huge lawsuits and force the telecommunications industry to come up with better shielding of this radiation leaking into the brain
    [F2]Parsely and Rosemary—would either water extract as a tea combo or alcohol extract for tincture
    [F3]Hawthorn Berry
    [F4]Plain English it stopped death
    [F5]Strong as you like
    [F6]This causes glycation when the sugars and proteins bind together—causing huge amounts of free radicals so when cooking proteins with carbs can cause this to happen as well
    [F7]Another factor that is not considered when adding glyphosates into the foods and genetics with the sugars and proteins this to causes a chemical reaction and when adding nano silver —the sugar makes the silver more toxic to the body—-
    [F8]These are not safer in the sense that they are relatively free—these are less toxic due to less consumption—but to offset the effect of AGE—things like B1 and MSM both have anti glycating effects
    [F9]Again this is when High heat and proteins and carbs( sugars) are cooked together —always remember the concept of glycation protein + sugar connected chemically when heated at high heat causes damage
    [F10]This is Key
    If your cooking or fusing proteins with sugars this is what will cause the issues—if your diet is relatively high in sugar then you can as well cause this effect
    [F11]This is an old report —we know today that almost anything being consumed with genetics—glyphosates –endocrine disrupting chemicals—nanoparticles—metals –phytoestrogenic foods will also cause this kind of mutation
    [F12]Or environmental pollutants –Genetics—PhytoCheistry—Pesticides—Metal exposure
    [F13]Unless you were harvesting people from hospitals
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    TOPA
    HOME
     
    Show of the Month February 14 2015
     
    Pharma Lies To Doctors about The Medicine You are Taking
     
    Marketable Window Dressing
     
    Vitamin A for treating measles in children
     
    Vitamin A may Counteract these Potentially Toxic Substances
     
    Vitamin A supplementation for preventing morbidity and mortality in children from 6 months to 5 years of age
     
    Vitamin A’s Immune System Health Benefits
    How much sleep do we really need?
     
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    Pharma Lies To Doctors about The Medicine You are Taking
    By: Shane Ellison, MS
    Following doctor’s orders has become synonymous with danger.
    In my book, Over-The-Counter Natural Cures, I documented that every year, FDA- approved drugs kill twice as many people as the total number of U.S. deaths from the Vietnam War.
    Death by medicine flourishes because deceit, not science, governs a doctor’s prescribing habits. –Working as a pharmaceutical chemist, I learned that the deceit comes in many forms. –Medical ghostwriting and checkbook ‘science’ are the most prominent. –Doctors rely on peer-reviewed medical journals to learn about prescription drugs. –These journals include the Lancet, British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine and the Journal of the American Medical Association. –It’s assumed that these professional journals offer the hard science behind any given drug. This assumption is wrong. –Thanks to medical ghost-writing, medical journals can’t be trusted. –Medical ghostwriting is the practice of hiring Ph.D.s to crank out drug reports that hype benefits while hiding negative side effects. –Once complete, drug companies recruit doctors to put their name on the report as the authors.–These reports are then published in the above mentioned medical journals. –The carrot for this deceitful practice is money and prestige. Ghostwriters can receive up to $20,000 per report. Doctors receive prestige from having been published.–As deplorable as medical ghostwriting sounds, it is more common than you think. –Dr. Jeffrey Drazen, editor for the New England Journal of Medicine, insists that he cannot find drug review authors who do not have financial ties to drug companies. –Dr. David Healy, of the University of Wales, predicts that 50% of the journals drug review articles are written by ghostwriters hired by Big Pharma.–The editor of the British Journal of Medicine has acknowledged that medical ghostwriting has become a serious problem for his publication: “We are being hoodwinked by the drug companies. –The articles come in with doctors’ names on them and we often find some of them have little or no idea about what they have written.”–Consider the testimony from deputy editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association: –“This [journal articles] is all about bypassing science. –Medicine is becoming a sort of Cloud Cuckoo Land, where doctors don’t know what papers they can trust in the journals, and the public doesn’t want to believe.”
     
    Confessions of Ghostwriters—-
    Ex-medical ghostwriter Susanna Rees stated: –“Medical writing agencies go to great lengths to disguise the fact that the papers they ghostwrite and submit to journals and conferences are ghostwritten on behalf of pharmaceutical companies and not by the named authors,’ she wrote. ‘There is a relatively high success rate for ghostwritten submissions ─ not outstanding, but consistent.”–Other ghostwriters have come forward privately:
    Ghostwriter 1–“I agreed to do two reviews for a supplement to appear under the names of respected ‘authors.’ I was given an outline, references, and a list of drug-company approved phrases.-I was asked to sign an agreement stating that I would not disclose anything about the project. I was pressured to rework my drafts to position the product more favorably.”
    Ghostwriter 2–“I was told exactly what the drug company expected and given explicit instructions about what to play up and what to play down.”
    NSAID Popularity Courtesy of Ghostwriting not Science
    To illustrate the negative impact of medical ghostwriting, we can look to commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). –Between 1990 and 1997, all clinical trials performed on NSAIDS such as Vioxx, Aleve, Aspirin, Motrin, and Ibuprofen, were sponsored by the drug manufacturers. –The result was that 100% of the studies showed the sponsored drug to have equal or superior efficacy when compared to other drugs. –Thus, according to studies done from 1990-1997, every NSAID drug tested during this time was superior to every other NSAID product… all at the same time! –The fallacies behind medical ghost writing on NSAIDS are exposed through injuries and deaths among users.–Approximately 107,000 patients are hospitalized every year for NSAID-related gastrointestinal complications. –Vioxx alone injured 100,000 during its rein as king of pain killers. –The risk of miscarriage for women who take the NSAID aspirin is 60 percent higher than for those who do not. –At least 16,500 NSAID-related deaths occur each year among arthritis patients. This figure is comparable to the number of deaths from the so-called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In fact, NSAIDS contribute to as many deaths as multiple myeloma, asthma, and cervical cancer combined. –These statistics do not account for over-the-counter use of NSAIDS, only for arthritis patients. –We can be confident that there are considerably more deaths caused by the use of NSAIDS that go unreported. –And because few medical doctors are unaware of these statistics, NSAIDS can rightfully be considered a silent killer. –This is especially true when “experts” are paid by Big Pharma to write favorable reviews while hiding dangerous side effects.
    Buying Results, Professors and Government
    Other weapons of mass deception exist ─ ‘checkbook science.’ –As defined by Diana Zuckerman, Ph.D., checkbook science is research intended not to expand knowledge or to benefit humanity but instead to sell products [drugs].–It has stolen the very soul of University research, scientific method, and the patients who serve as human subjects.–Checkbook science explains why deadly drugs are approved. –Leveraging their financial power, drug companies structure the protocol designed to study whether or not a drug is safe. They choose the investigators (from academics and government institutions) and in many instances are involved in the collation, interpretation and reporting of data. Akin to medical ghostwriting, this practice allows drug companies to hide the dangers associated with drugs while highlighting benefits.5 As with medical ghostwriting, checkbook science is more common than you think. A third of academic professors have personal financial ties to drug makers. Government institutions are guilty, too. Called the “Stealth Merger” by The LA Times, top scientists at the National Institutes of Health also collect paychecks and stock options from the drug industry[F1].-Once considered “an island of objective and pristine research, untainted by the influences of commercialization,” the National Institutes of Health has become corrupted by checkbook science. -To substantiate, we look to the following statistics from the LA Times:–Dr. Stephen I. Katz, director of the NIH’s National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases collected between $476,369 and $616, 365 in fees over a ten-year period.——-From 1997-2002, Dr. John I. Gallin, director of the NIH’s Clinical Center, received between $145,000 and $322,000 in fees and stock proceeds from the drug industry.—Dr. Richard C. Eastman is the NIH’s top diabetes researcher.-As a consultant to the drug manufacturers in 1997, he wrote to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defending a product without disclosing his conflict of interest. –His letter stated that the risk of liver failure from the given drug was “very minimal.” —Six months later, a patient taking the drug in an NIH study that Eastman oversaw, Audrey LaRue Jones, suffered sudden liver failure and died–An autopsy, along with liver experts, found that the drug had caused the liver failure.—Dr. Ronald N. Germain, deputy director of a major laboratory at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, amassed more than $1.4 million od Big Pharma money in “consulting fees” from 1993 to 2003, plus stock options.
    Jeffrey Schlom, director of the National Cancer Institute’s Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, received $331,500 in company fees over 10 years.—Jeffrey M. Trent, who became scientific director of the National Human Genome Research Institute in 1993, reported between $50,608 and $163,000 in industry consulting fees. He left the government in 2002.
    Lying to Doctors is Legal
    Checkbook science has been going on for more than 20 years. Known as the Bayh-Dole Act, U.S patent law was amended in 1980 to allow for these flagrant conflicts of interest. –Heart drugs introduced in the 1970‘s serve as an excellent example of how checkbook science damages the public’s health. —By 1990, they were estimated to kill more Americans than the 58,000 killed in the Vietnam War.–This disaster could have been avoided. –Early research suggesting that these drugs were lethal would have saved thousands of lives. –Putting checkbook science to work, these risky research findings went unpublished by the pharmaceutical company that funded the research.–Children suffer, too, from checkbook science. Checkbooks science was responsible for motivating doctors to push antidepressants on this vulnerable population.[F2]
    Checkbook Science Gets Antidepressant Approved for Kids!
    Published research paid for by drug manufactures showed antidepressant drugs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) to be safe and effective for children. –These drugs include Paxil and Prozac. -Conversely, when unpublished results were finally obtained it was discovered that depressed children taking antidepressants were twice as likely to become suicidal as children taking a placebo. –Acknowledging the deceit, the Lancet stated: “The story of research into SSRI use in childhood depression is one of confusion, manipulation, and institutional failure.”7
    Drug Advertising Gets You Hooked
    Hopefully the line at the pharmaceutical trough will grow shorter as the medical ghostwriting and checkbook science scandal becomes public. –Yet drug makers have an insurance policy for this ─ Direct-to-Consumer advertising. The oft repeated “ask your doctor” ensures that the herd instinctively embraces drugs, drugs, and more drugs.
    Doctors Only See Positive, Not Negative, You Suffer
    Understanding medical ghost-writing and checkbook science explains why medical doctors have been hypnotized into drug worship ─ they only see the positive[F3]. –It also explains why modern medicine is more deadly and lucrative than war ─ the danger has been silenced with the pen and money. -In sum, these methods of deceit ensure that doctors are not keen to the dangers of prescription drugs. –Drug companies do not take responsibility for the wanton prescription drug deceit. –Instead, victims have been made invisible – dehumanized. –They are not recognized as children or as men with a significant contribution to society.–Instead their deaths are attributed to them being sick or just too damn old[F4]. —Those who profit from prescription drugs should hold some sort of record for demonstrating the most reckless disregard for human life.–If the deceit continues the prescription drug leviathan will silently kill more people than Napalm dropped on Vietnamese villages. Realize –research and make your own remedies—utilizing things that will not cause more problems then you already are dealing with
    ****************************************************************************
    Marketable Window Dressing
     
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    Vitamin A for treating measles in children
    Huiming Y1, Chaomin W, Meng M.
    Author information
    Abstract
    BACKGROUND:
    Measles is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Vitamin A deficiency is a recognized risk factor for severe measles infections. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends administration of an oral dose of vitamin A (200,000 international units (IU), or 100,000 IU in infants) each day for two days to children with measles when they live in areas where vitamin A deficiency may be present.
    OBJECTIVES:
    To determine whether vitamin A therapy, commenced after measles has been diagnosed, is beneficial in preventing mortality, pneumonia and other secondary complications in children.
    SEARCH STRATEGY:
    We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2005), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2005), EMBASE (1980 to December 2004) and looked for unpublished studies.
    SELECTION CRITERIA:
    Only randomized controlled trials in which children with measles were given vitamin A or placebo along with standard treatment were considered.
    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
    Studies were assessed independently by two authors. The analysis of dichotomous outcomes was done using the StatXact software and results expressed as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analyses were carried out for dose, formulation, age, hospitalization and pneumonia-specific mortality. Weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% CI were calculated for continuous outcomes.
    MAIN RESULTS:
    There was no significant reduction in the risk of mortality in the vitamin A group when all the studies were pooled using the random-effects model (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.15). Using two doses of vitamin A (200,000 IU) on consecutive days was associated with a reduction in the risk of mortality in children under the age of two years (RR 0.18; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.61) and a reduction in the risk of pneumonia-specific mortality (RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.92). There was no evidence that vitamin A in a single dose was associated with a reduced risk of mortality among children with measles. There was a reduction in the incidence of croup (RR 0.53; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.89) but no significant reduction in the incidence of pneumonia (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.22) or diarrhoea (RR 0.80; 95% CI 0.27 to 2.34) with two doses.
    AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS:
    Although we found no overall significant reduction in mortality with vitamin A therapy for children with measles there was evidence that two doses were associated with a reduced risk of mortality and pneumonia-specific mortality in children under the age of two years. There were no trials that directly compared a single dose with two doses.
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    Vitamin A may Counteract these Potentially Toxic Substances
     
    Electromagnetic Radiation
     
    Vitamin A (large dosages of 35,000 – 100,000 IU per day) may improve the general condition of persons undergoing Radiation Therapy
    : references
     
    Vitamin A may help to prevent Radiation Therapy-induced Pneumonitis (if Vitamin A therapy is commenced prior to Radiation Therapy).
     
    Vitamin A (especially the Retinyl Palmitate form of Vitamin A applied topically) may inhibit the ability of UV-B to cause Sunburn (i.e. topically applied Retinyl Palmitate may function as a Sunscreen). references
     
    Environmental Toxins
     
    Vitamin A may help to protect the body from the toxic effects of Air Pollution. references
    Vitamin A may counteract some of the toxic effects of Dioxin exposure. references
     
    Enzymes
     
    Vitamin A (Retinol and Retinoic Acid forms) may inhibit Lipoxygenase. references
    Vitamin A may inhibit Ornithine Decarboxylase. references
     
    Hormones
     
    Vitamin A may help to lower elevated Cortisol levels. references
     
    Immune System Chemicals
     
    Vitamin A may inhibit the production of excessive quantities of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF). references
     
    Minerals
     
    Vitamin A may facilitate the detoxification of Lead from the body. [more info]
     
    Pharmaceutical Drugs
     
    Vitamin A (administered concurrently with Methotrexate) may inhibit the damage to the Small Intestine caused by Methotrexate. references
    Vitamin A (Retinol) may counteract and prevent the suppression of the Immune System that is caused by Pharmaceutical Glucocorticosteroids. references
     
    Proteins
     
    Vitamin A may counteract the toxicity of Amyloid-Beta Protein. references
    Vitamin A may lower elevated Fibrinogen levels. references
    Vitamin A may inhibit the activation of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-Kappa B). references
     
    Recreational Drugs
     
    Vitamin A may counteract the toxic effects of Tobacco smoking (by strengthening the Mucous Membranes of the Bronchial Tubes and Lungs): references
     
    Vitamin A may inhibit the ability of Tobacco to cause Emphysema.
     
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    Vitamin A supplementation for preventing morbidity and mortality in children from 6 months to 5 years of age.
    Imdad A1, Herzer K, Mayo-Wilson E, Yakoob MY, Bhutta ZA.
    Author information
    Abstract
    BACKGROUND:
    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a major public health problem in low and middle income countries affecting 190 million children under 5. VAD can lead to many adverse health consequences, including death.
    OBJECTIVES:
    To evaluate the effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) for preventing morbidity and mortality in children aged 6 months to 5 years.
    SEARCH STRATEGY:
    We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2010 Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to April Week 2 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010 Week 16), Global Health (1973 to March 2010), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS), metaRegister of Controlled Trials and African Index Medicus (27 April 2010).
    SELECTION CRITERIA:
    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs evaluating the effect of synthetic VAS in children aged 6 months to 5 years living in the community. We excluded studies concerned with children in hospital and children with disease or infection. We excluded studies evaluating the effects of food fortification, consumption of vitamin A rich foods or beta-carotene supplementation.
    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
    Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were double abstracted and discrepancies were resolved by discussion. Meta-analyses were performed for outcomes including all-cause and cause-specific mortality, disease, vision, and side-effects.
    MAIN RESULTS:
    43 trials involving 215,633 children were included. A meta-analysis for all-cause mortality included 17 trials comprising 194,795 children with 3536 deaths in both groups. At follow-up, there was a 24% observed reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality for Vitamin A compared with Control (Relative risk (RR) = 0.76 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69, 0.83]). Seven trials reported diarrhoea mortality and a 28% overall reduction for VAS (RR = 0.72 [0.57, 0.91]). There was no significant effect of VAS on cause specific mortality of measles, respiratory disease and meningitis. VAS reduced incidence of diarrhoea (RR = 0.85 [0.82, 0.87]) and measles morbidity (RR = 0.50 [0.37, 0.67]); however, there was no significant effect on incidence of respiratory disease or hospitalisations due to diarrhoea or pneumonia. There was an increased risk of vomiting within the first 48 hours of VAS (RR = 2.75 [1.81, 4.19]).
    AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS:
    VAS is effective in reducing all-cause mortality by about 24% compared to no treatment. In our opinion, given the evidence that VAS causes considerable reduction in child mortality, further placebo-controlled trials of VAS in children between 6 months and 5 years of age are not required. There is a need for further studies comparing different doses and delivery mechanisms (for example, fortification).
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    Vitamin A’s Immune System Health Benefits
     
    Immune System: Ailments
     
    Vitamin A may help to prevent most Bacterial & Viral Diseases and Vitamin A deficiency increases susceptibility to Bacterial & Viral Diseases (via numerous mechanisms that involve the Immune System): references
     
    Vitamin A may help to prevent infections from Viruses: references
     
    Vitamin A may be useful for the treatment of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): references
     
    Vitamin A may retard the onset of full-blown AIDS in persons who are infected with the HIV virus.
    High Vitamin A concentrations may suppress the replication of the HIV virus in Macrophages.
    Vitamin A deficiency has been correlated with increased (earlier) mortality in AIDS patients.
    Vitamin A may help to increase the number of circulating Helper T-Cells in AIDS patients.
    Vitamin A supplementation (during early Pregnancy) dramatically reduces the rate of vertical transmission (i.e. from mother to infant) of the HIV virus.
     
    Vitamin A deficiency may increase the body’s susceptibility to Chickenpox infection. references
    Vitamin A (50,000 – 150,000 IU per day for three to five days) may exert anti-viral effects against the Viruses that cause the Common Cold. references
    Vitamin A (50,000 – 150,000 IU per day for three to five days) may exert anti-viral effects against the Viruses that cause Influenza. references
     
    Vitamin A may deactivate the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2. references
    Vitamin A reduces the mortality rate in children infected with Measles by up to 50%. references
    Vitamin A deficiency may increase the risk of (meningococcal) Meningitis. references
    Vitamin A (12,500 – 25,000 IU per day) significantly reduces the severity of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). references
     
    Vitamin A deficiency may exacerbate the severity of Rotavirus infection. references
    Vitamin A may accelerate the recovery from Shigella infections (but does not inhibit or kill Shigella species). references
     
    Vitamin A may reduce Inflammation. references
    Vitamin A (100,000 IU daily for two weeks) may improve various impairments of the function of the Immune System in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients. references
    Vitamin A (Retinol form) may help to prevent Malaria (by suppressing the Plasmodium falciparum Protozoa that causes Malaria). references
     
    Immune System: Ailments: Cancer
     
    Vitamin A may help to prevent many types of Cancer and Vitamin A therapy may suppress the further growth of the (already established) tumors involved in some types of Cancer: references
     
    Vitamin A may may help to prevent Basal Cell Carcinoma. references
    Vitamin A (40,000 IU per day) may reduce the recurrence of Bladder Cancer tumors in people with existing Bladder Cancer by up to 53%. references
    Vitamin A may help to prevent Breast Cancer. references
    Vitamin A may help to prevent Cervical Cancer. references
     
    Vitamin A may help to prevent Colon Cancer. references
    Vitamin A may help to prevent Endometrial Cancer. references
    Vitamin A may help to prevent Esophageal Cancer. references
    Vitamin A (100,000 IU per day) “may” help to treat Glioblastoma Multiforme.
    The Retinyl Palmitate (300,000 IU – 1,500,000 IU per day, caution: a high dosage) form of Vitamin A may help to prevent Larynx Cancer (laryngeal cancer). references
     
    The Retinoic Acid form of Vitamin A (administered orally) may “direct” the cancerous cells involved in Leukemia to mature and die like normal cells.
    Vitamin A may help to prevent Liver Cancer. references
    Vitamin A may inhibit the tumor promotion stage of Lung Cancer. references
    Vitamin A may inhibit the development of the tumors associated with Mouth Cancer. references
     
    Vitamin A may help to prevent and treat Ovarian Cancer. references
    Vitamin A may help to prevent Pharynx Cancer (Pharyngeal Cancer) by strengthening the Mucous Membranes of the Pharynx. [more info]
    Vitamin A may help to prevent Prostate Cancer by strengthening the Mucous Membranes of the Prostate. references
    Vitamin A may prevent the initiation and/or progression of Skin Cancers by stimulating normal Cell differentiation: references
     
    Vitamin A may inhibit the growth and metastasis of malignant Melanoma. references
    The Retinol form of Vitamin A may help to prevent Squamous Cell Carcinoma. references
    Stomach Cancer references
    Testicle Cancer [more info]
    Vitamin A may help to prevent or regress Tongue Cancer. references
    Vitamin A may help to prevent carcinogens-induced Uterus Cancer. references
    Supplemental Vitamin A increases the effectiveness of conventional medical treatments for Cancer (such as Surgery, Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy).
     
    Immune System: Underyling Mechanisms
     
    Vitamin A may stimulate various aspects of the Immune System: references
    Vitamin A may increase the effectiveness of the Cells that produce Antibodies and Vitamin A deficiency may cause impairment in the response of Antibodies to challenges by Antigens. references
    Vitamin A deficiency may cause a reduction in the production of B-Lymphocytes. references
    Vitamin A deficiency may cause a decline in the production of Helper T-Cells. references
    Vitamin A may increase the proliferation of Lymphocytes in response to challenges by Antigens and Mitogens. references
    Vitamin A may enhance the function of Macrophages. references
    Vitamin A may enhance the function of Neutrophils. references
    Vitamin A deficiency impairs the function of NK Lymphocytes. references
    Vitamin A deficiency causes degeneration and atrophy of the Spleen. references
    Vitamin A may protect and strengthen the Thymus and supplemental Vitamin A may cause the Thymus to (beneficially) double in size. references
    Vitamin A may enhance the ability of the Thymus to manufacture T-Lymphocytes and Vitamin A deficiency may cause impairment of T-Lymphocyte response. references
    Vitamin A may enhance the function of White Blood Cells. references
     
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    Vitamin A for treating measles in children.
    D’Souza RM1, D’Souza R.
    Author information
    Update in
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD001479.
    Abstract
    BACKGROUND:
    Measles is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Vitamin A deficiency is a recognised risk factor for severe measles. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends administration of an oral dose of 200,000 IU (or 100,000 IU in infants) of vitamin A per day for two days to children with measles in areas where vitamin A deficiency may be present.
    OBJECTIVES:
    The purpose of this review is to determine whether vitamin A when commenced after measles has been diagnosed, is beneficial in preventing mortality, pneumonia and other complications in children.
    SEARCH STRATEGY:
    MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 1999 were searched.
    SELECTION CRITERIA:
    Only randomized controlled trials in which children with measles were given vitamin A or placebo along with standard treatment were considered.
    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
    Studies were assessed independently by two reviewers. The analysis of dichotomous outcomes was done using the StatExact software package. Sub-group analyses were done for dose, formulation, age, hospitalisation and pneumonia specific mortality. Weighted mean difference with 95% CI were calculated for continuous outcomes.
    MAIN RESULTS:
    The relative risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) are based on the estimates from the StatExact software package. There was no significant reduction in mortality in the vitamin A group when all the studies were pooled together (RR 0.60; 95% CI 0.32 to 1.12)(Statexact estimate). There was a 64% reduction in the risk of mortality in children who were given two doses of 200,000 IU of vitamin A (RR=0.36; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.82) as compared to placebo. Two doses of water based vitamin A were associated with a 81% reduction in risk of mortality (RR=0.19; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.85) as compared to 48% seen in two doses of oil based preparation[F5] (RR=0.52; 95% CI 0.16 to 1.40). Two doses of oil and water based vitamin A were associated with a 82% reduction in the risk of mortality in children under the age of 2 years (RR=0.18; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.61) and a 67% reduction in the risk of pneumonia specific mortality (RR=0.33; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.92). There was no evidence that vitamin A in a single dose of 200,000 IU was associated with a reduced risk of mortality among children with measles (RR=0.77; 95% CI 0.34 to 1.78). Sub-groups like age, dose, formulation, hospitalisation and case fatality in the study area were highly correlated and there were not enough studies to separate out the individual effects of these factors. There was a 47% reduction in the incidence of croup (RR=0.53; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.89), while there was no significant reduction in the incidence of pneumonia (RR=0.92; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.22) or of diarrhoea (RR=0.80; 95% CI 0.27 to 2.34). Duration of diarrhoea was measured in days and there was a reduction in its duration of almost two days WMD -1.92, 95% CI -3.40 to -0.44. Only one study evaluated otitis media and found a 74% reduction in its incidence (RR=0.26, 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.92). We did not find evidence that a single dose of 200,000 IU of vitamin A per day, given in oil-based formulation in areas with low case fatality, was associated with reduced mortality among children with measles. However, there was evidence that the same dose given for two days was associated with a reduced risk of overall mortality and pneumonia specific mortality.

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    REVIEWER’S CONCLUSIONS:
    Although we did not find evidence that a single dose of 200,000 IU of vitamin A per day was associated with reduced mortality among children with measles, there was evidence that the same dose given for two days was associated with a reduced risk of overall mortality and pneumonia specific mortality. The effect was greater in children under the age of two years. There were no trials that compared a single dose with two doses, although the precision of the estimates of trials that used a single dose were similar to the trials that used two doses.
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    How much sleep do we really need?
    Date:
    February 11, 2015
    Source:
    Loyola University Health System–Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine researcher Lydia DonCarlos, PhD, is a member of an expert panel that’s making new recommendations on how much sleep people need.–The panel, convened by the National Sleep Foundation, is making its recommendations based on age, ranging from newborns (who need 14 to 17 hours of sleep per day) to adults aged 65 and up (7 to 8 hours per day).–In the new guidelines, there’s a wider range of what constitutes a good night’s sleep. For example, the expert panel recommends that teens (ages 14 to 17) get 8 to 10 hours of sleep per night. The previous guideline had a narrower recommended range of 8.5 to 9.5 hours per night.–Dr. DonCarlos and other experts on the multidisciplinary panel examined findings from 320 studies reporting sleep duration findings for healthy individuals, effects of reduced or prolonged sleep duration and health consequences of too much or too little sleep. Results are published in Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation.–“The process was very rigorous,” Dr. DonCarlos said. Dr. DonCarlos is a professor in the Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology of Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine.–The expert panel consists of 12 representatives, including Dr. DonCarlos, who were selected by medical organizations; and six sleep experts selected by the National Sleep Foundation. Dr. DonCarlos represents the American Association of Anatomists.–Dr. DonCarlos is a neuroendocrinologist who studies how hormones affect the structure of the brain. The section of the brain responsible for regulating hormone production is the hypothalamus. Hormones produced by the hypothalamus govern body temperature, hunger, stress responses, sex drive, circadian rhythms and sleep.–In addition to serving on the National Sleep Foundation expert panel, Dr. DonCarlos serves on the National Institutes of Health’s Neuroendocrinology, Neuroimmunology, Rhythms and Sleep (NNRS) study section, which reviews applications for research grants.–“We still have a great deal to learn about the function of sleep,” Dr. DonCarlos said. “We know it’s restorative and important for memory consolidation. But we don’t know the details of what the function of sleep is, even though it is how we spend one-third of our lives.”–These are the sleep-time recommendations from the National Sleep Foundation expert panel:
    Newborns (0-3 months): Sleep range narrowed to 14-17 hours each day (previously it was 12-18).
    Infants (4-11 months): Sleep range widened two hours to 12-15 hours (previously it was 14-15).
    Toddlers (1-2 years): Sleep range widened by one hour to 11-14 hours (previously it was 12-14).
    Preschoolers (3-5): Sleep range widened by one hour to 10-13 hours (previously it was 11-13).
    School age children (6-13): Sleep range widened by one hour to 9-11 hours (previously it was 10-11).
    Teenagers (14-17): Sleep range widened by one hour to 8-10 hours (previously it was 8.5-9.5).
    Younger adults (18-25): Sleep range is 7-9 hours (new age category).
    Adults (26-64): Sleep range did not change and remains 7-9 hours.
    Older adults (65+): Sleep range is 7-8 hours (new age category).
    Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by Loyola University Health System. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference–Max Hirshkowitz et al. National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations: methodology and results summary. Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation, 2015 DOI: 10.1016/j.sleh.2014.12.010
    Top A
    [F1]I have found personally doing research that the results or even the methods are unachievable and are misleading
    [F2]Checkbook Science is what is promoting the Vaccines—nothing else—the credibility of vaccines —cannot be found
    [F3]Same with the nutriceutical side
    [F4]In other words it is not the drugs but something that the person did or has had done or is not having —the onus is on the person rather then the drug causing the issues
    [F5]Water Based Vitamin A
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    TOP B
    HOME
     
     
     
    Show of the Month February 21 2015
    Ingredients in Vaccines
    Side Effects of Vaccines
    NSA hack” has been revealed
    Toxic exposure is causing a pandemic of brain disorders in Life Existence—and it’s Development
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    Ingredients in Vaccines—- http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/downloads/appendices/B/excipient-table-2.pdf
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    Side Effects of Vaccines- http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/side-effects.htm
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    NSA hack” has been revealed
    All hard drives from all manufacturers raped wide open to the NSA from day one of manufacture SINCE 2001!–This is about the recent NSA hack discovery by Kapersky, and I have clarified what is going on and removed the confusing, misleading and obstructing content most reports have.–I have long said that there is no way to secure your computer against the NSA no matter what virus scanner you run or how you secure your system, and that Snowden was to a degree a whitewash standing as a limited hold out to prevent the real truth from being known. Kapersky just confirmed this.
    Here is what happened:
    A decade and a half ago, someone managed to get NSA trojans into all the hard drive manufacturers which infected all manufacturer workstations and manufacturing facilities and then wrote itself to every hard drive ever made at the 12 top manufacturers for the last 14 years AT POINT OF MANUFACTURE. When the firmware was burned in, this virus wrote itself into the firmware at point of production. Ditto for rom as well. Additionally, it wrote itself to the hard drive platters as backup. Because this virus exhibited itself as part of the root product, (which cannot be accessed by any virus scanner or read in any way) it remained totally immune to detection this entire time even when written to the hard drive platters. Kapersky finally hunted it down (most likely by taking new products and doing a linear read of hard drive platters they removed from the hard drives and put in their own custom box.)—-Impossible for this bug to exist you say? Nope. Here is how: All bios chips, anything writable, and even rom, has excess capacity that goes beyond the root program. It has to have a little extra space or whatever you write to it will not fit. There are applications that can fill in this excess space with garbage to use it up and prevent writing to it in the future, but if the computer that had such an application had this NSA trojan, obviously the trojan would circumvent it and write itself in instead. This would be especially deadly with ROM chips. At any rate, ALL hard drives have this trojan, at least anything newer than the 90’s.—The bug re configures the root operating parameters of anything it gets into and sets aside a permanent space for itself so re-flashing infected devices will not kill it. Kapersky determined that even all flash drives, SD cards and other memory devices which use USB also ship direct from the factory to you with this bug on them, and the manufacturers do not even know it.—Kapersky has named the organization responsible for this bug the Equation Group, and its toolbox ‘the Death Star of the Malware Galaxy’, and explained that the tools of its trade have hallmarks and themes similar to those of Stuxnet. Kapersky also believes that the group which wrote this particular trojan is superior to the agencies which wrote Stuxnet and Flame, and that the roots are at the NSA. Everything regarding this bug has been written with the highest possible efficiency and is of the highest professional order.
    Kapersky contacted Seagate, and Seagate denied the problem. So Seagate might be a willing player in this. However, when they contacted Western Digital, Western Digital took it seriously and has started digging.—When Kapersky contacted the NSA, the NSA basically self incriminated with the following statement–“We are aware of the recently released report. We are not going to comment publicly on any allegations that the report raises, or discuss any details,”. “The US. Government calls on our intelligence agencies to protect the United States, its citizens, and its allies from a wide array of serious threats – including terrorist plots from al-Qaeda, ISIL, and others; the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; foreign aggression against ourselves and our allies; and international criminal organisations.”– According to Kaspersky, victims include state targets, governments, security developers, telecoms, aerospace and energy industries, along with the military, activists and the media. This is no doubt the real venue that got Stuxnet into Fukushima.— Obviously if anyone out there has a chance of doing anything meaningful against the tainted vaccine war on the public, or antidepressants, or if anyone provides any hope against tyranny, they will be silenced and eliminated. THIS BUG ENSURES IT, and it is so entrenched now that there probably is no hope. The only way we are going to get over this is if we manage to stall tyranny for a couple more years, and if hard drive manufacturers get their act together. I will not hold my breath for that, this bug ensures that anyone assigned to fix this problem will be killed or eliminated day one. Heads up Russia, nothing you have is classified. Hmm, how many HDD manufacturers do I know of off the top of my head? Quantum, Maxtor, Fujitsu, Samsung, Toshiba, Western Digital, Seagate, IBM, (plus 4 more) has got to pretty much nail them all!–UPDATE: in order to hit the top 12, it has to be in the time frame between now and 2001. That fits for the Kaperski report, because there were 12 major hard drive vendors in business during that time frame, (some are gone now but their drives are still being used).
     
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    Toxic exposure is causing a pandemic of brain disorders in Life Existence—and it’s Development
    The numbers are startling. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 1.8 million more children in the US were diagnosed with developmental disabilities between 2006 and 2008 than a decade earlier. During this time, the prevalence of autism climbed nearly 300%, while that of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder increased 33%. CDC figures also show that 10 to 15% of all babies born in the US have some type of neurobehavorial development disorder. Still more are affected by neurological disorders that don’t rise to the level of clinical diagnosis.–And it’s not just the US. Such impairments affect millions of children worldwide. The numbers are so large that Philippe Grandjean of the University of Southern Denmark and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and Philip Landrigan of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York—both physicians and preeminent researchers in this field—describe the situation as a “pandemic.”–While earlier and more assiduous diagnosis accounts for some of the documented increase, it doesn’t explain all of it, says Irva Hertz-Piccioto, professor of environmental and occupational health and chief of the University of California, Davis, MIND Institute. Grandjean and Landrigan credit genetic factors for 30 to 40% of the cases. But a significant and growing body of research suggests that exposure to environmental pollutants is implicated in the disturbing rise in children’s neurological disorders.[F1]–What, exactly is going on? And what can we do about it?
    Chemicals and the brain
    Some chemicals—lead, mercury and organophosphate pesticides, for example—have long been recognized as toxic substances that can have lasting effects on children’s neurological health, says Bruce Lanphear, health sciences professor at Simon Fraser University. While leaded paint is now banned in the US, it is still present in many homes and remains in use elsewhere around the world. Children can also be exposed to lead from paints, colorings and metals used in toys, even though these uses are prohibited by US law (remember Thomas the Tank Engine), and through contaminated soil or other environmental exposure as well as from plastics in which lead is used as a softener. Mercury exposure sources include some fish, air pollution and old mercury-containing thermometers and thermostats. While a great many efforts have gone into reducing and eliminating these exposures, concerns continue, particularly because we now recognize that adverse effects can occur at exceptionally low levels.–But scientists are also now discovering that chemical compounds common in outdoor air—including components of vehicle exhaust and fine particulate matter—as well as in indoor air and consumer products can also adversely affect brain development, including prenatally.–Chemicals in flame retardants, plastics, and personal care and other household products are among those Lanphear lists as targets of concern for their neurodevelopment effects.—-Chemicals that prompt hormonal changes are increasingly suspected to have neurological effects, says Linda Birnbaum, director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and National Toxicology Program. Among the chemicals now being examined for neurological impacts that occur early in life are flame retardants known as PBDEs that have been used extensively in upholstery foams, electronics and other products; phthalates, widely used as plasticizers and in synthetic fragrances; the polycarbonate plastic ingredient bisphenol A, known commonly as BPA; perfluorinated compounds, whose applications include stain-, water- and grease-resistant coatings; and various pesticides.
    Precise choreography
    As Grandjean and Landrigan explain, the fetus is not well protected against environmental chemicals that can easily pass through the placenta. There’s evidence from in vitro studies, they say, that neural stem cells are very sensitive to neurotoxic substances. An infant’s brain is also vulnerable to such contaminants. At early stages of development—prenatally and during infancy—brain cells are easily damaged by industrial chemicals and other neurotoxicants. Such interference can affect how the brain develops structurally and functionally—effects that lead to lasting adverse outcomes.–“The brain is so extremely sensitive to external stimulation,” says Grandjean.–Historically, chemical neurotoxicity was examined in adults—often through cases of high levels of occupational exposure. In the past 30 to 40 years, however, scientists have begun to recognize that children and infants are far more vulnerable to chemical exposures than are adults. It has also been discovered that very low levels of exposure early in life can have profound and lasting effects. Another important discovery is that understanding how an infant or child is affected by a chemical exposure involves far more than simply calculating potential effects on a physically smaller person. Stage of development—and timing of exposure—must also be considered. Early stages of brain development involve “a very precise choreography,” explains Frederica Perera, professor of Environmental Health Sciences at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health. “Any chemical that can disrupt [brain] chemistry at this stage can be very damaging,” she says.—For example, explains Deborah Kurrasch, an assistant professor at the University of Calgary’s Cumming School of Medicine who specializes in neurological research, during the early stages of brain development—when cells are becoming neurons—“timing determines destination.”–Results of Kurrasch’s latest study investigating neurodevelopmental effects of BPA illustrate what she means. In a study published in January 2015, Kurrasch and colleagues examined the effects on neurodevelopment of BPA and a common BPA substitute, bisphenol S. Specifically, they investigated how exposure to BPA and BPS—at levels comparable to those present in her community’s local drinking water supply—might affect neuron development in zebrafish at a stage comparable to the second trimester of human pregnancy, when neurons are forming and moving to the correct location in the brain.–“It’s as if they’re getting on a bus to where they need to be,” Kurrasch says. After exposure to BPA and BPS it was as if, explains Kurrasch, “twice as many neurons got on an early bus and half as many got on a late bus.” The researchers found that these exposures appeared to alter nerve development—neurogenesis—in a way that caused the fish to become hyperactive. Such an alteration, produced in this case by a “very little bit of BPA,” can cause permanent effects, Kurrasch says.–Many of the chemicals under scrutiny for their effects on brain development—BPA, phthalates, perfluorinated compounds, brominated flame retardants and various pesticides among them—appear to act by interfering with the function of hormones essential for healthy brain development. Among these are thyroid hormones, which regulate the part of the brain involved in a variety of vital functions, including reproduction, sleep, thirst, eating and puberty.–During the first trimester of pregnancy, the fetus is not making its own thyroid hormone, says Thomas Zoeller, director of the Laboratory of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Endocrinology at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. If an environmental exposure to a substance such as a polychlorinated biphenyl or perchlorate interferes with the mother’s thyroid hormones in this period—as could happen through water pollution, for example—that could in turn affect her child at a critical stage of brain development.–Another thing to consider in the context of endocrine-disrupting chemical exposures, says Zoeller, is that a substantial portion of women of childbearing age in the US have some iodine deficiency that may be suppressing their thyroid hormones. While these deficiencies may not be prompting clinically adverse effects, they may be sufficient to impair fetal neurodevelopment. “Impacts can happen at levels far below safety standards,” says Zoeller. And there are a great many chemicals to which such women may be exposed environmentally with the potential to affect thyroid hormones, among them PBDEs, PCBs, BPA, various pesticides, perfluorinated compounds and certain phthalates.
    Something in the air
    One particularly concerning source of exposure to chemicals that are suspected to harm children’s brain development is air pollution, which is a complex mixture of various chemicals and particulate matter.–Perera and colleagues recently investigated the links between exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons[F2], a fossil fuel-related component of air pollution, and incidence of ADHD in 9-year-olds. Their study found that mothers who were exposed to high levels of PAH during pregnancy were five times more likely to have children with ADHD and to have children with more severe ADHD symptoms than those who did not have such exposure. While this study is the first to make such a connection, it joins a growing body of research pointing to links between outdoor air pollutants, including PAHs, and adverse impacts on children’s brain health and development.–Looking at air pollution’s effects on brain health is relatively new, explains Kimberly Gray, health science administrator at the National Institutes of Health. Research increasingly suggests that airborne contaminants can have subtle but significant effects on early neurological development and behavior, she says. In addition to links between prenatal PAH exposure and impaired brain function, researchers are also now investigating potential connections between black carbon, volatile organic compounds and fine particulate matter—among other components of air pollution—and impairments such as autism and lowered IQ.–In a study published in December 2014, Marc Weisskopf, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health associate professor of environmental and occupational epidemiology, and colleagues looked at children whose mothers were exposed to high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles 2.5 microns in diameter or smaller), particularly during the third trimester of pregnancy. The study, which involved more than 1,000 participants living all across the US, found that these children appeared to be twice as likely to be diagnosed with autism as children whose mothers had only low levels of such exposures. Exposure to larger particles—between 2.5 and 10 microns (what’s known as PM10)—did not appear to be associated with increasing risk for autism.—-“This is very important from an epidemiological point of view” because it “places a spotlight on the mother’s exposure,” says Weisskopf. It also highlights the importance of timing and neurodevelopmental effects. Although many other factors may contribute to autism, Weisskopf explains, this study strengthens the suggestion that environmental exposures can play a role. That it appears it is the very small particles that are associated with these effects adds to what other research is finding: What might seem quantitatively small can “be quite important” when it comes to affecting brain development, Weisskopf explains.
    Widespread exposure
    As Grandjean and Landrigan point out, one of the disturbing recent realizations concerning environmental exposure to developmental neurotoxicants is how widespread exposure appears to be and the ubiquity of such compounds. “More neurotoxic chemicals are getting into products,” says Landrigan.–Phthalates, which are used as plasticizers—including in polyvinyl chloride plastics—and in synthetic fragrances and numerous personal care products, comprise one category of widely used chemicals that appear to have adverse impacts on brain development[F3]. Researchers at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health recently found that children exposed prenatally to elevated levels of certain phthalates had IQ scores that were, on average, between 6 and 8 points lower than children with lower prenatal exposures. Children with reduced IQ scores also appeared to have trouble with working memory, perceptional reasoning and information processing speeds.–The phthalates examined in this study, known as DnBP and DiBP, are used in numerous household products, including toiletries and cosmetics, among them shampoo, nail polish, lipstick, hair styling products and soap, as well as vinyl fabrics and dryer sheets. Exposure levels associated with reduced IQ in the study are within the range that the CDC reports finding in its National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationwide ongoing biomonitoring assessment of chemical exposures. “Pretty much everybody in the US is exposed,” says study co-author Robin Whyatt, professor of environmental health sciences at Columbia University Medical Center.–While such a drop in IQ may sound small, Pam Factor-Litvak, the study’s lead author and associate professor of epidemiology at the Mailman School, notes that at the population—or classroom—level, this means fewer children at the high end of the intelligence scale and more at the less capable end. “The whole curve shifts downward,” she explains.–“Five or six IQ points may not sound like much, but it means more children requiring special education programs and fewer that are gifted,” says Maureen Swanson, Learning Disabilities Association of America’s Healthy Children Project director. “The potential economic impact is huge,” says NIEHS’s Birnbaum.
    The stress factor
    What prompts neurological disorders in children is “very complex,” notes Frederica Perera. Adding to the challenge of disentangling the various contributing factors is that while research on—and regulation of—chemicals typically looks at one substance at a time, people are exposed to multiple chemicals concurrently. Further adding to this complexity when it comes to brain development are social stresses that “act on the same part of the brain region,” explains University of Rochester professor of environmental medicine Deborah Cory-Slechta. She and others are finding increasing evidence that nonchemical stressors such as maternal, domestic and community distress can prompt adverse effects on early brain development, either on their own or in combination with neurotoxic chemicals.–Birnbaum says this apparent interaction between chemicals and nonchemical stressors is “very concerning and very important.”—Epidemiological studies, Cory-Slechta explains, typically correct for what are called confounding factors—other conditions that might influence the condition being measured. Many studies, she says, “are clearly not modeling what is going on in the human environment.” What she and her colleagues hope to do is “reproduce in animal studies what goes on in human communities,” particularly in communities that are most vulnerable to adverse social stressors and most exposed to chemical contaminants, including lead, pesticides and air pollution.–Lead and stress affect the same part of the brain, she says, and so can act synergistically very early in life to produce permanent changes in brain structure. These changes can result in lowered IQ, learning and behavioral problems.—Cory-Slechta’s lab is now working on replicating conditions of stress and chronic deprivation in animal models that would mirror those experienced by communities of poverty. The aim is to better understand how these effects cross the placenta and become the fetal basis of lifelong disorders. She and her colleagues are investigating, not only associations between exposures and neurodevelopment, but also the mechanisms by which effects occur.
    What to do?
    Assuming we want to stop harming our children’s brains, how do we proceed?
    An important step is to improve our ability to determine which chemicals have neurodevelopmental effects. A rapid screening system would be ideal, says Birnbaum, because there are so many chemicals—including newly invented ones—to which people are exposed. While such a program to test large numbers of chemicals quickly using robotics has been launched by NIH, EPA and other federal agencies, there are tens of thousands that may be in use, most of which have not been fully tested for these effects.–When it comes to reducing existing exposures, some chemicals can be avoided through consumer choice. But it’s often difficult, given that many of these substances are used—like BPA on receipts—in products that don’t carry ingredient labels. Others, including air pollutants, are much harder given their ubiquity or lack of available alternatives. And, as Maureen Swanson notes, such choices are not necessarily feasible for people at all economic levels, which raises environmental justice issues.–Grandjean and Landrigan point out that the US system of chemical regulation, which lacks requirements for full premarket toxicity testing, does not do a very good job when it comes to proactive chemical safety. “Untested chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity,” they wrote in an article published in The Lancet.–While some sources of neurotoxicity might appear to have been adequately addressed, they have not. For example, considerable progress has been made in curtailing lead exposure through policy and public health education in the US and elsewhere. However, current understanding is that virtually any amount of lead exposure can cause damage, and harmful exposures continue—especially in countries where leaded paints and gasoline are still used . And in the US, CDC funding for lead prevention programs was dramatically reduced in 2012.–Meanwhile, children around the world—especially in less well-off countries—continue to be exposed to dangerous neurotoxicants released in industrial emissions, from waste sites and through child labor. Examples abound, and include exposures to chemicals released in electronics recycling in various locations in Asia and Africa, to lead and mercury from mining activity, to agricultural pesticides, to products contaminated with heavy metals, including food and candy.–When it comes to protecting the exquisitely sensitive developing brain, the measures currently used to assess chemical risk and set safety standards fall short, says Cory-Slechta. “It should be about primary prevention, but it’s not,” she says.
    In the absence of what many environmental health advocates feel is adequate US federal regulation of chemicals, many individual US states have recently passed their own laws to protect children from harmful chemical exposures. Many address chemicals with neurotoxic effects, particularly those of heavy metals such as cadmium, lead and mercury. And even though some states are beginning to include language in their legislation to protect pregnant women from chemical hazards, this timing of exposure is left largely unaddressed.–While we now know a great deal about developmental neurotoxicants, more such exposures appear to be occurring than ever before. And there appears to be wide agreement among researchers that these exposures are taking a toll on the world’s children.
     
    [F1]Environmental pollutants would include RF—Smart Meters—Cell phones—Haarp—NanoParticles—Smart Dust—Chemtrails—Glyphosates-an industrial waste—farm chemicals—and materials and cleaning agents –GMO’s—these are all environmental pollutants
    [F2]PAHs are neutral, nonpolar molecules; they are found in fossil fuels (oil and coal) and in tar deposits, and are produced, generally, when insufficient oxygen or other factors result in incomplete combustion of organic matter—–
    Crystal structure of a hexa-tert-butyl derivatized hexa-peri-hexabenzo(bc,ef,hi,kl,no,qr)coronene, reported by Klaus Müllen and co-workers.[3] The tert-butyl groups make this compound soluble in common solvents such as hexane, in which the unsubstituted PAH is insoluble.
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are lipophilic, meaning they mix more easily with oil than water. — PAHs are one of the most widespread organic pollutants. In addition to their presence in fossil fuels they are also formed by incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels such as wood, coal, diesel, fat, tobacco, and incense
    [F3]Use essential oils not the synthetic fragrances

    #2716
    AvatarEK
    Keymaster

    Salt increases physical performance in resistance competitions
    Date:
    March 4, 2015
    Source:
    Plataforma SINC
     
    Half Ironman is a medium-distance triathlon race which consists of 1.9 km of swimming, 90 km of cycling and 21.1 km of athletics.-Spanish researchers have analysed the effectiveness of salt on sports performance in triathletes. The athletes who added this supplement to their usual hydration routines during the competition took 26 minutes less to complete a medium-distance triathlon course than those who only used sports drinks.-Maintaining a suitable balance of water and electrolytes (mainly sodium and chloride) is essential for the functioning of all organs. Human beings compensate for their daily loss with the water and salts provided by their diet’s food and drinks.-“However, doing exercise (especially resistance sports and activities carried out in the heat) can compromise the regulation of water and electrolytes,” explains Juan del Coso Garrigós, researcher at the Camilo José Cela University (UCJC) and lead author of a study on the effect of salt on sports performance, to SINC.-Scientists from the Exercise Physiology Laboratory at UCJC have analysed the effectiveness of the salt capsules during a Half Ironman, a medium-distance triathlon race which consists of 1.9 km of swimming, 90 km of cycling and 21.1 km of athletics. Their study has just been published in the ‘Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports’.-During the research, a group of triathletes ingested, as well as the rehydration drinks that they usually drank, 12 salt capsules divided into three doses during the competition, with the aim of replacing 71% of the sodium lost through sweat.-Their results were compared to those of another group of athletes of the same age, experience and with better times previously in a Half Ironman, who during the competition drank sports drinks and capsules filled with a placebo, and therefore, only replaced 20% of the lost sodium.-The triathletes who had ingested the salt ended the competition 26 minutes before the control group on average. Above all their running and cycling speeds improved. “This positive effect on performance relates to an increase in the concentration of electrolytes in the blood, making them drink more fluids during the race (as salt stimulates thirst) and improves the water and electrolyte balances during the competition,” adds Del Coso.-As the specialist mentions, sports drinks do not replace 100% of the electrolytes lost through sweat. Nevertheless, for the majority of sports activities lasting less than two hours, the electrolytes that they do contain are sufficient to maintain performance and avoid imbalances.
    Not just any liquid can be used as a replacement
    Sweating is the main mechanism for losing body heat. Sweat glands filter the blood plasma (which contains 142 milliequivalents per litre (mEq/L) of sodium) to obtain a hypotonic fluid, sweat, which evaporates through the skin and dissipates heat.-On the other hand, body water and electrolytes are lost through sweat. In healthy people the filtration in the glands reduces the concentration of sodium in sweat to 40-60 mEq/L. For this reason, the main aim of rehydration in sport is to replace lost water and electrolytes.-“If we choose a mineral water as a rehydration drink in sport (which contains 2 mEq/L of sodium), we could generate hypotonicity[F1], given that we would be replacing only the liquid while the concentration of sodium in our blood would gradually become diluted,” states Del Coso.-Sports drinks are designed to replace lost liquids and electrolytes in sport, but even the best on the market only have a sodium concentration of around 20 mEq/L, approximately half of that lost through sweat.
    Flavour or performance
    For experts, there is a balance between what is considered physiologically recommendable and that which is economically profitable in the world of sports drinks.-“Despite sports drinks companies knowing that including more sodium in the drinks would be more beneficial to maintain the balance of fluids and electrolytes during exercise, a greater concentration of sodium would also make the drink have a more salty taste and would reduce the possibilities of succeeding in a market where flavour is key to obtaining good sales figures,” says the researcher.-However, in long-distance tests in which large quantities of drinks are ingested to avoid dehydration (marathons, long-distance triathlons, ultra-resistance competitions, etc.) rehydration with these specialised drinks may not be sufficient to maintain the concentration of salt in the body fluids.-“It may be necessary to eat food that contains high amounts of salt, such as fruits or nuts, or even salt capsules to reduce the effect of the loss of electrolytes on physical performance,” he concludes.-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Plataforma SINC. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-J. Del Coso, C. González-Millán, J. J. Salinero, J. Abián-Vicén, F. Areces, M. Lledó, B. Lara, C. Gallo-Salazar, D. Ruiz-Vicente. Effects of oral salt supplementation on physical performance during a half-ironman: A randomized controlled trial. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 2015; DOI: 10.1111/sms.12427
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    Preventing spread of cancer with copper molecules
    Date:
    March 2, 2015
    Source:
    Universitaet Bielefeld
     
    The new agent containing copper ‘docks’ precisely with the DNA molecule of a cancer cell and stops it from growing. As a result, the cancer cell dies.–Chemists at Bielefeld University have developed a molecule containing copper that binds specifically with DNA and prevents the spread of cancer. First results show that it kills the cancer cells more quickly than cisplatin — a widely used anti-cancer drug that is frequently administered in chemotherapy. When developing the anti-tumour agent, Professor Dr. Thorsten Glaser and his team cooperated with biochemists and physicists. The design of the new agent is basic research. ‘How and whether the copper complex will actually be given to cancer patients is something that medical research will have to determine in the years to come,’ says the chemist.–Ever since the end of the 1970s, doctors have been using cisplatin to treat cancer. For lung cancer and testicular cancer, the drug promotes healing; however, it does not work for all types of cancer. Cisplatin is also one of the anti-cancer drugs that most frequently induce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. ‘Therefore we wanted to develop an alternative agent that would work differently, have fewer side effects, and treat other types of cancer as well,’ says Thorsten Glaser, Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at Bielefeld University. ‘In addition, we wanted an agent that would treat cancers that have become immune to cisplatin through its use in earlier treatments.’ Glaser and his team are using methods from chemistry to produce new molecules that are not found in nature, and to equip these with specific properties.–Cisplatin attacks the DNA of cancer cells. DNA is composed of nucleobases, phosphates, and sugar. Whereas cisplatin binds with the nucleobases, the new molecule developed by the researchers attacks the phosphate in the DNA. ‘We did this by integrating two metal ions of copper in our molecule that preferentially bind with phosphates.’ As soon as the ions bind with the phosphate, the DNA of the cancer cell changes. This disrupts the cellular processes, prevents the cell from reproducing, and leads to the destruction of the pathological cell.–‘Just as a key only works in one specific lock, our molecule only fits the phosphates and blocks them,’ says Glaser. A bit like the end of a horseshoe, there are two metal ions of copper protruding from the new molecule. The gap between the two ends of the horseshoe corresponds exactly to that between the phosphates in the DNA so that they can dock together and form a perfect fit. ‘Because two phosphates bind simultaneously, the binding strength is greater. And that increases the efficacy.’–The scientists at Bielefeld University have developed a procedure for manufacturing the new molecule. They have proved that their copper agent can bind with DNA and change it. And they have studied whether and how well their agent prevents the spread of the DNA and thereby of the cells. The replication of the genome in cells proceeds in a similar way to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The researchers have confirmed that the copper complex stops this chain reaction.–Finally, the scientists applied the agent to cancer cells. They administered the substance to a cell culture with cancer cells. The result was that ‘the copper complex is more effective than cisplatin,’ says Glaser. ‘The highest number of cancer cells died at a concentration of 10 micromolar[F2]. With cisplatin, you need 20 micromolar.’-When carrying out the research on the new agent, Professor Glaser and his team cooperated with the research teams of Professor Dr. Dario Anselmetti (Biophysics and nanoscience) and Professor Dr. Gabriele Fischer von Mollard (Biochemistry) — both also at Bielefeld University. Dario Anselmetti’s colleagues used atomic force microscopy to produce the images confirming that the copper complex binds with the DNA. Gabriele Fischer von Mollard’s team tested how the cancer cell culture responded to the agent.-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Universitaet Bielefeld. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference–Thomas Jany, Alexander Moreth, Claudia Gruschka, Andy Sischka, Andre Spiering, Mareike Dieding, Ying Wang, Susan Haji Samo, Anja Stammler, Hartmut Bögge, Gabriele Fischer von Mollard, Dario Anselmetti, Thorsten Glaser. Rational Design of a Cytotoxic Dinuclear Cu2Complex That Binds by Molecular Recognition at Two Neighboring Phosphates of the DNA Backbone. Inorganic Chemistry, 2015; 150204080138001 DOI: 10.1021/ic5028465
     
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    PaxVax applies to have GM cholera vaccine tested in Australia
    Australia could join a global trial of a new genetically-modified cholera vaccine which could save thousands of lives in the developing world.
    United States-based vaccine company PaxVax is running a trial of the oral vaccine, and has applied to the Federal Government to run part of the trial in Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia.
    PaxVax says the single-dose vaccine has been genetically-modified to remove the part of the cholera bacteria that makes people sick.
    It wants to use Australia as a trial site to test the vaccine on about 1,000 adults, and potentially children, planning to travel overseas to cholera-affected areas.
    What is cholera?
    Cholera is spread by contaminated water, unhygienic food and contaminated shellfish
    Symptoms include profuse, watery diarrhoea, nausea, dehydration, fever and stomach cramps
    Illness can begin up to five days after exposure
    Infected people can carry the bacteria in their faeces for months or years after infection
    In severe, untreated cases, cholera can be life threatening and death can occur within hours
    Source: Western Australia Health Department
    PaxVax chief executive Nima Farzan says the plan is to then expand the vaccine’s use to developing countries.
    Cholera is a worldwide health problem with 3 to 5 million cases and up to 130,000 deaths a year.
    “Cholera is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera is endemic in parts of south Asia and even parts of Latin America,” Mr Farzan said.
    “Outbreaks can come quite rapidly. Cholera, if not treated, can be a fatal disease.”
    Mr Farzan says the vaccine is safe because it has been genetically-modified, meaning it cannot produce toxins or reproduce the cholera bacteria.
    “The study in Australia will only be looking at the immune response or the antibody levels and the safety from taking this vaccine,” he said.
    “What we are measuring in the vaccine is anything that could come about local or systemic reaction that could come from the vaccine.”
    However, anti-genetic modification campaigner Bob Phelps from the Gene Ethics Network says as cholera is rare in Australia, there is no justification for a mass vaccination program.
    He is also concerned that people taking part in the trial will only be monitored for one hour.
    “In the [company] application, there is no follow-up monitoring or proper surveillance,” he said.
    Doctors say ‘no risk’ vaccine will spread cholera in Australia
    Victoria is one of the potential trial states. Its chief health officer Dr Rosemary Lester says there is a rigorous process to assess anything which is genetically modified, not just vaccines.
    “The risk would be carefully assessed before the trial is allowed to go ahead,” she said.
    There’s really no risk to people living in Australia.
    Our sanitation and hygiene systems are so good. I would be very comfortable with that sort of trial going on.
    Victorian chief health officer Dr Rosemary Lester
    Dr Lester says there is no risk of the vaccine spreading cholera to Australia.
    “There’s really no risk to people living in Australia,” she said.
    “Our sanitation and hygiene systems are so good. I would be very comfortable with that sort of trial going on.”
    Over the past five years, there have been 22 cases of cholera reported in Australia. Most of these were acquired in South-East Asia.
    “In Australia, fortunately cholera is a very rare disease,” Dr Lester said.
    “It’s almost always seen in returned travellers. We typically see about three to six cases per year in returned travellers,” Dr Lester said.
    Adverse reactions to vaccine infrequent, mild
    Results of a phase one trial into the PaxVax vaccine found that a single dose created an immune response in almost 90 per cent of patients.
    The company says the vaccine was well-tolerated, adverse events were infrequent, and generally mild.
    Photo: There have been hundreds of thousands of cases of cholera in Haiti this year, killing 8,000 people. (Thony Belizaire: AFP)
    Of 3,000 volunteers worldwide, 1,000 would be from Australia and the remainder from North America.
    Cholera is a gut infection caused by consuming of food or water contaminated with the bacterium vibrio cholerae.
    It usually presents quickly after infection and in extreme causes large amounts of painless, watery diarrhoea that can quickly lead to severe dehydration and death.
    Most episodes are mild or moderate and similar to other stomach flus.
    In Australia there is an existing travel vaccine which can prevent cholera that is typically given to health-vulnerable travellers, but it is a double dose regime which takes longer to complete.
    The Federal Government’s Office of the Gene Technology Regulator will seek public comment on the PaxVax trial after a risk assessment and risk management plan is released in late January.
    The trial is expected to last 12 months.
    ****************************************************************************
    Onion extract may improve high blood sugar and cholesterol
    Date:
    March 6, 2015
    Source:
    The Endocrine Society
    The extract of onion bulb, Allium cepa, strongly lowered high blood glucose (sugar) and total cholesterol levels in diabetic rats when given with the antidiabetic drug metformin, according to a new study. The study results will be presented Thursday at The Endocrine Society’s 97th annual meeting in San Diego.–“Onion is cheap and available and has been used as a nutritional supplement,” said lead investigator Anthony Ojieh, MBBS (MD), MSc, of Delta State University in Abraka, Nigeria. “It has the potential for use in treating patients with diabetes.”–To three groups of rats with medically induced diabetes, Ojieh and his colleagues gave metformin and varying doses of onion extract–200, 400 and 600 milligrams per kilograms of body weight daily (mg/kg/day)–to see if it would enhance the drug’s effects. They also gave metformin and onion extract to three groups of nondiabetic rats with normal blood sugar, for comparison. Two control groups, one nondiabetic and one diabetic, received neither metformin nor onion extract. Another two groups (one with diabetes, one without) received only metformin and no onion extract. Each group contained five rats.–Two doses of onion extract, 400 and 600 mg/kg/day, strongly reduced fasting blood sugar levels in diabetic rats by 50 percent and 35 percent, respectively, compared with “baseline” levels at the start of the study before the rodents received onion extract, Ojieh reported.–Allium cepa also reportedly lowered the total cholesterol level in diabetic rats, with the two larger doses again having the greatest effects.–Onion extract led to an increase in average weight among nondiabetic rats but not diabetic rats.–“Onion is not high in calories,” Ojieh said. “However, it seems to increase the metabolic rate and, with that, to increase the appetite, leading to an increase in feeding.”–Histologic study of the pancreas removed from each diabetic rat showed that neither metformin nor onion extract healed the damage that resulted from the drug-caused diabetes.–“We need to investigate the mechanism by which onion brought about the blood glucose reduction,” Ojieh said. “We do not yet have an explanation.”–The onion extract used for the experiment was a crude preparation from onion bulb, which is available in the local market. If this were to be administered to humans, it would usually be purified so that only the active ingredients would be quantified for adequate dosing, Ojieh said.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by The Endocrine Society. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
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    Level of pollutants accumulated in the body linked to obesity levels
    Date:
    February 27, 2015
    Source:
    University of Granada
    A team of Spanish scientists, which includes several researchers from the University of Granada, has confirmed that there is a relation between the levels of certain environmental pollutants that a person accumulates in his or her body and their level of obesity. Subjects with more pollutants in their organisms tend to have higher levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, which are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease.-This is a study published in the journal Environmental Pollution, included researchers from the University of Granada, the San Cecilio and Virgen de las Nieves university hospitals, and the Andalusian School of Public Health, all of them members of the Granada Biohealth Research Institute.–This research has analysed the levels of pollutants accumulated in adipose tissue (fat) in nearly 300 men and women, who were attended in the surgery services of two hospitals in the province of Granada (Spain).-The substances analysed, known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), can remain in the environment for years, even decades, without degrading[F4].–“Humans are exposed to POPs mainly through diet. Besides, POPs accumulate gradually in body fat, and this is the reason why the median levels in our study give us an idea of an individual’s accumulated exposition over a number of years,” says Juan Pedro Arrebola, the main author of the article.–Using complex statistical methods, these scientists confirmed that the accumulated levels of several POPs were related to obesity and to serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in individuals, irrespective of the gender, age, place of residence or smoking habits of participants in the survey.–“In general we found that people with higher levels of POPs were quantitatively more obese, and also showed higher levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, all of them regarded as important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, although these relations were complex and they did not always show linear patterns,” Arrebola claims.
    POPs subject to analysis
    Those POPs subject to analysis include DDE, the main metabolite of pesticide DDT, widely used all over the world in the 1980s, and currently employed by some countries to combat malaria. They also included the insecticide lindane, frequently used in the past in agriculture and also in certain medicines for lice and scabies.–The survey also included a group of polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs, used in numerous industrial equipment, and which are still present in old electric transformers. All these pollutants were somehow associated with obesity indexes, as well as cholesterol and/or triglycerides levels.–In spite of the fact that their use is currently very restricted, POPs are a very serious public health –problem. Actually, 100% of participants in this survey presented detectable levels of one or more of these compounds.–“This universal [exposure] turns their impact on human health into a most important issue. Besides, our results suggest that there are no safe exposure levels for these pollutants, which can also interact among them to affect health[F5],” Arrebola added.–Previous studies have demonstrated that the general population is exposed to POPs mainly through food with a high fat content. This includes fish and meat from large animals with a high level of fat. This is the reason why a growing number of researchers recommend against over-consumption.–Doctor Arrebola’s research group is currently monitoring the subjects of their study over the course of several years, to confirm whether those subjects exposed have shown a higher risk of developing certain pathologies, such as high blood pressure, obesity, or cardiovascular disease.
    “Obesity-genic” Pollutants
    Obesity has become a universal epidemic whose impact in Europe has tripled during the last few decades. The most important problem is that obese people have a high risk of suffering from numerous health problems such as cardiovascular disease, which the World Health Organisation considers the main cause of death worldwide.–It has been traditionally thought that obesity results from a high caloric intake in comparison with energy expenditure. “We believe that the results are not just the consequence of a higher intake of food by obese people. There is evidence that human exposure to certain chemical substances called “obesogenic” could favour the growth and proliferation of adipocytes (fat cells), and provoke therefore an increase in body fat. We suspect besides that certain environmental pollutants could also provoke alterations in cholesterol and triglycerides levels and therefore contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease,” Arrebola concludes.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by University of Granada. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
    ****************************************************************************
    High levels of vitamin D is suspected of increasing mortality rates
    Date:
    March 10, 2015
    Source:
    University of Copenhagen – The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences
     
    It can be disadvantageous to have too much vitamin D.–The level of vitamin D in our blood should neither be too high nor to low. Scientists from the University of Copenhagen are the first in the world to show that there is a connection between high levels of vitamin D and cardiovascular deaths[F6].–In terms of public health, a lack of vitamin D has long been a focal point. Several studies have shown that too low levels can prove detrimental to our health. However, new research from the University of Copenhagen reveals, for the first time, that also too high levels of vitamin D in our blood is connected to an increased risk of dying from a stroke or a coronary.–The results have just been published in the Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism.–“We have studied the level of vitamin D in 247,574 Danes, and so far, it constitutes the world’s largest basis for this type of study. We have also analysed their mortality rate over a seven-year period after taking the initial blood sample, and in that time 16,645 patients had died. Furthermore, we have looked at the connection between their deaths and their levels of vitamin D,” Professor at the Department of Clinical Medicine, Peter Schwarz explains.–The conclusion is clear: the study confirms that there is indeed a correlation between mortality rates and too low levels of vitamin D, but the new thing is that the level of vitamin D can also be too high.–“If your vitamin D level is below 50 or over 100 nanomol per litre, there is an greater connection to deaths. We have looked at what caused the death of patients, and when numbers are above 100, it appears that there is an increased risk of dying from a stroke or a coronary. In other words, levels of vitamin D should not be too low, but neither should they be too high. Levels should be somewhere in between 50 and 100 nanomol per litre, and our study indicates that 70 is the most preferable level,” Peter Schwartz states.–That having too much vitamin D in our blood can be bad for our health has never been proven before, and it may have great influence on our future intake of nutritional supplements.–“These are very important results, because there is such great focus on eating vitamin D. We should use this information to ask ourselves whether or not we should continue to eat vitamins and nutritional supplements as if they were sweets. You shouldn’t simply up the dose to feel better. We should only consume such vitamins in close coordination with our GP,” Peter Schwartz concludes.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by University of Copenhagen – The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Darshana Durup, Henrik Løvendahl Jørgensen, Jane Christensen, Anne Tjønneland, Anja Olsen, Jytte Halkjær, Bent Lind, Anne-Marie Heegaard, Peter Schwarz. A reverse J-shaped association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cardiovascular disease mortality – the CopD-study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2015; jc.2014-4551 DOI: 10.1210/jc.2014-4551
    TOP
    [F1]Hypertonicity is an increased tension of the muscles, meaning the muscle tone is abnormally rigid, hampering proper movement. This condition is the opposite of hypotonicity. Hypotonicity is a decreased tension in muscle tone. A lack of muscle tone inhibits proper movement as the muscle is not developed or is too soft to support the body
    [F2]Interesting in the micron level this terminated the cancer not at the nano
    [F3]Onion (Allium cepa L.) is found in various regions of Europe, North America, Asia, and Africa. It is one of the classic examples of Allium species used not only for culinary preparations but also for medicinal purposes. Onion with a variety of purposes is often used as a raw material in many dishes and accepts almost all of the traditions and culture. Owing to its storage characteristics and durability of shipping, onions have been traded more widely than most vegetables. The pungent fractions of garlic are mostly sulfur-containing moieties while its two chemical groups have marked effect on human health. These are flavonoids and ALK (EN)-based cysteine sulfoxides (ACSOs). Compounds in onions have been reported with a range of health benefits, including anticancer properties, antiplatelet activity, antithrombotic activity, antiasthmatic activity, and antibiotic effects.
    [F4]Welcome to chemtrails and nanoparticles and glyphosates
    [F5]Interaction—meaning when the become exposed to each other they react and internally this can happen causing unwanted health issues
    [F6]This has been known since the 60’s nothing new here they knew then that to much D could lead to stomes in the heart and an increase in calcium deposits in the heart –kidneys and lungs
    [F7]Food emulsifiers act as an interface between the conflicting components of food like water and oil.
    While preparing the food, often conflicting natural components of food have to be combined into a consistent and pleasing blend. Each component of food (carbohydrate, protein, oil and fat, water, air, etc.) has its own properties which are sometimes conflicting to one another just like oil and water. To make the two components compatible, emulsifiers are used.——————- What is an Emulsifier?
    An emulsifier is a molecule with one oil-friendly and one water-friendly end. Water friendly end in food emulsifier is called hydrophilic tail and oil-friendly end is called hydrophobic head. Food emulsifiers are also called emulgents. In this way droplets of oil are surrounded by the emulsifier molecule, with the oil core hidden by the water-friendly tails of the emulsifier. A classic natural emulsion is milk, which is a complex mixture of fat suspended in an aqueous solution. Nature’s emulsifiers are proteins and phospholipids (lipids means fat soluble phosphate is water soluble). Egg is commonly used as an emulsifier. Some emulsifiers also act as anti-caking agents like Magnesium Stearate, Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids. Few others like Sorbitan monostearate are emulsifier as well as stabilizer
    .
    [F8]Emulsifier
    The most frequently used raw materials for emulsifiers include palm oil, rapeseed oil, soy bean oil, sunflower oil or lard/tallow. Egg happens to be the oldest emulsifier. Basic emulsifier production involves combining oil (triglyceride) with glycerol that results in monoglyceride. The type of triglyceride used in the reaction determines the type of emulsifier obtained. Unsaturated triglycerides produce fluid products such as oil while saturated triglycerides result in pasty or solid structures like butter. Monoglycerides can be combined with other substances, such as citric acid and lactic acid, in order to increase their emulsifying properties. Food drugs and cosmetics and pigment emulsions also require one or other kind of emulsifier.
    On the basis of their hydrophilic groups, there are basically four categories
    Anionics
    Non-ionics
    Cationics
    Amphoterics
    Food Emulsifier
    Egg Yolk emulsifying agent lecithin
    Honey
    Mustard
    Soy lecithin
    CSL Calcium Stearoyl Di Laciate
    PolyGlycerol Ester (PGE)
    Sorbitan Ester (SOE)
    PG Ester (PGME)
    Sugar Ester (SE)
    Monoglyceride (MG)
    Acetylated Monoglyceride (AMG)
    Lactylated Monoglyceride (LMG)
    [F9]Never Use anything nano—the other thing that happens it can be incorporated with other metals at that scale and size and cause unwanted distortions and mutations in the body
    [F10]Realistically no one knows what they are really eating unless it is grown yourself
    [F11]This is unrealistic –if they are not going to lable GMO foods —saying the public is to stupid to be able to know the difference the same logic is going to go here —this is about population control and regulating the level of poisonous or harmul materials one can consume
    [F12]The article is out dated a little—even the fresh foods are being sprayed with nano silver causing them to saturate the body internally into the brain and lungs liver and spleen and tissues throughout the body —so eat as clean as possible and use as much as required in peeling and cleansing your foods as well
    [F13]The organic label is BS today and has been for quite some time and if nano is on the fields then it will be in the organics as well via chemtrails and the spraying—once released this can cause issues on all farming—grow your own
    [F14]2 differing measurements
    [F15]this is where some companies get the idea that nano is safe due to this definition
    [F16]This is implying strongly that the more they are in an environment over a big area the more activity is going to happen—this also appears to be double speech here with the above articles mentioning the dangers of the nm size here thay are almost going to full accept it when the previous article showed h
    [F17]Still think the health food industry is healthy
    [F18]These are highly reactive —with the chemtrails being dumped on us with nano particles and th food supply allowing more aluminum to being spread this would further exasperate the nano bio attack on the body
    [F19]This is what makes these things so dangerous —they accumulate and then replicate —with every cell they choke out they further saturate the tissues and organs
    [F20]Another metal saturating the colon causing colon alterations and cellular death
    [F21]Nano particles can reach Intestinal and blood and other organs!!
    [F22]One of the components in chemtrails
    [F23]The characteristics of nanoparticles that are relevant for health effects are:
    Size – In addition to being able to cross cell membranes, reach the blood and various organs because of their very small size, nanoparticles of any material have a much greater surface to volume ratio (i.e. the surface area compared to the volume) than larger particles of that same material. Therefore, relatively more molecules of the chemical are present on the surface. This may be one of the reasons why nanoparticles are generally more toxic than larger particles of the same composition.
    Chemical composition and surface characteristics – The toxicity of nanoparticles depends on their chemical composition, but also on the composition of any chemicals adsorbed onto their surfaces. However, the surfaces of nanoparticles can be modified to make them less harmful to health.
    Shape – Although there is little definitive evidence, the health effects of nanoparticles are likely to depend also on their shape. A significant example is nanotubes, which may be of a few nanometres in diameter but with a length that could be several micrometres. A recent study showed a high toxicity of carbon nanotubes which seemed to produce harmful effects by an entirely new mechanism, different from the normal model of toxic dusts.
    [F24]Nano in the food—wonder where that comes from===pollution? Spraying the fields with nano silver—CHEMTRAILS???
    [F25]How they cause the damage to the colon and digestive system
    [F26]Anyone want a diet in aluminum—and beware a lot of health guru’s promote cleanser that have these in them
    [F27]Will kill off the bacterial properties required for the flora to grow and for the animals and us to have the right nutrition—without bacteria nothing grows or can be assimilated
    [F28]These 2 are the worse ones for male sterility and testicular cancr
    [F29]This is also part of the chemtrails
    [F30]This we are already seeing with glyphosates
    [F31]This will be called a nano biofilm—extremely dangerous once out hard to recall back
     
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    Show of the Month March 21 2015
    Silver –An Ancient Remedy
    TINY INGREDIENTS BIG RISKS
    Standards for Maple syrup
    Widely used food additive promotes colitis, obesity and metabolic syndrome, research shows
    Silver –An Ancient Remedy
    Silver is a powerful, natural prophylactic/antibiotic, used for thousands of years. Ancient Greeks lined their eating and drinking vessels with silver, as did many other cultures throughout the world. ref: 5 Pioneers of the American West would put a silver dollar in a jug of milk to keep it fresh without refrigeration. ref: 6
    Did you ever wonder why silverware was made from silver? One of the properties of silver is that it kills bacteria on contact in six minutes or less. ref: 7 It may be that gold and silver were first used as valued currency because of their medical properties.
    Dr. Robert O. Becker, author of The Body Electric, recognized a correlation between low silver levels and sickness. He said silver deficiency was responsible for the improper functioning of the immune system. Dr. Becker’s experiments conclude that silver works on the full spectrum of pathogens without any side effects or damage to the body.
    He also states that silver does more than kill disease-causing organisms. It also causes major growth stimulation of injured tissues. Burn patients and even elderly patients notice more rapid healing. And he discovered that all cancer cells could change back to normal cells. All strains of pathogens resistant to other antibiotics are killed by silver.
    What is Colloidal Silver?
    Colloidal Silver is the result of an electromagnetic process that pulls microscopic particles from a larger piece of silver into a liquid, such as water. ref: 8 These microscopic particles can more easily penetrate and travel throughout the body. Colloidal silver works as catalyst, disabling the enzyme that all one-celled bacteria, fungi and viruses use for their metabolism. Unlike with antibiotics, resistant strains have never been known to develop. In fact, antibiotics are only effective against perhaps a dozen forms of bacteria and fungi, but never viruses.
    Because no known disease-causing organism can live in the presence of even minute traces of the chemical element of metallic silver, colloidal silver is effective against more than 650 different disease-causing pathogens, ref: 9 as well as cancer! ref: 10
    You’ll also find colloidal silver very handy in the garden since it can be used against bacterial, fungal and viral attacks on plants. Simply spray diluted Colloidal Silver on the leaves, and add to soil water.
    It would appear highly unlikely that even germ warfare agents could survive an encounter with colloidal silver, since viruses like E Bola, Hanta, or even the dreaded “flesh-eating bacteria” are, in the end, merely hapless viruses and bacteria. Finally, colloidal silver is non-toxic, making it safe for both children and adults, as well as pets. ref: 11, 12 In short; anything bigger than a one-cell animal seems to like it.
    Nor does one have to worry about that FDA (Food and Drug Administration) fox being put in charge of this home remedy hen house. Colloidal silver is a pre-1938 healing modality, making it exempt from FDA jurisdiction under the grandfather clause. ref: 13
    So Why Haven’t you heard of it?
    I suspect the user friendly economics of colloidal silver may have something to do with its low profile in the media. Colloidal silver can’t help but shine a spotlight on the expensive and deadly nature of our huge pharmaceutical industries.
    The pharmaceutical cartel’s relentless promotion of dangerous vaccines for humans and animals through government programs have now been linked to everything from increasing crib deaths in infants (who in many documented cases scream for hours before dying), to the increasingly common disease, feline leukemia, in house cats. ref: 14 Colloidal silver, on the other hand, is a safe and reliable alternative to expensive pharmaceuticals.
    With the simple act of wiring three 9-volt batteries together, something very profound begins to happen. Ordinary people are able to heal themselves. Widespread use of colloidal silver will cause the multi-billion dollar managed care of “incurable diseases” industry to crumble. Don’t expect these industries to take their loss of power lying down.
    These cartels will do their best to frighten people away from making it themselves, sometimes buying off colloidal silver manufacturers who will then act as the cartel’s agent. These cartels can also be expected to aggressively market their own substitute products, just as they did with antibiotics in the 1940’s when colloidal silver was originally suppressed.
    Some Uses of Colloidal Silver
    These are some of the 650 diseases and conditions that colloidal silver was used to treat successfully in the past. This list in no way should be construed or relied upon as medical advice. Always consult your health care professional if a serious condition exists.
    acne, eczema, psoriasis, allergies, fibrosis, rheumatism, appendicitis, gastritis, scarlet fever arthritis, gonorrhea, septicemia, athlete’s foot, herpes, shingles, bladder inflammation, impetigo, skin cancer , blood parasites, indigestion, staph and strep, boils, keratitis, infections, bubonic plague, leprosy, syphilis, burns, leukemia, thyroid conditions, cancer, lupus, tonsillitis, candidiasis, lymphagitis, toxemia, chilblains, Lymes disease, trachoma, cholera, malaria, dermatitis, colitis, meningitis, warts, conjunctivitis, neurasthenia, whooping cough, cystitis, pneumonia, yeast infections, dermatitis, pleurisy, stomach ulcers, diabetes, prostate problems, tuberculosis, dysentery, pruritus ani, –in other words, bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. It had also been used against canine parvovirus and other veterinary diseases.
    Con Men In Suits..

    #2717
    AvatarEK
    Keymaster

    One of the most effective flimflam ploys is to trot out an “expert” who confirms that the product he or she is selling is absolutely essential for your well being. This “authority” will go on to mention that in the course of their studies of competing products, they discovered that these competing products will very likely cause you harm.
    Actually, the expert is used as a shill to usurp your freedom of choice and dictate what you should regard as “health” and health-promoting practices. Similar ploys have been used by colloidal silver manufacturers, which have resulted in confusion and fear among those most interested in using silver.
    We can best avoid manipulation by coming to a deeper understanding about different types of colloidal silver, production methods, issues of safety and usefulness.
    First some basics..
    A colloid consists of minute particles that float within a liquid despite the pull of gravity. To stay in suspension for any length of time, these particles must be smaller that 1 micron (1/1000 of an inch).
    When fresh produce is processed through a juicer, a colloid results in the form of a glass of juice. As a juice colloid sits, the larger particles begin to fall out of suspension and settle at the bottom of the container. To evenly distribute the contents it is common to shake up a bottle of juice before drinking.
    In the case of colloidal silver, silver particles are pulled off of a pure silver electrode that is immersed in water by applying a low voltage electric current, giving each particle an electric charge. This charge, though long lasting, is not permanent, and both daylight and time will cause a colloid to lose its charge. This loss is referred to as “falling out”, or “plating out”. ref: 15
    While colloidal silver is light sensitive, it is not nearly so light sensitive as camera film. Under the midday California summer sun, colloidal silver can be expected to oxidize in about ten minutes. Indoors, under ambient and artificial light, colloidal silver will oxidize in about three days. This only means colloidal silver should be stored in tinted or opaque containers.
    About Size..
    Many colloidal silver manufacturers claim that if the silver particles are “too large,” the resulting brew will prove injurious to the public health.
    The truth can be found in many science textbooks. When applying current to solver in solution, metallic silver will always break off at the same size, 1.26 angstroms (.00001 microns). ref: 16 This particle is so small that the next stop on the road to smallness is the atom itself.
    Colloids are by nature the smallest particles matter can be divided into while still retaining individual characteristics. Reducing a piece of metallic silver into a cloud of microscopic particles greatly extends its total surface area, and so its healing properties, while deepening its penetration into the body.
    Because the silver particles are charged, they strive to combine with other elements in the solution. Trace elements exist even in distilled water, and when the charged silver particles combine with a specific trace element, the solution will turn a number of colors like gray, yellow, green or brown. Whatever element the silver chooses is largely irrelevant.
    Once in the body, the silver releases its bond in search of stronger attachments in an effort to stabilize its charge. Therefore, once the silver colloid has entered the body, the original silver particles measuring 1.26 angstroms (about the size of fifteen atoms) quickly pass through the stomach lining and into the blood stream, where they circulate for about a week before elimination.
    Metal Poisoning..
    The body’s ability to process the tiny atoms of colloidal silver makes silver buildup in the body impossible.
    The Environmental Protection Agency’s Poison Control Center reports a No Toxicity listing for colloidal silver. In fact, it appears that harmlessness is one of the attributes of the colloid physiology, regardless of content.
    For example, when examining a bottle of colloidal minerals from the local health food store I noticed arsenic, nickel and lead among the sixty-five trace minerals listed in the contents. ref: 17 In other words, if the particles are small enough, you can even drink arsenic.
    Since the body is known to have a vital need for silver to maintain both the immune system and the production of new healthy cells, and due to the harmonious nature of colloids entering the body (our blood is also a colloid), it stands within reason that colloidal silver may literally be the safest medicine on earth.
    Argyria..
    So how do you frighten people away from the safest and most powerful medicine on earth? You tell them that the bogeyman will get them. If they’re too sophisticated for that, tell them they’ll get a strange, archaic disease like Argyria. Actually, there is no record of anyone ever contracting Argyria from colloidal silver made by the electrolytic method. ref: 18
    Argyria is a harmless and infrequent cosmetic condition where some parts of the body take on a slight bluish cast due to ingesting chemical compounds of which silver is only one component. Argyria did not seem to bother the royal “blue blood” families of Europe, who stayed healthy throughout the plagues of the Middle Ages by ingesting large amounts of silver.
    About Good Bacteria..
    Some say that consuming large amounts of colloidal silver over long periods of time may kill friendly bacteria in your intestines.
    Personally, I have seen no evidence of beneficial bacteria ever being harmed. This issue is not a problem, and unlike antibiotics, colloidal silver does not weaken the body’s immune system. In fact, it is said to give the body a second immune system, creating a shield against disease of all kinds.
    Just to prove a point to myself, I made a sixteen-ounce solution of well over 250-ppm and drank it. I repeated this procedure every day for four days in a row. I easily drank the equivalent of fifty sixteen-ounce glasses of 5-ppm colloidal silver every day! I did not eat yogurt, acidophilus, or compensate for friendly bacteria loss in any way.
    The only side effect was that I just seemed to feel better. This makes sense according to Capitol Drugs pharmacist Ton Barnes, R.Ph.:
    Many strains of pathogenic microbes, viruses, fungi, bacteria or any other single-celled pathogen resistant to other antibiotics are killed on contact by colloidal silver, and are unable to mutate. However, it does not harm tissue-cell enzymes and friendly bacteria.
    Silver Heals..
    The noted biomedical researcher from Syracuse University, and author of The Body Electric and Cross Currents, Dr. Robert O. Becker, MD, has observed the healing effects of silver. Writing about his experience with older patients, Dr. Becker wrote:
    Silver did more than kill disease-causing organisms. It promoted major growth of bone, and accelerated the healing of injured tissues by over 50%.
    He also discovered that silver “profoundly stimulates healing in skin and other soft tissues in a way unlike any known natural process..”
    Dr. Becker discovered that the silver was promoting a new kind of cell growth, which looked like the cells of children! He wrote:
    These cells grew fast producing a diverse and surprising assortment of primitive cell forms able to multiply at a great rate, then differentiate into the specific cells of an organ or tissue that had been injured, even in patients over fifty years old. ref: 20
    In a remarkable clinic trial with fourteen elderly patients, Dr. Robert O. Becker inserted silver electrode wire directly into wounds, using the body’s own juices for the liquid solution while applying current from the external ends. (The voltage used, 0.9, is too low to cause sensation.)
    With this technique, Dr. Becker was able to heal infections inside broken bones, one of the worst kinds of infections to control, as well as heal actual bone fractures and breaks which had previously failed to heal. In some cases he left silver surgically implanted in the body. In others, he sewed the wound up around the protruding silver electrode wire. Once the wound had healed, “the implanted silver wire was easily withdrawn from the wound manually without the need for surgery or anesthesia.”
    Silver..
    The Natural Antiseptic
    Regarding the innate ability of metallic silver to control infection, Dr. Becker said, “All of the organisms that we tested were sensitive to the electrically generated silver ion, including some that were resistant to all known antibiotics.”
    Regarding the safety of pure silver being inserted into the body, Dr. Becker said, “In no case were any undesirable side effects of the silver treatment apparent.”
    The healing properties of silver are so all-encompassing that we see researchers expressing amazement time and time again.
    Alfred Searle, founder of the pharmaceutical conglomerate, wrote in 1919 that..
    Applying colloidal silver to human subjects has been done in a large number of cases with astonishingly successful results. For internal administration, orally or hypodermically it has the advantage of being rapidly fatal to parasites without toxic action on its host. It is quite stable. It protects rabbits from ten times the lethal dose of tetanus or diphtheria toxin. ref: 21
    Physicians use silver compounds in seventy percent of all the burn centers in the United States. British Airways, Swissair, Scandinavian Airlines, Lufthansa, Olympic, Air France, Canadian Pacific Airlines, AlItalia, KLM, Japan Airlines and Pan Am all use silver water filters to curtail waterborne diseases. In fact NASA uses a silver water purification system for the space shuttle and so do the Soviets. Japanese firms even remove cyanide and nitric oxide from the air with silver.
    Make you own Silver Colloid
    As it is currently marketed through local health food stores, colloidal silver contains anywhere from 1 to 500 parts per million (ppm) and sells for as much as $21.95 for two ounces. An average adult dose might be anywhere from a tablespoon per day to a sixteen ounce tumbler, or more, since no toxic dose is known.
    Thanks to one physicist’s ref: 14 brilliantly simple design outlined below, you can now construct your own generator and produce unlimited amounts of high-quality colloidal silver concentrate for the price of water! Or you can buy one for less than $100.
    Before beginning to make your Colloidal Silver you will need to make a saline solution for enhancing conductivity. If you are using filtered spring water, no saline solution will be needed as spring water already has a natural saline content. If the Silver Colloid is to be ingested or injected, be sure to use distilled water. Tap water is fine for other uses, such as for a topical spray or for plants.
    Saline solution can be made by mixing approximately four ounces of distilled water with half a teaspoon of sea salt in a separate container. Do not use common table salt as table salt has chemical additives. After stirring the salt solution for a minute, pour some of the water into an eyedropper bottle.
    Now you’re ready to make Colloidal Silver. Pour eight ounces of distilled water into your glass. Add 2 or 3 drops of saline solution to water and stir with a plastic/nonconductive utensil. Insert silver electrode wires. Placement of wires is not critical, but they must not be touching each other or the process will stop. (You cannot shock yourself in this process so do not be concerned.) Attach alligator clips to the ends of the silver electrode wires coming over the outside rim of the glass and you will see a gray mist inside the glass start to peel away from the positive polarity wire while bubbles of hydrogen rise from the other.
    Laboratory tests show that this method creates a silver colloid of approximately 1-ppm per minute of activation time. Since you are only taking microscopic particles from the silver wire, your silver wire may very well last for a year.
    The brightness of the light bulb is related to the conductivity of the water. It is not necessarily a problem if the bulb is very dim or even remains dark as long as the process itself is occurring. Of course, when batteries are old, the light will also become dimmer, signaling it’s time for a change. Touch the alligator clips together to test the brightness of the bulb as a battery check. A fresh set of batteries should last a year or more.
    When finished, detach alligator clips. Clean silver electrode wire after each use to remove dark oxide on the anode. Use a small piece of 1/4″ thick nylon kitchen scouring pad to polish dried silver, then wipe with paper napkin to make ready for next use.
    Store your Colloidal Silver in dark, nonconductive (and if plastic, non-reactive) containers, like empty hydrogen peroxide bottles. Keep away from light, as even room light will degrade colloids rapidly by turning solution gray or black just as exposure to light darkens silver in camera film.
    Stir thoroughly or shake each time before using. Keep cool, but do not refrigerate. Also, put a few drops of Silver Colloid in the saline solution to prevent fungus growth.
    In using your own homemade silver colloid generator it will become apparent that you now have the power to safely protect yourself, your family, your pets and plants, your community, and (through dissemination of this information), our nation, from over 650 pathogens, viruses, microbes, fungi and parasites. Upon creating your first batch of colloidal silver, you will find it tastes the same as untreated water. And it won’t sting, even in a baby’s eyes.
    Make your own Silver Colloid Generator
    Three 9V-type MN 1604 regular alkaline transistor radio batteries
    Three battery snap-on lead connectors
    Two insulated alligator clips
    One 24V-40mA subminiature incandescent bulb
    One foot of 3/32″ heat shrink insulation tubing
    One foot of 2-conductor stranded, insulated twisted-wire for clip leads
    A small box to put it all in
    Ten inch piece of pure silver wire (.999 fine)
    While it has been discovered that 30 volts is the ideal for Silver Colloid production, 27 volts is very effective and happens to be the convenient result of wiring three 9-volt batteries together. This should cost under $30.00 for everything. Assuming some skill with a soldering iron, you should spend about thirty minutes constructing the generator.
    Solder your three snap-on battery clips in series (red to black) to provide 27 volts. Connect a 24V incandescent lamp in series with either positive or negative output lead. Solder the red insulated alligator clip to the positive (anode) and the black insulated clip to the negative (cathode) 2 conductor lead wires. Insulation is shrunk over soldered connections using a heat gun or hair dryer.
    Cut your 10″ of silver wire in half. Bend top ends of your two 5″ silver electrode wires so they can clip over the top rim of a plastic or glass cup (not metal). About 4″ of each wire should be submerged. WARNING! Use ONLY pure silver (.999 fine) electrodes. #14 gauge is the preferred thickness. Pure silver is sometimes available at electroplating supply companies. Or, inquire at a jewelry store specializing in silver about who their wholesale supplier is. Do not confuse sterling silver (.9275) with pure silver since sterling also contains other metals. With this in mind, you may want to have a chemical analysis (assay) of your purchased silver in addition to the written word of your supplier.
    Yellow Colloidal Silver
    You may hear of yellow colloidal silver. The reason most manufacturers favor yellow colored colloidal silver is not because it is more effective than other types, but because it has a longer shelf life before falling out of solution. This stability in solution doesn’t automatically translate into a smaller combined particle size between the silver ion and the trace element that it has attached itself to. It may simply be that the trace element that the silver has combined with is more water-soluble. In either case it’s a moot point.
    Simply put, the most effective colloidal silver is not a question of color, but of freshness and highest concentration density. ref: 22 I couldn’t find any medical evidence that the yellow colloid is more effective than the silver colored colloid. Nevertheless, I include a recipe for yellow colloidal silver so people can compare the effects of the yellow and silver solutions for themselves.
    Yellow colloidal silver can be made by using distilled water and no saline, or very little. Because the water is not as conductive as water containing more saline, the process time needs to be extended.
    1. Pour hot water (approximately 150F) into a sixteen-ounce glass.
    2. Add only 1 drop of saline solution.
    3. Run generator for 20 minutes.
    Color will usually deepen after sitting for a number of hours. Concentration will be around 10 parts per million (ppm).
    Making Colloidal Silver
    In High Concentrations
    Extending the process time to make higher concentrations of colloidal silver can be both inefficient and costly for replacing batteries. A smart chemist knows you should always heat the water first to create high concentrations. With this in mind, fifteen minutes of process time should be sufficient to create any desired potency.
    For every 10 degrees that the water is heated above room temperature (72F), the parts per million (ppm) will be doubled. Therefore, if 5 ppm resulted after seven minutes of activation with sixteen ounces of water at 72F, then 82F would yield 10-ppm, and 92F would deliver 20-ppm, etc.
    You should not boil the water; however, there is still a great deal of leeway between 72F and 212F (boiling). For heating purposes, do not use a teapot because of the pot’s calcification. Use something cleaner, like a stainless steel cooking pot before pouring water into a glass.
    Surviving With Colloidal Silver
    Were I to end up in the midst of calamity, I would need only water to have one of the most powerful medical resources in the world at my disposal. (Technically, colloidal silver can be made in a variety of common liquids, including beer or soup, but I’m not recommending anyone do this in the normal course of events.)
    Under emergency conditions, it would be good to remember that silver coins from 1964 or earlier contain 90 percent silver, 9 percent copper and 1 percent zinc, all of which are known to have beneficial properties if used in a colloidal state. (Keep in mind that copper is known to block the body’s absorption of zinc, which could lead to a zinc deficiency in time.)
    The coins would have to be scoured until they were clean and shiny before using. This is mentioned purely as an intellectual consideration and is not a recommendation that anyone undertake any such action under normal conditions. Silver electrode wire is much easier to use.
    So what doesn’t colloidal silver do? It doesn’t interact with any other medications. It doesn’t upset the stomach, and, in fact, is a digestion aid. It does not sting in the eyes. Medical journal reports and documented studies spanning the past 100 years indicate no known side effects from oral or IV administration of colloidal silver in animal or human testing. Colloidal silver has been used with good results under the most demanding health care circumstances. ref: 23
    Without overstating the case, it may be time to recognize colloidal silver as not only the safest medicine on Earth, but also the most powerful!
    References
    1. “Medical malpractice alone kills an estimated 45,000 people annually (in the US), making it the leading cause of accidental injury and death.”—Adriane Fugh-Berman, MD
    2. As many as 14,000 people die in Australian hospitals every year through preventable mistakes, ranging from misdiagnosis to being given the wrong drugs. This makes hospitals the third-largest killer in Australia after heart disease and cancer. For those who survive, between 25,000 and 30,000 patients are left with a serious and permanent disability as a result of such mistakes. —The Sydney Morning Herald, 6/2/95 and the New Scientist, 6/10/95
    3. Using statistics from the 1984 Harvard study, the National Safety Council and other sources, the Campaign to Protect Consumer Tights says that more people die in the US from medical negligence than any other accidental cause. If these statistics are valid, medical errors kill more people each year than automobiles, falls, drowning, fires, choking, guns and poisons combined.
    4. “Only 10 to 20 percent of all medical procedures currently used in medical practice have been shown to be efficacious by controlled trial. –US Office of Technology Assessment
    5. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910
    6. Health Consciousness Magazine, Val. 15, no. 4
    7. Colloidal Silver is proven particularly effective in cases of intestinal troubles. Dr. Henry Crooks found that Silver in the colloidal state is highly germicidal, quite harmless to humans and absolutely nontoxic. Rather than in a chemical compound, the Silver, in the colloidal state, may be applied in a much more concentrated form, with correspondingly better results. All fungus, virus, bacterium, streptococcus, staphylococcus, and other pathogenic organisms are killed in three or four minutes; in fact, there is no microbe known that is not killed by Colloidal Silver in six minutes or less, a dilution of as little as five parts per million, though there are no side effects whatsoever from high concentrations. –“Use of Colloids in Health and Disease,” quoted in “Report: Colloidal Silver.” Health Consciousness, Vol. 15, no. 4.
    8. “(Colloidal Silver) is not a chemical compound containing Silver, but pure metallic silver of submicroscopic clusters of just a few atoms, held in suspension in pure water, by the tiny electric charge on each atom.” –Health Consciousness, vol. 15, no. 4.
    9. As an antibiotic, Silver kills over 650 disease-causing organisms; resistant strains fail to develop. Silver is absolutely nontoxic. Silver is the best all-around germ fighter we have. Doctors are reporting that, taken internally, it works against syphilis, cholera, and malaria, diabetes and severe burns. –Bio/Tech News, 1995
    10. Dr. Bjorn Nordstrom, of the Karolinska Institute (Sweden’s equivalent of our National Institutes of Health), has used Silver in his cancer cure method for many years. He says the whole thing is quite simple. This brought rapid remission in patients given up by other doctors. –“Silver, Our Mightiest Germ Fighter” Science Digest, March 1978.
    11. Metallic Silver (Colloid) is nontoxic, however, silver nitrate and other compounds of silver are and should not be ingested. –Dr. Bob Beck
    12. Environmental Protection Agency’s Poison Control Center reports no toxicity listing for Colloidal Silver, Considering it harmless in any concentration.
    13. The FDA has stated that because Colloidal Silver is (by fifty years) a pre-1938 drug, it may continue to be marketed. Sept. 13, 1991, letter received from consumer safety officer Harold Davis, U.S., Food and Drug Administration. Moreover, the FDA has no jurisdiction regarding a pure, mineral element.
    14. The following significant adverse events have occurred following administration of DTP Vaccines: inconsolable crying for more than 3 hours (1/100 doses, high-pitched unusual crying (1/1000 doses), fever higher than 105 degrees Fahrenheit (1/330 doses), transient shock-like (hypotonic, hyporesponsive) episode (1/1750 doses), convulsions (1/1,750 doses), sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). (Interestingly, no percentage of SIDS is given-author). Encephalopathy occurring within 7 days following vaccination, and generally consisting of major alterations in consciousness, unresponsiveness, generalized or focal seizures that persist more than a few hours, with failure to recover within 24 hours. Studies have indicated that a personal or family history of seizures is associated with increased frequency of seizures following pertussis immunization, The ACIP and AAP do not consider a family history of seizures to be a contraindication to pertussis vaccine despite the increased risk of seizures in these individuals. As reported with Haemophilus b polysaccharide vaccine, cases of Haemophilus type b disease nay occur… –Excerpts from Lederle-Praxis Biologicals’ own DPT Vaccine package insert. Lederle-Praxis Biologicals is a division of American Cyanamid, which is itself a division of I. G. Farbin, the former Nazi chemical combine who manufactured Zyclon-B. Zyclon-B was the nerve gas used for exterminating millions of human beings in concentration camps. “Concentration” stands for mass “concentrations” of civilian population. In other words, a complete cross-section, including infants, children, senior citizens, etc.
    15. Plating out is when the metallic particles of a colloid fall out of suspension by either attaching themselves to the sides of the storage container or simply by settling to the bottom. This creates two problems: (1.) When ingesting colloidal silver, less silver will enter the body because it’s attached to the sides of the container. (2.) Silver particles that enter the body without their electrical charge will have more difficulty in penetrating the stomach wall or in attaching themselves to the cells of the body. Plastic containers build up electrical charge, which can cause plating out, therefore, either non-reactive plastic containers such as hydrogen peroxide bottles, or tinted glass bottles should be used for storage.
    16. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 56th edition, 1975-76, page F209.
    17. Ameriflax, mineral 72 colloidal minerals product contains 7 major and 65 trace minerals including arsenic, nickel, lead and iodine.
    18. After extensive studies Sir Malcolm Morris concluded, “Colloidal silver is free from the drawbacks of other preparations of silver, viz. the pain caused and the discoloration of the skin; indeed, instead of producing irritation it has a distinctly soothing effect.”
    19. Treatment of Orthopedic Infections with Electrically Generated Silver Ions. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, American Volume, October 1978. Vol. 60-A, no. 7
    20. “To qualify for this study, patients had to have a long-standing infection involving bone and to have had standard treatment with antibiotics and wound care without success.”
    21. “Colloidal Preparations of Silver in Pharmacy” British Medical Journal, 1919
    22. “Use of Colloids in Health and Disease.” Dr. Henry Crooks found that silver in the colloidal state is highly germicidal, quite harmless to humans and absolutely nontoxic. Rather than in a chemical compound, silver in the colloidal state may be applied in a much more concentrated form with correspondingly better results.
    23. “Silver aids the developing fetus in growth, health, and eases the delivery and recovery”. –“Report: Colloidal Silver”, Health Consciousness, Vol. 15, no. 4.
    *************************************************************************************************************************************************************************
    TINY INGREDIENTS BIG RISKS
     
    NANOMATERIALS RAPIDLY ENTERING FOOD AND FARMING
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
     
    This report was written by Ian Illuminato, Friends of the Earth-U.S. This report includes updated sections from a Friends of the Earth-U.S., Australia, and Germany (BUND) 2008 report, “Out of the laboratory and onto our plates: Nanotechnology in Food and Agriculture.” We would like to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Danielle Fugere and Austin Wilson, As You Sow and Jaydee Hanson, Center for Food Safety.
     
    About Friends of the Earth
     
    Friends of the Earth-U.S., founded by David Brower in 1969, is the U.S. voice of the world’s largest federation of grassroots environmental groups, with a presence in 74 countries. Friends of the Earth works to defend the environment and champion a more healthy and just world. Through our 45-year history, we have provided crucial leadership in campaigns resulting in landmark environmental laws, precedent-setting legal victories and groundbreaking reforms of domestic and international regulatory, corporate and financial institution policies. http://www.foe.org Any errors or omissions in this report are the responsibility of Friends of the Earth.
     
    © May 2014 by Friends of the Earth.
     
    This report has been edited to reflect new information as of June 13, 2014. Companies who have recently claimed they do not introduce nanoscale titanium dioxide into products highlighted on our nanofoods list have been removed. Friends of the Earth removed 11 products from our nanofoods product list to reflect claims made by companies regarding their use of nanomaterials. We have also added an additional 2 recently confirmed nanofood products to our list. We encourage companies to inquire with their suppliers about the use of nanomaterials (beyond just titanium dioxide) in all products they offer. Lack of labeling laws and regulation in this area make it very difficult to assess the presence of these potentially hazardous ingredients in food, beverages and other products. Please note that Friends of the Earth has not conducted tests on products and cannot guarantee the nanomaterial content of brands on our nanofoods product list. For the purpose of this report we use the term “nano” to include particles up to 1,000 nm in size, due to the evidence of nano-specific problems associated with particles up to this size range.
     
    CONTENTS
     
     
    Executive summary…………………………………………… 4
     
     
    1. Introduction …………………………………………….. 10
    a. What is nanotechnology?
    b. Definition of nanomaterials for health and safety assessment
    c. Manufactured vs. incidental nanoparticles
    d. Nanomaterials are already used widely for their novel properties
    e. Why are food and agriculture companies interested in nanotechnology?
    f. Edible food coatings
    2. Health concerns: Why nanoparticles pose new risks…………………. 15
    a. Specific health concerns with nanomaterials in food and food contact materials
    b. Nano supplements may cause health problems
    c. Migration of nanomaterials from packaging
    d. Nanoparticles and the link to Crohn’s disease and immune system dysfunction
    e. Health concerns for workers
    3. Nanofoods out on the market…………………………………. 20
    4. Nanofoods and nanoagriculture pose new environmental risks …………. 25
    a. Nanomaterials now in commercial use pose serious ecological hazards
    b. Impacts on aquatic ecosystems
    c. Impacts on soils
    d. Bioaccumulation of nanomaterials
    e. Risks from pesticides with nanoscale active ingredients
    f. The intentional environmental release of nano-agrochemicals is of great concern
    g. Nanobiotechnology and synthetic biology pose even more uncertain hazards
    h. Nanotechnology in agriculture and food production has broader environmental costs
    5. Nanofood regulatory gaps must be urgently addressed……………….. 31
    6. Urgently needed research …………………………………… 32
    7. Recommendations ………………………………………… 33
    8. References ……………………………………………… 36
    TINY INGREDIENTS, BIG RISKS
     
    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
     
    This new analysis by Friends of the Earth documents a 10-fold increase in unregulated, unlabeled “nanofood” products on the American market over the past six years. A growing body of science suggests that these materials pose risks to the health of consumers, workers and the environment. Nanomaterials are produced by way of nanotechnology and are now found in a broad range of products. Nanotechnology has been provisionally defined as relating to materials, systems and processes, which exist or operate at a scale of 100 nanometers (nm) or less. However, this definition is still in flux, and some U.S. and EU regulators define nanomaterials as being in a size range of less than 1,000 nm across for drugs and other purposes. Nanotechnology involves the manipulation of materials and the creation of structures and systems at the scale of atoms and molecules, the nanoscale. The properties and effects of nanoscale particles and materials differ significantly from larger particles of the same chemical composition. According to the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, foods containing nanomaterials are rapidly entering the market at a rate of three to four per week. The number of nanofood and beverage products we know to be on the market has grown to 87—a more than tenfold increase in six years. In 2008, Friends of the Earth released a groundbreaking report on the use of nanomaterials in food and agriculture, “Out of the laboratory and onto our plates: Nanotechnology in food and agriculture.” Six years later, the U.S. Government has made little progress in protecting the public from these potentially dangerous food ingredients, despite the fact that the number of nanofoods on the market is expanding rapidly.
     
    Key findings of this report include:
     
    • Nanomaterials are found in a broad array of common foods. Many food items that Americans eat on a daily basis contain nanomaterial ingredients. These include familiar products such as processed and cream cheeses, cookies, doughnuts, coffee creamer, chocolate syrup and other chocolate products, pudding, mayonnaise, mashed potatoes, milk, soy, almond, and rice beverages, mints, gum, popcorn, salad dressing and oils, yogurt, cereal, candy, crackers, pasta and sports drinks. There is also mounting evidence that nanomaterials are being used to package and preserve fresh fruit and vegetable products, which could threaten the integrity of staple healthy foods.
     
    • The amount of nanofood we know to be on the market has grown more than tenfold in six years. In 2008 we found 8 food and beverage products with nano-ingredients on the market. In 2014, the number of nanofood and beverage products we know to be on the market has grown to 87—a more than tenfold increase in six years. This analysis is based on information documented in the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars’ Project on Emerging Technologies Consumer Products Database, however, the rapid growth in nanofood products on the market has yet to be analyzed or reported on in mainstream media. These products are being made by major companies including Kraft, General Mills, Hershey, Nestle, Mars, Unilever, Smucker’s and Albertsons. Due to a lack of required labeling and disclosure, the number of food and beverage products containing undisclosed nanomaterials is likely much greater.
     
    • Major food companies are investing billions in nanofood and nanopackaging.
    Roughly 200 transnational food companies are currently investing in nanotech and are on their way to commercializing products. The nanofoods market is expected to grow to US$20.4 billion by 2020.
     
    • An increasingly large body of peer-reviewed evidence indicates some nanomaterials may harm human health and the environment. Nanomaterials have unique properties that offer many new opportunities for food industry applications, such as potent nutritional additives, stronger flavorings and colorings, or antibacterial ingredients for food packaging. However, these same properties may also result in greater toxicity for humans and the environment. Nanoparticles pose new risks because:
     
    -They can be more chemically reactive and more bioactive than larger particles of the same chemicals.
     
    – Due to their very small size, nanoparticles also have much greater access to our bodies, so they are more likely than larger particles to enter cells, tissues and organs. – Greater bioavailability and greater bioactivity may introduce new toxicity risks. – They can compromise our immune system response.
     
    – They may have long-term pathological effects. Nanoparticles of silver, titanium dioxide, zinc and zinc oxide, materials now used in nutritional supplements, food packaging and food contact materials, have been found to be highly toxic to cells in test tube and animal studies. Preliminary environmental studies also suggest that these substances may be toxic to ecologically significant species such as certain crustaceans, which are an important part of the food chain. Yet there is still no nanotechnology-specific regulation or safety testing required before manufactured nanomaterials can be used in food, food packaging, or agricultural products. Health experts have also raised concerns that the widespread use of nanosilver in consumer products will further increase the problem of antibiotic-resistant superbugs.
     
    Nano titanium dioxide (Ti02)
     
    Most of the nanomaterial food products Friends of the Earth identifies in this report contain nano titanium dioxide. In laboratory studies, nanoparticles
    of titanium dioxide have been found to be immunologically active, meaning they cause a reaction from the body’s defensive system. Recent studies have indicated these particles may play an important role in the initiation or exacerbation of
    gastrointestinal inflammation, by adsorbing bacterial fragments and then carrying them across the gastro-intestinal tract.
     
    Nano-silver
     
    In the Woodrow Wilson inventory of nano products, silver is the most common nanomaterial mentioned in product descriptions. A recent court case in the United States found that the use of nano-silver was ‘ubiquitous’ and that there was no way for consumers to avoid exposure. Food and food contact products identified as containing nano-silver include baby bottles, food containers, packaging, cutting boards, salad bowls, appliances, cutlery, ice trays, filtration devices and collapsible coolers. In agriculture it is used in poultry production and agricultural and aquacultural disinfectants. There is mounting evidence that nanosilver may
    have greater toxic effects when compared with bulk silver. Nano-silver can better penetrate biological barriers and attach itself to the outside of cells. Nanoscale silver can also enter the bloodstream and reach all organs of the body, including the brain, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, bone marrow and nervous tissue.[F1] Animal studies have shown placental transfer and fetal uptake of nano-silver, a finding made disturbing by a recent study that found exposure to nano-silver caused zebra fish embryos to develop with head abnormalities and no eyes. Zebra fish have been widely used as a model organism for the study of embryological development in other vertebrates including humans. Health experts have also raised concerns that the widespread use of nano-silver in consumer products will further increase the problem of
    antibiotic-resistant superbugs.
     
    • Nanomaterials raise concerns for the health of workers In the food sector, workers may come into contact with nanomaterials during production, packaging, transport, distribution and waste disposal of food and agrochemicals. To date, there is very little data relating to the exposure of workers to nanomaterials. Studies have shown that nanomaterials can enter the bloodstream via the lungs, raising major occupational health and safety concerns.
     
    • Nanotechnology also poses broader challenges to the development of more sustainable food and farming systems Against the backdrop of climate change, there is growing public interest in reducing the distances that food travels between producers and consumers. Nanotechnology appears likely to promote transport of fresh and processed foods over even greater distances. It has the potential to further concentrate corporate control of global agriculture and food systems and entrench systems of reliance on chemical and energy-intensive
    agriculture technologies. The erosion of local farmers’ control of food production is also a source of concern.
     
    • Nano-agrochemicals are now being used on farms and released into the environment in the absence of regulations Conventional agrochemicals have polluted soils and waterways and have caused substantial disruption to ecosystems. Exposure to agrochemicals has also been linked with greater incidence of cancer and serious reproductive problems among agricultural workers and their families. Consequently, it is of great concern that nano-agrochemicals are now being used on farms and released into the environment, absent regulations that require product manufacturers to demonstrate the safety of new, more potent nanoscale formulations of existing chemicals.
     
    • U.S. regulation of nanomaterials is wholly inadequate and leaves consumers, workers and the environment at risk A growing number of civil society organizations worldwide have called for precautionary management of nanotechnology, culminating in the release of “Principles for the Oversight of
    Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials.” More than 70 groups from six continents have endorsed that document. While the U.S. FDA is charged with ensuring “the safety and security of our nation’s food supply,” at this time the agency has merely offered nonbinding guidance to industry on the use of
    nanomaterials in food. However, the agency’s 2012 draft guidance on the use of nanomaterials in food warns about the different properties of nanomaterials compared to ingredients used in traditional manufactured food substances. Nevertheless, the lack of established regulations allows nanofood products to remain on the market while the public takes up potential health risks. The extent to which nanomaterials are used along the food chain continues to be shrouded with mystery. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has legal powers to compel nano agrochemicals manufacturers to provide toxicity data and to demonstrate product safety — that is, to place the burden of proof on the manufacturers. Producers of pesticide products must submit scientific and technical data for EPA review. However, according to a U.S. General Accountability Office report, “EPA estimated that companies provided information on only about 10 percent of the nanomaterials that are likely to be commercially available. EPA also reported that in its review of data submitted through its data collection program there were instances in which the details of the manufacturing, processing, and use of the nanomaterials, as well as exposure and toxicity data, were not provided.” Moreover, the extent to which nanomaterials are used along the food chain continues to be shrouded with mystery due to the lack of publicly accessible product registries or product labels made mandatory by our regulators, leaving consumers, workers, other companies along the supply chain and even regulators in the dark. [F2]
     
    Recommendations:
    Given the potentially serious health and environmental risks and social implications associated with nanofoods, Friends of the Earth is calling for:
     
    A moratorium on the further commercial release of food products, food packaging, food contact materials and agrochemicals that contain manufactured
    nanomaterials until nanotechnology-specific safety and labeling laws are established and the public is involved in decision-making[F3].
     
    What government must do:
     
    Nanomaterials must be regulated as new substances.
     
    • All manufactured nanomaterials must be subject to safety assessments as new substances, even where the properties of their larger scale counterparts
    are well known.
    • All deliberately manufactured nanomaterials must be subject to rigorous nano-specific health and environmental impact assessment and demonstrated
    to be safe prior to approval for commercial use in foods, food packaging, food contact materials or agricultural applications.
    • Assessments must be based on the precautionary principle and the onus must be on manufacturers to comprehensively demonstrate the safety of their product. No data, no market.
    • Safety assessment must be based on the nano content of products, not marketing claims.
    • Safety assessment must include the product’s entire life cycle.
     
    The size-based definition of nanomaterials must be extended.
     
    • All particles up to 1,000 nm in size must be considered to be “nanomaterials” for the purposes of health and environment assessment, given the early evidence that they may pose health risks similar to particles less than 100 nm in size which have to date been defined as “nano.” Transparency in safety assessment and product labeling is essential.
     
    • All relevant data related to safety assessments, and the methodologies used to obtain them, must be placed in the public domain. ù All manufactured nano-ingredients must be clearly indicated on product labels to allow members of the public to make an informed choice about product use. ù The presence of nanomaterials must be disclosed to workers and other downstream users along the supply chain. Public involvement in decision-making is required.
     
    • The public, including all affected stakeholder groups, must be involved in all aspects of decision making regarding nanotechnology in food and agriculture. This includes in the development of regulatory regimes, labeling systems, and prioritization of public funding for food and agricultural research. People’s right to avoid nanofoods must be recognized explicitly. Support for sustainable food and farming is needed.
     
    • The assessment of food and agricultural nanotechnology, in the context of wider societal needs for sustainable food and farming, must be incorporated into relevant decision making processes.
     
    What industry must do:
     
    Food producers and retailers must respect people’s right to healthy foods, in which all ingredients have been proven safe. Food producers and retailers must
    stop selling nanofood, nanofood packaging, nanofood contact materials and nano-agrochemicals until:
    • The public is involved in decision making.
    • Nanotechnology-specific regulation is put in place to protect the public, workers and the environment from potential new hazards associated with nano-toxicity.
    • All manufactured nano-ingredients are clearly indicated on product labels, allowing members of the public to make an informed choice about product use.
    • The presence of nanomaterials is disclosed to workers and other downstream users along the supply chain.
    • Manufacturers work with regulators to ensure that their products have undergone appropriate safety testing, and provide the relevant data regarding
    the health and environmental safety of their product. No data, no market.
    • All relevant data related to safety assessments, and the methodologies used to obtain them, are placed in the public domain.
    • All food and agricultural products which include manufactured nanomaterials are clearly labeled to allow members of the public, workers and farmers
    to make an informed choice. What concerned individuals and organizations can do: Until we can move our government and companies to manage nanotechnology in a responsible and transparent manner, there are steps we can take to protect our health and the environment. Avoiding nanofoods and supporting a sustainable, just food system
     
    • Avoid eating highly processed foods and eat more fresh food instead[F4]. Processed foods not only have higher environmental costs of production and have lower nutritional value, they are also a large source of incidentally produced nanoparticles in foods. • Avoid highly packaged foods — packaging is
    energy intensive and produces lots of waste and is often unnecessary. Let your local food outlets and the manufacturers of your favourite foods know that you want to see less food packaging.
    • Choose food that is healthy for you and the environment, and pays a fair wage to food producers. There are many simple steps we can all take to make food choices that are good for our health, good for the environment, and that support fair
    conditions for farmers.
    • Make environmentally friendly food and farming choices — look out for the organic label at your supermarket or store.[F5]
    • Support local food producers and small scale retailers and buy directly from local farmers, butchers and bakers. You could even consider joining a food co-operative or bulk-buying scheme.
    • Support the right of communities to control local food trade, including deciding how food is grown, who can sell it and what can be imported. Hold government and industry to account for nanofoods
     
    • Write to your local representatives and members of state, federal and regional government, requesting their support for a moratorium on the use of all nanotechnology in the food sector. Demand that governments regulate and label
    food, food packaging and agricultural products that contain manufactured nanomaterials before allowing any further commercial sales.
    • Ensure that food and agricultural manufacturers take seriously public concerns about nanofoods. Contact the manufacturers of foods you eat often and ask them about what steps they are taking to keep unsafe, untested nanomaterials out of the food they sell.
    • Insist that governments and industry take seriously the risks of occupational exposure to nanomaterials for food and agricultural workers. If you are concerned about nano-exposure in your work place, talk with your colleagues or your union representative about opportunities for collective action to secure a safe work place.
    • Contact civil society organizations you think may be interested in taking action to ensure precautionary management of the use of nanotechnology in fod and agriculture applications. Find out what environment, public health, farmers and civil liberties organizations in your neighborhood are doing to work towards alternative food systems that deliver positive environmental and social
    outcomes. Visit our website to learn more about nanotechnology or to support our work for safe food, and a just, resilient and sustainable food system.
     
    Friends of the Earth-United States
     
    http://www.foe.org/projects/food-and-technology/ nanotechnology
     
    1. INTRODUCTION
    In the past three decades the number of food products available to the American public has grown immensely. While our modern food system has brought about an ever-increasing variety of “food” options for consumers to purchase, this increased variety has also delivered the burden of potentially harmful ingredients—most recently, nanomaterials. Nanomaterials are produced by way of nanotechnology and are now found in a broad range of products. According to the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, foods containing nanomaterials are rapidly entering the market at a rate of three to four per week.
     
    In 2008, Friends of the Earth released a groundbreaking report on the use of nanomaterials in food and agriculture, “Out of the laboratory and onto our
    plates: Nanotechnology in food and agriculture.” Six years later, the U.S. government has made little progress in protecting the public from these potentially hazardous food ingredients, despite the fact that the number of “nanofoods” on the market has grown more than tenfold in six years. Due to a lack of required labeling and disclosure, the number of undisclosed nanomaterials in food is likely much greater. Simultaneously, an increasingly large body of peer-reviewed evidence indicates some nanomaterials, including those used in our food system, may harm human health and the environment.
     
    This rapid introduction of nanomaterials into our food system has been driven by billions of dollars of investment by roughly 200 transnational food companies in nanofood and nanopackaging, with the nanofoods market expected to grow to US$20.4 billion by 2020. Unfortunately, many food items that Americans eat on a daily basis contain nanomaterial ingredients. These include familiar products such as processed and cream cheeses, cookies, doughnuts, coffee creamer, chocolate syrup and other chocolate products, pudding, mayonnaise, mashed potatoes, milk, soy, almond, and rice beverages, mints, gum, popcorn, salad dressing and oils, yogurt, cereal, candy, crackers, pasta, and sports drinks. There is also mounting evidence that suggests nanomaterials are being used to package and preserve fresh fruit and vegetable products, a dangerous trend that could threaten the integrity of staple healthy foods. These products are manufactured and sold by major food companies including Kraft, General Mills, Hershey, Nestle, Mars, Unilever, Smucker’s and Albertsons. Due to a lack of required labeling and disclosure, the number of undisclosed nanomaterials in food is likely much greater. This report will examine the rapid increase in nanomaterials entering our food system since the release of our 2008 report, including the development of new food and food-contact nano-products. It will provide a review of trends in nanotechnology and of the current literature relating to the potential environmental, health and safety impacts associated with nanotechnology and a summary of United States regulatory responses to date. Six years ago, inaction on this issue was based on a perceived lack of data. Inaction is still the norm, but the lack of data is no longer an excuse that regulators and industry can use. While it is certainly true that environmental, health and safety research is not keeping with the pace of commercialization, the volume of information and studies now available is enormous. Governments, scientists and scientific bodies such as the U.S. National Research Council have presented more than sufficient evidence to justify a proactive regulatory regime and a properly funded research program that will effectively target those areas of greatest environmental and health concern. A growing number of civil society organizations worldwide have called for precautionary management of nanotechnology, culminating in the release of “Principles for the Oversight of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials.”1 More than 70 groups from six continents have endorsed this document. Unfortunately, there is little sign of willingness by government to provide the levels of funding required to support such work or to adopt appropriate regulation. The notion of precaution has been replaced with an attitude that it is the obligation of industry to determine whether their products are safe and that regulators will only act when harm is shown. While France, Belgium and Denmark have implemented a
    mandatory register for nanomaterials, and the EU is in the process of implementing a nanofood labeling regime, which begins this year, U.S. consumers remain in the dark. This situation will need to change if we are to
    protect consumers and our environment.
     
    What is nanotechnology?
     
    The term “nanotechnology” does not describe a singular technology, but rather encompasses a range of technologies that operate at the scale of the building blocks of biological and manufactured materials — the “nanoscale.”
    There is still no internationally accepted set of definitions and measurement systems for nanotechnology, although work towards these has begun.
    However, the term “nanotechnology” is now generally understood to encompass both nanoscience and the broad range of technologies that operate at the nanoscale.
     
    • Nanoscience: The study of phenomena and materials at the atomic, molecular and macromolecular scales, where properties differ significantly from those at the larger scale. • Nanotechnology: design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the
    nanoscale.
    • Nanomaterials: particles, nanotubes, nanowires, quantum dots, fullerenes (buckyballs) etc. To put the nanoscale in context: a strand of DNA is 2.5 nm wide, a red blood cell 7,000 nm and a human hair is 80,000 nm wide. One nanometer is one billionth of a meter. One way to understand how incredibly tiny these particles are is to consider a tennis ball in comparison with planet Earth. On scale, a tennis ball is the same size in relation to Earth as a nanoparticle is to a tennis ball.
     
    Definition of nanomaterials for health and safety assessment
     
    It should be noted that there exists an emerging trend to define nanotechnology as only applying to materials, structures and systems that measure no more than 100 nm in size. This distinction is quite artificial, especially from the viewpoint of biological interactions. The definition of nanomaterials is still in flux: the U.S. Food and Drug Administration uses a definition of 1-1,000 nm for drugs and requests information for ingredients less than 1,000 nm in size for other products it regulates. The European Medicines Agency also defines nanotechnology in a size range of less than 1,000 nm across. Many small particles, which measure more than 100 nm present a similar suite of physiological and anatomical behaviors, for example greater reactivity, bioactivity and bioavailability.2 When considering the health and environmental implications of nanoparticles, their size range must be more broadly defined. It is essential to also consider the hazards associated with sub-micron (100-1,000 nm) particles, and microparticles (greater than 1,000nm).[F6] In a 2010 report, the UK’s House of Lords Science and Technology Committee recommended that any definition of a nanomaterial must be based on evidence for behavior that is different from that seen in the bulk, rather than some arbitrary size such as 100 nm[F7].3 The authors of a review of the nanotoxicological implications of nanomedicines suggest that: “In practice, the useful range of nanomedicines more normally falls within the range of 5-250 nm as these tend to have a similar range of properties based on physiological and anatomical consequences.”4 Researchers investigating the biological effects of nanoparticles have also defined their relevant size range to be up to a few hundred nanometres.5 Still other researchers publishing in the drug delivery6 and food7,8 literature have argued that a useful size definition for nanomaterials used in these fields is 1-1,000nm. The problematic nature of the arbitrary 100 nm ceiling on what is considered to be a nanoparticle or nanomaterial for the purposes of future health and safety assessments is underscored by studies showing that small particles outside this size range can pose greater health hazards than particles within it. Wang et al conducted an in vivo study in which 20 nm and 120 nm particles of zinc oxide powder were fed to mice.9 Both nanoparticles resulted in organ damage and thickening of the test animals’ blood, but it appeared that the larger nanoparticles actually resulted in greater liver damage. In another in vivo experiment, mice were fed high doses of 58 nm and 1,058 nm zinc powder. The microparticle zinc caused more severe liver damage, while the nanoparticle zinc caused anaemia and more severe kidney damage.10 For the purpose of this report we use the term “nano” to include particles up to 1,000 nm in size, due to the evidence of nano-specific problems associated with particles up to this size range. We urge regulators to also adopt this definition to
    assess and manage the health and environmental hazards of nanoparticles. The health and environmental hazards of nanoparticles should be based on physiological and anatomical behaviors of small particles, rather than arbitrary size distinctions.
     
    Manufactured vs. incidental nanoparticles
     
    Manufactured nanoparticles are those which are deliberately produced, in contrast to nanoparticles that “exist in nature,” or are by-products of other
    human activities. Manufactured nanomaterials include nanoparticles (e.g. metal oxides), and also nanostructures such as nanotubes, nanowires, quantum dots, dendrimers and carbon fullerenes (buckyballs), among others. “Incidental” nanoparticles (also called ultrafine particles in the study of air pollution and its epidemiology) are a by-product of forest fires, volcanoes, vehicle
    combustion and high-temperature industrial processes including combustion, welding, and grinding.11 Much of the discussion about the health and environmental implications of nanoparticles is focused on manufactured nanoparticles. However, many of the safety and regulatory issues relating to manufactured nanoparticles are also relevant to incidentally produced nanoparticles. For example, we know that exposure to large levels of incidental nanoparticles in urban air pollution causes increased incidence of disease and even death among vulnerable sections of the population.12 It is important to ensure that workers, the public and environmental systems are protected from unsafe exposure to and production of incidental nanoparticles. Nanomaterials are already used widely for their novel properties At the nanoscale, the physical, chemical and optical properties of familiar substances differ from those of
    the substances in larger particle form. For example, in larger particle form zinc oxide is white and opaque; as a nanoparticle zinc oxide is transparent,
    enabling it to be used to provide UV protection in products such as transparent cling wrap packaging. In nanoparticle form, the antimicrobial properties of
    silver are far greater, a property which has encouraged manufacturers to use it in chopping boards, refrigerators, food storage containers and food packaging.
    Altered properties of nanoparticles are a result of both the influence of “quantum mechanics” and the much greater relative surface area that nanomaterials have compared with larger particles. The large surface area of nanomaterials results in their increased chemical reactivity and biological activity[F8],13 making them attractive for use in food fortification or as antimicrobials in food packaging. However, the altered properties of nanomaterials, especially their high chemical reactivity and greater capacity to penetrate biological membranes, also present serious new toxicity risks.14 Nanomaterials are ‘first generation’ products of nanotechnology and have been the first nanoproducts to enter wide-scale commercial use. They are used in hundreds of products that are already available on supermarket shelves, including transparent sunscreens, light-diffracting cosmetics, penetration enhanced moisturisers, stain, moisture and odor repellent fabrics, long lasting paints and furniture varnishes, anti-bacterial household appliances such as vacuum cleaners, refrigerators and air conditioners, and sporting equipment.15 In coming years and decades, “next generation nanotechnology” is forecast to bring more complex nanodevices, nanosystems and nanomachines.16 Nanobiotechnology may be used to manipulate the genetics of human, animals and agricultural plants at the atomic scale, and to incorporate synthetic materials into biological organisms and biological materials into synthetic structures.17
     
    Why are food and agriculture companies interested in nanotechnology?
     
    Nanotechnology has existing and potential applications in all aspects of agriculture, food processing, food packaging and even farm and food monitoring. These include:
    • Methods to enable foods such as soft drinks, ice cream, chocolate or chips
    to be marketed as “health” foods[F9] by reducing fat, carbohydrate or calorie
    content or by increasing protein, fiber or vitamin content;
    • Production of stronger flavorings, colorings, nutritional additives and processing aids to increase the pace of manufacturing and to lower costs of ingredients and processing;
    • Development of foods capable of changing their color, flavor or nutritional
    properties according to a person’s dietary needs, allergies or taste
    preferences;
    • Packaging to increase food shelf life by detecting spoilage, bacteria, or the loss
    of food nutrient, and to release antimicrobials, flavors, colors or nutritional
    supplements in response; • Reformulation of on-farm inputs to produce more potent fertilizers, plant growth treatments and pesticides that respond to specific conditions or targets.
     
    Edible food coatings
     
    Manipulation of materials at the nanoscale can allow food scientists to create “edible nanolaminate films” which can be used as barrier layers to prolong shelf life. These films can include lipids or clays as moisture barriers, biopolymers such as carbohydrates as oxygen and carbon dioxide barriers, or nanoparticulates and emulsified nanodroplets, which could contain active ingredients to improve taste, texture or appearance. Antibacterial substances can also be directly integrated into the edible coating, for instance for meat packaging.18 Edible coatings containing engineered nanomaterials are reportedly already being used on fruit and vegetables in markets in the U.S. and Canada in order to extend shelf life. Tests conducted in Central and South American farms and packing stations found a number of fruits with a nano coating, including apples, pears, peppers, cucumbers and other fruits and vegetables delivered to the U.S. and Canada.19
     
    The complexity involved in detecting nanomaterials in our food
     
    The detection of nanomaterials is a complex matter requiring state-of-the-art as well as experimental devices and techniques, especially when attempting
    to quantify or characterize nanomaterials in a complex matrix such as food. The lack of standards and internationally recognized measurement methods, coupled with the shrouding of the nanotechnology industry and reinforced by the lack of
    regulation in this area, have created significant challenges to simply understanding where nanomaterials are being used and the reality of their interactions with the public and our environment.
     
    2. HEALTH CONCERNS: WHY NANOMATERIALS AND NANOFOODS POSE NEW RISKS
    Nanomaterials have unique properties that offer many new opportunities for food industry applications, such as potent nutritional additives, stronger
    flavorings and colorings, or antibacterial ingredients for food packaging. However, the same properties exhibited at the nanoscale that make these materials attractive for use in the food industry may also result in greater toxicity for humans and the environment.
     
    Nanoparticles pose new risks because:
     
    • They can be more chemically reactive and more bioactive than larger particles of the same chemicals.
    • Due to their very small size, nanoparticles also have much greater access to our bodies, so they are more likely than larger particles to enter cells, tissues and organs.
    • Greater bioavailability and greater bioactivity may introduce new toxicity risks.[F10]
    • They can compromise our immune system response.
    • They may have long-term pathological effects. Nanoparticles of silver, titanium dioxide, zinc and zinc oxide, materials now used in nutritional supplements, food packaging and food contact materials, have been found to be highly toxic to
    cells in test tube and animal studies. Preliminary environmental studies also suggest that these substances may be toxic to ecologically important
    species such as water fleas. Yet there is still no nanotechnology-specific regulation or safety assessment required before manufactured nanomaterials can be used in food, food packaging, or agricultural products. Before the industrial revolution humans faced very limited exposure to insoluble nanoparticles.
    Consequently, our bodies have not developed effective clearing mechanisms, as we have with larger particles, to remove them from our lungs, gastro-intestinal tract, tissues and organs[F11],. Nanoparticles also show greater adhesion to biological surfaces within our bodies (for example, the walls of our gastrointestinal tract), which can increase rates of uptake[F12].20 In the July 19, 2012, report, “Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on the Liver and Hepatocytes in vitro,” published in Toxicological Sciences, author Birgit Gaiser, Ph.D., states, At the moment, there is not much information available on the topic of ingested nanoparticles and human health. There is evidence that a small percentage of these particles or particle components [of nano titanium dioxide or nano silver]…can move on from the intestinal tract into the blood, and reach other organs[F13]. This is why we believe it is important to assess the risk of even small amounts of particles in the human body.21 In 2009, a team led by Roel Schins at the Environmental Health Research Institute in Düsseldorf, Germany, published research suggesting that some nanoparticles, including silica and titanium dioxide, can induce DNA damage in human intestinal cells.22 Specific health concerns with nanomaterials in food and food contact materials
     
    Silica
     
    Uses: Used as a “trickle and flow” aid in powdered food products, as a clearing agent in beer and wine, as a food additive (amorphous silica found to be
    nano) and as a food coating. Health concerns: Nanosilica has been found in the livers of rats and mice after oral administration. In vitro studies show a significant percentage of the nanosilica remains undissolved and that “the presence of undissolved nanosilica particles in the gut in vivo is considered likely.”23,24 Animal studies have shown placental transfer and fetal uptake of silica. Scientists have warned that the enhanced sensitivity of the foetus may mean that even low doses of nanomaterials may cause adverse effects.25
     
    Nano-silver
     
    Uses: In the Woodrow Wilson inventory of nano products, silver is the most common nanomaterial mentioned in product descriptions.26 A recent court case in the United States found that the use of nanosilver was “ubiquitous” and that there was no way for consumers to avoid exposure.27 Food and food contact products identified as containing nanosilver include baby bottles, food containers, packaging, cutting boards, salad bowls, appliances, cutlery, ice trays, filtration devices and collapsible coolers. In agriculture it is used in poultry production and agricultural and aquacultural disinfectants.28 Health concerns: There is mounting evidence that nanosilver may have greater toxic effects when compared with bulk silver. Nano-silver can better penetrate biological barriers and attach itself to the outside of cells.29 Nanoscale silver can also enter the bloodstream and reach all organs of the body, including the brain, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, bone marrow and nervous tissue. Animal studies have shown placental transfer and fetal uptake of nanosilver,30 which is especially disturbing considering a recent study that found exposure to nano-silver caused zebra fish embryos to develop with head abnormalities and no eyes. Zebra fish have been widely used as a model organism for the study of embryological development in other vertebrates including humans.31 Health experts have also raised concerns that the widespread use of nano-silver in consumer products will further increase the problem of antibiotic-resistant superbugs.32
     
    Titanium dioxide
     
    Uses: A whitener and brightener in a range of food products Health concerns: The European Chemicals Agency is currently reviewing the safety of titanium dioxide (including the nano form) because of concerns it may be harmful to the environment and human health.33 In contrast to bulk particles of titanium dioxide, nanoscale titanium dioxide is biologically very active. Studies show that titanium dioxide can damage DNA,34 disrupt the function of cells, interfere with the defence activities of immune cells and, by adsorbing fragments of bacteria and “smuggling” them across the gastrointestinal tract, can provoke inflammation.35,36,37,38,39,40 A single high oral dose of titanium dioxide nanoparticles was found to cause significant lesions in the kidneys and livers of female mice.41 In a 2010 study the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment and the German Federal Environment Agency concluded that nanoscale titanium dioxide is a possible carcinogen if inhaled[F14].42 Nano titanium dioxide is highly mobile in the body and has been detected in both humans and animals in the blood, liver and spleen.43 A study using pregnant mice found that nanoparticles of titanium dioxide were transferred in utero to their offspring. This resulted in brain damage, nerve system damage and reduced sperm production in male offspring.44 A human exposure analysis of titanium dioxide through foods identified children in the 2.5 to 4.5 year age range as having the highest exposures because the titanium dioxide content of sweets is higher than any other food products. It also calculated that a typical exposure for a U.S. adult may be of the order of 1 mg of titanium per kilogram of body weight per day.45 Many of the products Friends of the Earth found to contain nanomaterials specifically contained nano titanium dioxide. In laboratory studies, nanoparticles of titanium dioxide have been found to be immunologically active, causing a reaction from the body’s defensive system. Ashwood et al show that these particles may play an important role in the initiation or exacerbation of gastrointestinal inflammation, by adsorbing bacterial fragments and then carrying them across the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, in 2013, a team led by Roel Schins at the Environmental Health Research Institute in Düsseldorf, Germany, published research suggesting that some nanoparticles, including silica and titanium dioxide, can induce DNA damage in human intestinal cells.
     
    Zinc oxide (ZnO)
     
    Uses: Surface coatings
     
    Health Concerns: Nanoscale zinc oxide is toxic when ingested and has been found to cause lesions in the liver, pancreas, heart and stomach.46 A recent review of the safety of nano zinc oxide by the European Commission’s Scientific Committee for Consumer Safety stated that “clear positive toxic responses in some of these tests clearly indicate a potential for risk to humans.”47 Inhalation exposure of nano zinc oxide induces lung inflammation, leading the SCCS to conclude that “the use of ZnO (zinc oxide) nanoparticles in spray products cannot be considered safe.”48
     
    Copper
     
    Uses: dietary supplements49
     
    Health Concerns: The German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment compared the acute toxicity of micro-and nanoscale copper. No adverse effects
    were observed with microscale copper; however, nanoscale copper showed adverse effects on the kidney, spleen and liver of mice.50
     
    Carbon Nanotubes
     
    Uses: While there are no confirmed commercial food and food contact products containing carbon nanotubes, food packaging and food sensors containing carbon nanotubes have been developed.51 Health Concerns: The Australian National Industrial Chemical Notification and Assessment Scheme and
    Safe Work Australia, which reviewed the safety of carbon nanotubes, found that multi-walled carbon nanotubes “have been shown to induce mesothelioma in rodents.”52
     
    Nano supplements could cause health problems [F15]
     
    The head of the nanotechnology research group at the United Kingdom’s Central Science Laboratory warns of unpredictable effects of nanoparticles and nano encapsulated additives: “They can be absorbed faster than desired or affect the absorption of other nutrients. We still know very little, if anything at all.”53
    In 2009, based on the growing number of commercially available nano supplements, the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars’ project
    on emerging nanotechnologies found that in the U.S. the Food and Drug Administration had neither the regulatory power nor the scientific expertise to determine if these supplements were safe.54 Migration of nanomaterials from packaging It is possible that nanomaterials could migrate from food packaging into foods. Polymers and chemical additives in conventional food packaging, such as bisphenol A and phthalates, are known to migrate from the packaging into food products.55,56 The Institute of Food Science and Technology has expressed concern that manufactured nanomaterials are already being used in food packaging, despite migration rates and exposure risks remaining unknown.57 To date there are only a few studies that have investigated the migration of nanomaterials from food packaging into food, and the results have been inconclusive.
     
    Nanoparticles and the link to Crohn’s disease and immune system dysfunction
     
    It is well known that people with asthma are especially susceptible to air pollution. In effect, asthma sufferers act as the proverbial “canary in the coal mine,” alerting those around them that air pollution levels are getting dangerously high. Scientists have more recently suggested that the growing prevalence of Crohn’s disease — a damaging and chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that can lead to cancer — may be a similar warning signal in relation to microparticles in our food[F16].58 The relationship between the development of Crohn’s disease and factors such as genetic susceptibility, immune system health, psychological health and environmental factors including, exposure and physiological response to nano or microparticles, remains poorly understood. However, data indicate that the inflammation associated with Crohn’s may be explained in part by an abnormal or exaggerated response to the individual’s intestinal bacteria. Numerous in vivo experiments using rats and mice have demonstrated gastrointestinal uptake of nanoparticles.59,60,61,62,63 and small microparticles.64,65,66 Pathological examination of human tissues suggests ingestion and translocation of microparticles up to 20 µm in size.67,68 The absorption rate of substances via the gastrointestinal tract appears to depend on properties such as size and surface structure.[F17] In one study looking at rats, the smaller the nanoparticles the higher the uptake via the digestive tract.69 In another study mice were fed 4 nm gold particles. These were later detected in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung and brain. Larger particles (58 nm) remained in the gastrointestinal tract.70 —Studies have shown that nanomaterials may affect the human intestine. When human colon cells were treated with nano-sized polystyrene, which is commonly used in food packaging, the cells became more permeable to iron.71 Powell et al have observed that the daily exposure of people in the Western world to sub-micrometer-sized mineral particles has resulted in “pigmented cells” loaded with these particles in parts of the intestinal tract. The particles have been observed to be composed of aluminosilicates, titanium dioxide and a small percentage of non-aluminum-containing silicates such as silica (SiO2) and magnesium trisilicate (talc).[F18]72 —–Preliminary evidence suggests that existing levels of nanoparticles up to a few hundred nanometers in size in processed food may be associated with rising levels of immune system dysfunction and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, including Crohn’s disease.73,74,75,76 Individuals with Crohn’s disease or colon cancer have been found with nanomaterials in their intestinal tissue.77 The reasons for the disproportionate incidence of Crohn’s disease in the global north are still disputed, but it is possible that the high consumption of industrially processed foods plays a role.
     
    Occupational health and safety concerns
     
    In the food sector, workers may come into contact with nanomaterials during production, packaging, transport and waste disposal of food and agrochemicals.
    78 To date, there is very little data relating to the exposure of workers to nanomaterials. –A number of nanomaterials used in the food industry, such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, have been shown to be harmful when inhaled, raising OHS concerns for workers handling these materials.79 However, in the absence of a mandatory register and product labeling, many workers may be unaware that they are handling nanomaterials and of the need to use protective equipment. Studies have also shown that nanomaterials can enter the bloodstream via the lungs, raising major OHS concerns.80 –Based on a 2009 review of carbon nanotubes by Safe Work Australia and NICNAS, carbon nanotubes were declared a hazardous chemical for purposes of health and safety laws.81 This ruling does not prohibit their use, but it means that carbon nanotubes used in the workplace must be accompanied by a data safety sheet.
     
    NANOFOODS ON THE MARKET
    Our knowledge of the extent to which nanomaterials are used in food products is limited. Food manufacturers are not required to disclose details about
    their use of nanomaterials; nor is this information collected by the Food and Drug Administration. This, coupled with the lack of labeling laws, means
    the public is left to guess which products contain nanomaterials. The absence of transparency creates a chasm of knowledge not just for the public, but also for government regulators and even some food producers.82 Nevertheless, we do know that major food companies are involved in nanotechnology research
    and development; at least 200 transnational food companies are currently investing in nanotech and are on their way to commercializing products.83 The nanofoods market is expected to grow to US$20.4 billion in 2020.84 Table 1 shows a sample of food companies engaged in nanotechnology research and development.

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    Table 1: A sample of food companies engaged in nanotechnology research and development 85,86,87
     
    COMPANY
    • Altria (Mondelez)
    • Associated British
    Foods
    • Ajinomoto
    • BASF
    • Cadbury Schweppes
    • Campbell Soup
    • Cargill
    • DuPont Food
    Industry Solutions
    • General Mills
    • Glaxo-SmithKline
    • Goodman Fielder
    • Group Danone
    • John Lust Group Plc
    • H.J. Heinz
    • Hershey Foods
    • La Doria
    • Maruha
    • McCain Foods
    • Mars, Inc.
    • Nestle
    • Northern Foods
    • Nichirei
    • Nippon Suisan
    Kaisha
    • PepsiCo
    • Sara Lee
    • Unilever
    • United Foods
    Table 2: Food products that may contain
    manufactured nanomaterials 88
     
    PRODUCTS
    • Almond beverages
    • Candy
    • Cereal
    • Chocolate
    • Chocolate syrup
    • Coffee Creamer
    • Cookies
    • Crackers
    • Cream Cheese
    • Doughnuts
    • Gum
    • Mashed Potatoes
    • Mayonnaise
    • Milk
    • Mints
    • Oils
    • Pasta
    • Popcorn
    • Pudding
    • Rice beverages
    • Salad Dressing
    • Soy
    • Soy beverages
    • Sports Drinks and
    other beverages
    • Yogurt
    Many foods Americans eat on a daily basis contain nanomaterial ingredients (see Table 2 for a list of product types that may include nanomaterials). In 2008, Friends of the Earth released a groundbreaking report on the use of nanomaterials in food, “Out Of the Laboratory and Onto Our Plates:
    Nanotechnology in Food and Agriculture.” Six years later, our government has made little progress in protecting the public from these potentially dangerous food ingredients, despite the fact that additional nanofoods continue to be found on the market. ————While the FDA is charged with ensuring “the safety
    and security of our nation’s food supply,” at this time the agency has merely offered nonbinding guidance to industry on the use of nanomaterials in food.89
    However, the FDA’s 2012 draft guidance on the use of nanomaterials in food warns about the different properties of nanomaterials compared to ingredients
    used in traditional manufactured food substances.90 Nevertheless, lack of established regulations allow for 20 nanofood products to remain on the market while the public takes up potential health risks. Friends of the Earth has compiled a list of 87 food and beverage products known to contain nanomaterials (see Table 3 for a list of products that include nanomaterials). We have compiled an additional 79 products since our 2008 report. The number of nanofood products we know to be on the market has grown more than tenfold in six years. —Beyond food, nanomaterials are also found in kitchen equipment, health supplements, some types of agricultural inputs, food contact materials and food packaging,
    as well as in a broad range of other products. The use of nanomaterials in food contact materials, including packaging, cling wrap, storage containers and chopping boards, increases the probability of Nanomaterials are already integrated into food labels that indicate the freshness or temperature of a food product via color-coded display stickers. The company OnVu™ creates “the label
    that makes freshness visible” and is already featured in U.S. supermarkets.
    The OnVu™ Intelligent indicator has been applied onto meat product labels.93,94 nanomaterial ingestion. It is also likely that nanomaterials
    in packaging that is not designed to release chemicals (for example, nanosilver antibacterial food storage containers) will nevertheless migrate from food packaging into foods. Polymers and chemical additives in conventional food packaging are known to migrate from the packaging into food products — such is the case with BPA and phthalates.91,92 Conversely, flavors and nutrients in foods
    and beverages are also known to migrate into plastic packaging, a process known as “flavor scalping.” Nanotechnology is also expected to dramatically expand the use of edible coatings, which will clearly result in increased ingestion of nanomaterials (see nano fruit case study). Nanofood products are also marketed
    for children and babies. Several products are commercially available in the
    form of powdered nutritional drinks (ToddlerHealth and NanoVM®).95,96
    Table 3: Commercially available nanofoods
     
    PRODUCT NAME MANUFACTURER NANO CONTENT
    Albertsons American Single Albertsons Titanium dioxide
    Albertsons Cheddar Cheese Stick Albertsons Titanium dioxide
    Albertsons Chocolate Syrup Albertsons Titanium dioxide
    Albertsons Chocolate Sandwich Cookies Albertsons Titanium dioxide
    Albertsons Coffee Creamer Albertsons Titanium dioxide
    Albertsons Cream Cheese Albertsons Titanium dioxide
    Albertsons Golden Sandwich Cookies Albertsons Titanium dioxide
    Albertsons Italian Cheese Blend Albertsons Titanium dioxide
    Albertsons Mini MarshMallows Albertsons Titanium dioxide
    Albertsons Mozarella Stick Albertsons Titanium dioxide
    Albertsons Vanilla Pudding Albertsons Titanium dioxide
    Albertsons Whipped Cream Albertsons Titanium dioxide
    Best Foods Mayonnaise Unilever Titanium dioxide
    Betty Croker Mashed Potatoes General Mills Titanium dioxide
    Betty Croker Whipped Cream Frosting General Mills Titanium dioxide
    Breathsavers Mints Hershey’s Titanium dioxide
    Cadbury Milk Chocolate Bar Hershey’s Titanium dioxide
    Canola Active Oil Shemen Industries Nano-sized self assembled
    structured liquids = micelles
    Carnation Breakfast Nestle Titanium dioxide
    Dentyne Fire Spicy Cinnamon Mondel ez
    International Titanium dioxide
    Dentyne Ice Peppermint Gum Mondel ez
    International Titanium dioxide
    Dickinson’s Coconut Curd Dickinson’s Titanium dioxide
    Eclipse Spearmint Gum Wrigley Titanium dioxide
    Fancy Flake Coconut Spartan Titanium dioxide
    Fiber One Cereal General Mills Titanium dioxide
    General Mills Trix Cereal General Mills Titanium dioxide
    Good and Plenty Candy Hershey’s Titanium dioxide
    Hershey’s Bliss Dark Chocolate Hershey’s Titanium dioxide
    Hershey’s Bliss White Chocolate Hershey’s Titanium dioxide
    Hershey’s Chocolate Syrup Hershey’s Titanium dioxide
    Hershey’s Cookie n Cream Bar Hershey’s Titanium dioxide
    Hershey’s Milk Chocolate Bar Hershey’s Titanium dioxide
    Hershey’s Special Dark Bar Hershey’s Titanium dioxide
     
    Table 3: Commercially available nanofoods (continued)
     
    PRODUCT NAME MANUFACTURER NANO CONTENT
    Hostess Frosted Donettes Hostess Titanium dioxide
    Hostess Powdered Donettes* Hostess Titanium dioxide
    Hostess Twinkies Hostess Titanium dioxide
    Jello Banana Cream Pudding Kraft Titanium dioxide
    Junior Mints Tootsie Titanium dioxide
    Keebler Pepper Jack Crackers Kellogg’s Titanium dioxide
    Knorr Pasta Sides Pasta Unilever Titanium dioxide
    Kool Aid Blue Raspberry Kraft Titanium dioxide
    Kool Aid Lemonade Kraft Titanium dioxide
    Kraft American Single Kraft Titanium dioxide
    Kraft Easy Cheese Kraft Titanium dioxide
    Kraft Jet Puffed FunMallows Kraft Titanium dioxide
    Kraft Jet Puffed MarshMallows Kraft Titanium dioxide
    Kraft Mayo Kraft Titanium dioxide
    Kraft Miracle Whip Kraft Titanium dioxide
    Kraft Parmesan Cheese Kraft Titanium dioxide
    Kraft Velveeta Kraft Titanium dioxide
    Lays Ranch Seasoning Mix FritoLay Titanium dioxide
    Lindt Milk Chocolate Lindt Titanium dioxide
    Lindt White Chocolate Lindt Titanium dioxide
    M&Ms Chocolate Candy Mars,Inc. Titanium dioxide
    M&Ms Chocolate with Peanuts Mars,Inc. Titanium dioxide
    Maternal Water La Posta del Aguila Silver
    Mentos Freshmint Gum Perfetti Van Melle Titanium dioxide
    Mentos Mints Perfetti Van Melle Titanium dioxide
    MesoGold® Purest Colloids, Inc. Titanium dioxide
    Mini Whoppers Eggs Hershey Titanium dioxide
    Minute Rice Riviana Foods Titanium dioxide
    Mothers Oatmeal Iced Cookies Kellogg’s Titanium dioxide
    Nabisco Chips Ahoy Kraft Titanium dioxide
    Nabisco Oreo Kraft Titanium dioxide
    Nabisco Sugar Free Oreo Kraft Titanium dioxide
    Nanoceuticals™ Slim Shake Chocolate RBC Life Sciences®, Inc. Titanium dioxide
    Table 3: Commercially available nanofoods (continued)
     
    PRODUCT NAME MANUFACTURER NANO CONTENT
    Nanotea Shenzhen Become Industry &
    Trade Co., Ltd.
    Nano-ball milling procedures
    Nestle French Vanilla Coffee Mate Nestle Titanium dioxide
    Nestle Original Coffee Creamer Nestle Titanium dioxide
    Peeps Marshmallows Born Candy Co. Titanium dioxide
    Philadelphia Cream Cheese Kraft Titanium dioxide
    Pina Colada Sobe South Beach Beverage Co.,Inc. Titanium dioxide
    Powdered donuts* Dunkin’ Donuts Titanium dioxide
    Primea Ring Saeco USA Inc. Silver
    Ragu Classic Alfredo Unilever Titanium dioxide
    Richardson Pastel Mints Richardson’s Titanium dioxide
    Shamrock Farms Fat Free Milk Shamrock Foods Titanium dioxide
    Smuckers Orange Cream Shell Smuckers Titanium dioxide
    Tic Tac Mints Ferrero Titanium dioxide
    Trident White Peppermint Gum American Chicle Titanium dioxide
    Turkey Gravy Titanium dioxide
    Vanilla Milkshake Pop Tarts* Kellogg’s Titanium dioxide
    Vics White Cheddar Popcorn Vic’s Corn Popper Titanium dioxide
    White M&Ms* Mars, Inc. Titanium dioxide
    Wishbone Ranch Dressing Unilever Titanium dioxide
     
    Note: List based on the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies’ Consumer Products Inventory current as of Feb. 19, 2014.97 However, manufacturers change their product formulation from time to time, and such changes may not be reflected in the database. Friends of the Earth has not conducted tests on these products and cannot guarantee their nanomaterial content; products marked with an asterisk have been found to contain nanomaterials via a laboratory study commissioned by As You Sow in 2013.98
     
    Edible food coatings
     
    Manipulation of materials at the nanoscale can allow food scientists to create “edible nanolaminate films” that can be used as barrier layers to prolong shelf
    life. These films can include lipids or clays as moisture barriers; biopolymers, such as carbohydrates, as oxygen and carbon dioxide barriers; or nanoparticulates and emulsified nanodroplets, which could contain active ingredients to improve taste, texture or appearance.99 Antibacterial substances such as nanosilver can also be directly integrated into the edible coating, such as for meat packaging.100 Edible coatings containing engineered nanomaterials
    are reportedly already being used to extend the shelf life of fruit and vegetables in markets in the U.S. and Canada.101 Tests conducted in Central and South American farms and packing stations found a number of fruits with a nano coating, including apples, pears, peppers, cucumbers and other produce that is delivered to the U.S. and Canada.102 24
     
    NANOFOODS AND NANOAGRICULTURE POSE NEW ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS
    Nanomaterials now in commercial use pose serious ecological hazards Nanomaterials used in the agri-food system inevitably enter the environment from waste associated with product manufacture, product use (including ingestion and excretion) or disposal. Furthermore, nanomaterials are being released into the environment intentionally, for example as nano-agrochemicals and nano-feed used on farms. Early studies have demonstrated that nanomaterials already in commercial use pose serious hazards to species like largemouth bass and water fleas (Daphnea magna), which are used by regulators as ecological indicators (see Table 4). Preliminary studies suggest that nanomaterials may accumulate (and possibly even magnify) in organisms along the food chain.103,104 The extent to which nanomaterials will “clump” together in the environment, forming larger particles that may pose reduced toxicity risks, is unknown. The ecological hazards associated with nanotoxicity remain very poorly understood, underscoring the urgent need for further research.105–Friends of the Earth has expressed great concern about the environmental implications of the dramatically expanded use of nanosilver and other antimicrobial nanomaterials in consumer and industrial products.106 Fullerenes,107 nano titanium dioxide, nano zinc oxide,108 nano-silver, single-walled carbon nanotubes109 and other nanomaterials have all been found to have bactericidal properties[F19]. Yet the effects of nanomaterials on microbes, bacteria and fungi — the foundation of all ecosystems — remain poorly understood. Increased commercial use of highly potent anti-bacterial nanomaterials and their increased presence in waste streams could disrupt the functioning of beneficial bacteria in the wider environment, for example those performing nitrification and denitrification in freshwater and the marine environment.110 Nano-antimicrobial agents may also shift into microbial populations and disrupt the functioning of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with plants.111 Any significant disruption of nitrification, denitrification or nitrogen fixing processes could have serious negative impacts for the functioning of entire ecosystems. There is also a risk that widespread use of antimicrobials will result in greater antibiotic resistance among harmful bacterial populations.112,113 Early studies have demonstrated that nanomaterials already in commercial use pose serious hazards to important aquatic species.
     
    Experimental evidence of the ecotoxicity of nanomaterials now in commercial use
     
    NANOMATERIAL AND CURRENT APPLICATIONS SIZE AND PHYSICAL
    DESCRIPTION EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE OF TOXICITY
    Titanium dioxide Nano form used in sunscreens, self-cleaning glass, remediation, widely use in small micro form in foods and cosmetics 30nm Killed water fleas (Daphnea magna)114 which are used by regulators as an ecological indicator species 25nm anatase UV-illuminated TiO2 toxic to algae and water fleas115 Zinc Used in electronics, optoelectronics, gas sensors, sunscreens, cosmetics, food packaging, paint Nanoparticle zinc oxide, size unknown Toxic to algae and water fleas (Daphnea magna)116 Carbon based nanomaterials Carbon black used in tyres, dyes; carbon nanotubes used in specialist car and aeroplane materials and fabrics, potential use in packaging; fullerenes used in cosmetics, potential use in medicines, batteries and electronics C60 fullerenes Water soluble C60 caused brain damage (lipid peroxidation) in juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)117, used by regulators as an ecological indicator. Subsequent study found tetrahydrofuran (THF)-solubilized fullerenes even more toxic than water solubilised fullerenes, with 100% mortality in the THF-C60-exposed fish between 6 and 18 hours of exposure118 Single walled carbon nanotubes By-products associated with their manufacture cause increased mortality and delayed development of small estuarine invertebrate Amphiascus tenuiremis119 Single-walled carbon nanotubes By-products associated with their manufacture delayed hatching of zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryos120 . C60 fullerenes Killed water fleas (Daphnea magna)121,122 C60 fullerenes and C60HxC70Hx Caused behavioural and physiological changes in water fleas that are associated with increased risk of predation and reproductive decline123 C60 fullerenes Toxic to microbes, inhibits growth and decreases respiration124
     
    Aluminium
    Used in cosmetics, sunscreens, scratch resistant coatings 13nm High levels of exposure stunted root growth in corn, cucumber, soybean, carrot and cabbage crops125 The United Kingdom’s Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering have called for the environmental release of nanomaterials to be “avoided as far as possible,” and for their intentional release to “be prohibited until appropriate research has been undertaken and it can be demonstrated that the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks.”126 In May 2013, a group of U.S. scientists published the first global assessment of the likely emissions of nanomaterials into the environment and landfills. It was estimated that in 2010, 260,000 to 309,000 metric tons of global nanomaterial production were discarded into landfills (63-91 percent), soils (8-28percent), water bodies (0.4-7 percent), and the atmosphere (0.1-1.5percent). According to the authors, more accurate estimates of nanomaterial emissions were hampered by the lack of available data on use. The annual worldwide market for nanomaterials is estimated to be around 11 million metric ton. By far the largest share of the nanomaterials currently on the market is industrial carbon (85 percent by weight) and silica (12 percent by weight). nanoscale titanium and nano-silver are believed to be the most-used nanomaterials in food and food contact materials[F20].127 As the European Commission’s Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks has noted, “the increasing use of Ag-NPs [nanosilver] in consumer and medical applications implies that they will find their way into the environment. The activity that makes them desirable as an antimicrobial agent could also pose a threat to the microbial communities in the environment.”128 Impacts on aquatic ecosystems A recent review of toxicological research on nanometal oxides silver, copper and zinc oxide reported that they are extremely toxic to freshwater aquatic organisms including fish and algae, with crustaceans being most affected.129 Titanium dioxide, one of the most widely used nanomaterials, caused organ pathologies, biochemical disturbances and respiratory distress in rainbow trout.130 Nano titanium dioxide is also toxic to algae and to water fleas, especially after exposure to UV [F21]
    light.131,132
     
    Impacts on soils
     
    According to a U.S. study, emissions to soils represent as much as a quarter of nanomaterial flows, mostly from the disposal of biosolids onto agricultural land.133 This is troubling because studies have shown that nanomaterials can potentially harm beneficial soil microorganisms, plants, nematodes and earthworms and prevent nitrogen fixation.134,135,136 Another recent U.S. study found that metal and metal oxide nanoparticles accumulate in the soils to which they are applied, rather than aggregating or dissolving, and can be toxic to microorganisms, plants, nematodes and earthworms.137 Similar adverse effects on earthworms have been observed in reaction to other nanoparticles.138 A recent study by Colman et al. found an adverse impact on plants and microorganisms in a long-term field experiment following the application of sewage biosolids containing a low dose of nano-silver.139 The nano-silver treatment led to changes in microbial community composition, biomass and extracellular enzyme activity, and affected some of the aboveground plant species, as well. It also led to an increase in nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes — significant because nitrous oxide is a notorious greenhouse gas, with 296 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide. Any significant disruption of nitrification, denitrification or nitrogen fixing processes could have negative impacts for the functioning of entire ecosystems. There is also a risk that widespread use of antimicrobials will result in greater antibiotic-resistance among harmful bacterial populations.140
    [F22]
    Bioaccumulation of nanomaterials
     
    A number of studies have shown that plant species can take up nanomaterials from soils.141 This suggests a potential route for nanomaterials from sewage waste to return to the food chain. A recent report by the European Environment Agency concluded that “the extent to which specific nanomaterials are bioaccumulative or lead to irreversible impact is largely unknown, but the current state of knowledge suggest that the potential exists for such behavior under some circumstances.”142 Risks from pesticides with nanoscale active ingredients The use of pesticides with nanoscale active ingredients may pose particular risks because nanomaterials, which are more potent and behave differently than conventional chemicals, are applied in large quantities and over large areas in industrial agriculture. The term “nanopesticide” covers a wide variety of products and cannot be considered to represent a single category. Many nanoformulations combine several surfactants, polymers and metal nanoparticles in the nanometer size range.143 Conventional agrochemicals, such as pesticides, fertilizers and seed treatments, have already contributed to soil and water pollution, caused significant disturbance of ecosystems and driven a loss of biodiversity.144 It is feared that the broad use of nano-chemicals will exacerbate existing problems. The claim that nano agrochemicals will reduce the overall use of pesticides should be approached sceptically, given similar unfulfilled promises made by many of the same companies in relation to genetically modified crops. Nanotechnology also appears likely to intensify existing trends toward ever-larger industrial-scale farming operations, and an even more narrow focus on producing specialized crops.145,146 This could lead to further losses of agricultural and ecological diversity. The intentional environmental release of nano-agrochemicals is of great concern Nano-formulations of existing agrochemicals may be more reactive, more bioactive and may introduce even more serious environment and health hazards than the conventional agrochemicals they replace. The use of nanoscale agrochemicals is of great concern given the extremely limited understanding
    we have of how nano herbicides, pesticides, fertilizers and plant growth treatments will behave in the environment and will affect non-target organisms,
    and the potential for serious eco-nanotoxicological hazards indicated by the small number of studies that has been carried out to date. It appears we are on the verge of repeating many of the mistakes associated with our enthusiastic adoption of conventional agrochemicals, whose long-term health and
    environmental costs are borne by farming communities and ecological systems worldwide. Conventional agrochemicals have polluted soils and
    waterways and have caused substantial disruption to these cosystems.147,148,149 Exposure to agrochemicals has also been linked with greater incidence of cancer and serious reproductive problems among agricultural workers and their families.150,151,152 It is consequently of great concern that nano-agrochemicals are now being used on farms and released into the environment in the absence of regulations that require product manufacturers to demonstrate the safety of new, more potent nanoscale formulations of existing chemicals. Perhaps ironically, there is a large degree of interest in the use of nanomaterials for environmental remediation, including cleanup of toxic plumes associated with past use of agricultural pesticides.153 Dozens of sites in the United States, Europe and elsewhere have already been injected with tens of metric tons of nanoparticles for environmental remediation or waste treatment purposes,154 despite no study having being carried out to assess the efficacy of these experiments and the safety of these nanoparticles for environmentally relevant species.155 There is little published, peer-reviewed information available about the outcomes of these releases; they are, however, of serious concern given early indications that nanomaterials present a whole new range of serious ecological threats.156 The United Kingdom’s Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering have warned that using nanomaterials in remediation of toxic plumes could introduce a whole new set of environmental pollutants that pose even greater ecological hazards. They have called for the environmental release of nanoparticles to be “avoided as far as possible,” and for their intentional release for pollution remediation or other purposes to “be prohibited until appropriate research has been undertaken and it can be demonstrated that the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks.”157
     
    Nanobiotechnology and synthetic biology pose even more uncertain hazards
     
    Next-generation agricultural nanoproducts — crops manipulated using nanobiotechnology, for example, or synthetic biology organisms developed to assist in the production of biofuels — will present even more complex ecological hazards than those associated with nano-agrochemicals. Genetic engineering is a technology that transfers genes from one species to another in a way that does not occur naturally. As nanoparticles are now being used by biotechnologists as a new tool for genetic engineering of plants and animals, many of the potential ecological hazards associated with nanobiotechnology-manipulated crops mirror those associated with genetically engineered organisms. [F23]These include the potential for use of herbicide-tolerant, insect- or virus-resistant crops to result in: increased weediness of wild relatives; development of herbicide/insect/ virus resistance among crops; negative impact on animal populations through reduced food availability; development of more virulent and difficult-to-control viruses; toxicity to non-target species; ecosystem-level disruption as a result of any or all of these.158 Despite the rapid commercial expansion of GE crops and the failure of the industry to prevent widespread genetic contamination of GE-free crops,159 the ecosystem-level impacts of genetic engineering remain very poorly understood. Batie observes that whereas research has demonstrated that GE crops can adversely impact lacewings, monarch butterflies, ladybugs and soil biota, and modelling has predicted a dramatic decline in the European skylark if there is widespread adoption of GE herbicide-tolerant sugar beets, it could take decades of larger-scale ecological monitoring to identify the ecosystem impacts of GE crop use.160 And our capacity to identify GE crop-driven ecological change is undermined by the wholly inadequate monitoring of environmental effects at field or ecosystem scales.161 In addition to the potential environmental hazards, there is also concern that aggressive global marketing of a small number of high-tech crops will result in further displacement of regional crop varieties, and further erosion of agricultural diversity. Moreover, herbicide-tolerant and pesticide-exuding crops not only entrench our dependence on toxic
    chemicals for farm management, they are also likely to reduce on-farm biodiversity, for example among beneficial insects and birds. Reliance on crops
    designed to withstand greater applications of agrochemicals, or to themselves exude pesticides, takes us further from establishing the ecologically safe
    integrated pest management systems that characterize organic and agro-ecological farming models. The environmental and biosafety risks associated
    with the emerging field of synthetic biology are even harder to quantify, let alone control. Synthetic biology is an extreme form of genetic engineering, in which scientists write entirely new genetic code on a computer, “print” it out and then insert it into organisms to serve specific functions. Synthetic biology organisms are being developed for agriculture, biofuels and energy production, nutraceuticals and food processing, carbon sequestration, environmental remediation, medicine, manufacturing and military applications, among others.162 Many synthetic biology organisms are being developed for intentional environmental release. The wide-scale and worldwide genetic contamination of both GE-free crops and GE-free food processing163 highlight the difficulties of preventing contamination in an industry that involves self-replicating organisms and millions of people. It suggests that we will fail in attempts to contain synthetic biology organisms. accidentally, synthetic biology organisms could present a range of serious ecological hazards. These include the potential for disruption, displacement or infection of other species; alteration of the environment in which they were introduced, to the extent that ecosystem function is compromised; and establishment within a system such that they become impossible to eliminate.164 Many synthetic biologists working with fairly simple genetic circuits report rapid mutation of the circuits as a key challenge
    to their work. The potential for synthetic biology organisms released into the environment to mutate in unpredictable ways is of great concern. For example, the worst-case scenario of an accidental introduction into the environment of a synthetic biology organism designed to turn corn waste into
    ethanol could be catastrophic. Nanotechnology in agriculture and food
    production has broader environmental costs Perhaps the most insidious environmental impact associated with the expansion of nanotechnology
    in agriculture is its entrenching our reliance on the dominant chemical-intensive industrial agricultural model. Nanotechnology will intensify the key
    characteristics of this agricultural model, including trends toward ever-larger farming operations, an even narrower focus on producing specialized
    crops, further loss of agricultural and ecological diversity, an even greater dependence on chemical inputs and an even more atomized approach to
    farm management. The net result will be that we move further from real farming, where a key emphasis is maintaining and enhancing agricultural and ecological diversity, and an agricultural alternative which has been demonstrated to deliver
    a range of other environmental benefits, including reduced use of water and fossil fuel energy, higher soil organic matter and nitrogen, and reduced soil
    erosion. Moreover, 60 international experts at the United Nations agree that “the world currently already produces sufficient calories per head to feed a global population of 12 to 14 billion.”165 The UN’s research confirms that “hunger and malnutrition are not phenomena of insufficient physical supply, but results of prevailing poverty, and above all problems of access to food.”166 According to a 2013 report by the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, “there is no informed, broad-based constituency to support regulating ENMs [engineered nanomaterials] in fertilizers and biosolids to protect soil health and soil
    biodiversity.”167 The expansion of nanotechnology in food processing and packaging will also result in a higher ecological footprint as food travels farther and is even more highly processed, requiring ever greater energy inputs. The United States agri-food system already uses more than 10,551 quadrillion Joules of energy each year, as much as France’s total annual energy consumption. Agriculture — growing food — accounts for only 20 percent of this; 80 percent of
    the energy is used to move, process, package, sell and store food after it leaves the farm.168 Incredibly, processing breakfast cereals requires 3,232 kilo-
    calories per kilogram — five times the energy contained in the cereal itself.169 Nano foods will be even more highly processed than today, requiring even greater energy inputs to produce. Similarly, nano food packaging, which has a primary goal of extending the shelf life of packaged food, will inevitably encourage manufacturers to transport food over even greater distances, resulting in an increase in food transport-related greenhouse gas emissions.
     
    TOP A
    [F1]Never Use anything nano—the other thing that happens it can be incorporated with other metals at that scale and size and cause unwanted distortions and mutations in the body
    [F2]Realistically no one knows what they are really eating unless it is grown yourself
    [F3]This is unrealistic –if they are not going to lable GMO foods —saying the public is to stupid to be able to know the difference the same logic is going to go here —this is about population control and regulating the level of poisonous or harmul materials one can consume
    [F4]The article is out dated a little—even the fresh foods are being sprayed with nano silver causing them to saturate the body internally into the brain and lungs liver and spleen and tissues throughout the body —so eat as clean as possible and use as much as required in peeling and cleansing your foods as well
    [F5]The organic label is BS today and has been for quite some time and if nano is on the fields then it will be in the organics as well via chemtrails and the spraying—once released this can cause issues on all farming—grow your own
    [F6]2 differing measurements
    [F7]this is where some companies get the idea that nano is safe due to this definition
    [F8]This is implying strongly that the more they are in an environment over a big area the more activity is going to happen—this also appears to be double speech here with the above articles mentioning the dangers of the nm size here thay are almost going to full accept it when the previous article showed how dangerious they are
    [F9]Still think the health food industry is healthy
    [F10]These are highly reactive —with the chemtrails being dumped on us with nano particles and th food supply allowing more aluminum to being spread this would further exasperate the nano bio attack on the body
    [F11]This is what makes these things so dangerous —they accumulate and then replicate —with every cell they choke out they further saturate the tissues and organs
    [F12]Another metal saturating the colon causing colon alterations and cellular death
    [F13]Nano particles can reach Intestinal and blood and other organs!!
    [F14]One of the components in chemtrails
    [F15]The characteristics of nanoparticles that are relevant for health effects are:
    Size – In addition to being able to cross cell membranes, reach the blood and various organs because of their very small size, nanoparticles of any material have a much greater surface to volume ratio (i.e. the surface area compared to the volume) than larger particles of that same material. Therefore, relatively more molecules of the chemical are present on the surface. This may be one of the reasons why nanoparticles are generally more toxic than larger particles of the same composition.
    Chemical composition and surface characteristics – The toxicity of nanoparticles depends on their chemical composition, but also on the composition of any chemicals adsorbed onto their surfaces. However, the surfaces of nanoparticles can be modified to make them less harmful to health.
    Shape – Although there is little definitive evidence, the health effects of nanoparticles are likely to depend also on their shape. A significant example is nanotubes, which may be of a few nanometres in diameter but with a length that could be several micrometres. A recent study showed a high toxicity of carbon nanotubes which seemed to produce harmful effects by an entirely new mechanism, different from the normal model of toxic dusts.
    [F16]Nano in the food—wonder where that comes from===pollution? Spraying the fields with nano silver—CHEMTRAILS???
    [F17]How they cause the damage to the colon and digestive system
    [F18]Anyone want a diet in aluminum—and beware a lot of health guru’s promote cleanser that have these in them
    [F19]Will kill off the bacterial properties required for the flora to grow and for the animals and us to have the right nutrition—without bacteria nothing grows or can be assimilated
    [F20]These 2 are the worse ones for male sterility and testicular cancr
    [F21]This is also part of the chemtrails
    [F22]This we are already seeing with glyphosates
    [F23]This will be called a nano biofilm—extremely dangerous once out hard to recall back
    ********************************************************************************************************************************************************************
    Standards for Maple syrup.
     
    (TEXT EFFECTIVE UNTIL CONTINGENCY: See PL 2013, c. 117, §3) Maple syrup grades. The following grades are established as the official maple syrup grade standards for the State.
    A. “Grade A Light Amber” means pure maple syrup that is free of any material other than pure, clear liquid maple syrup in sanitary condition; has a color no darker than the federal Department of Agriculture’s visual color standard light amber or has a color for light transmittance not less than 75.0%Tc; has a delicately sweet, original maple flavor; and has a density of at least the equivalent of 66.0° Brix at 60° Fahrenheit Modulus 145. Grade A Light Amber maple syrup must be free of sugar crystals and may not be damaged in any way. [1991, c. 326, §2 (NEW).]
    B. “Grade A Medium Amber” means pure maple syrup that is free of any material other than pure, clear liquid maple syrup in sanitary condition; has a color no darker than the federal Department of Agriculture’s visual color standard medium amber or has a color for light transmittance between the range of 74.9%Tc to 60.5%Tc; and may have a flavor that is more pronounced than that of Grade A Light Amber, but that is not strong or unpleasant. Grade A Medium Amber must meet the density requirement of Grade A Light Amber. Grade A Medium Amber maple syrup must be free of sugar crystals and may not be damaged in any way. [1991, c. 326, §2 (NEW).]
    C. “Grade A Dark Amber” means pure maple syrup that is free of any material other than pure, clear liquid maple syrup in sanitary condition; has a color no darker than the federal Department of Agriculture’s visual color standard dark amber or has a color for light transmittance between the range of 60.4%Tc to 44.0%Tc; and may have a flavor that is stronger than that of Grade A Medium Amber, but that is not sharp, bitter, buddy or off-flavor. Grade A Dark Amber must meet the density requirement of Grade A Light Amber. Grade A Dark Amber maple syrup must be free of sugar crystals and may not be damaged in any way. [1991, c. 326, §2 (NEW).]
    D. “Grade A Extra Dark Amber” means pure maple syrup that is free of any material other than pure, clear liquid maple syrup in sanitary condition; has a color for light transmittance between the range of 43.9%Tc to 27.0%Tc; and may have a flavor stronger than Grade A Dark Amber. Grade A Extra Dark Amber must meet the density requirements of Grade A Light Amber. Grade A Extra Dark Amber maple syrup must be free of sugar crystals and may not be damaged in any way. [1991, c. 326, §2 (NEW).]
    E. “Commercial Grade” means pure maple syrup that is free of any material other than pure, clear liquid maple syrup in a sanitary condition; has a color for light transmittance less than 27.0%Tc; and may have a strong flavor. Commercial Grade maple syrup must be free of sugar crystals and may not be damaged in any way. Commercial Grade maple syrup may not be placed in packaged maple syrup containers and may not be sold, offered for sale or exposed for sale as packaged maple syrup. [1991, c. 326, §2 (NEW).]
    F. “Substandard” means bulk maple syrup that fails to meet the requirements of any other grade. Such syrup may not be placed in packaged maple syrup containers and may not be sold, offered for sale or exposed for sale as packaged maple syrup.
     
    *************************************************************************
    Widely used food additive promotes colitis, obesity and metabolic syndrome, research shows
    Published: Wednesday, February 25, 2015 – 15:38 in Health & Medicine
     
    Georgia State University
     
    Don Morris
     
    Dr. Benoit Chassaing
    Emulsifiers[F1], which are added to most processed foods to aid texture and extend shelf life, can alter the gut microbiota composition and localization to induce intestinal inflammation that promotes the development of inflammatory bowel disease and metabolic syndrome, new research shows. The research, published Feb. 25 in Nature, was led by Georgia State University Institute for Biomedical Sciences’ researchers Drs. Benoit Chassaing and Andrew T. Gewirtz, and included contributions from Emory University, Cornell University and Bar-Ilan University in Israel.—Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, afflicts millions of people and is often severe and debilitating. Metabolic syndrome is a group of very common obesity-related disorders that can lead to type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular and/or liver diseases. Incidence of IBD and metabolic syndrome has been markedly increasing since the mid-20th century.–The term “gut microbiota” refers to the diverse population of 100 trillion bacteria that inhabit the intestinal tract. Gut microbiota are disturbed in IBD and metabolic syndrome. Chassaing and Gewirtz’s findings suggest emulsifiers might be partially responsible for this disturbance and the increased incidence of these diseases.–“A key feature of these modern plagues is alteration of the gut microbiota in a manner that promotes inflammation,” says Gewirtz.–“The dramatic increase in these diseases has occurred despite consistent human genetics, suggesting a pivotal role for an environmental factor,” says Chassaing. “Food interacts intimately with the microbiota so we considered what modern additions to the food supply might possibly make gut bacteria more pro-inflammatory.”–Addition of emulsifiers to food seemed to fit the time frame and had been shown to promote bacterial translocation across epithelial cells. Chassaing and Gewirtz hypothesized that emulsifiers might affect the gut microbiota to promote these inflammatory diseases and designed experiments in mice to test this possibility.–The team fed mice two very commonly used emulsifiers[F2], polysorbate 80 and carboxymethylcellulsose, at doses seeking to model the broad consumption of the numerous emulsifiers that are incorporated into almost all processed foods. They observed that emulsifier consumption changed the species composition of the gut microbiota and did so in a manner that made it more pro-inflammatory. The altered microbiota had enhanced capacity to digest and infiltrate the dense mucus layer that lines the intestine, which is normally, largely devoid of bacteria. Alterations in bacterial species resulted in bacteria expressing more flagellin and lipopolysaccharide, which can activate pro-inflammatory gene expression by the immune system. Such changes in bacteria triggered chronic colitis in mice genetically prone to this disorder, due to abnormal immune systems. In contrast, in mice with normal immune systems, emulsifiers induced low-grade or mild intestinal inflammation and metabolic syndrome, characterized by increased levels of food consumption, obesity, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance.–The effects of emulsifier consumption were eliminated in germ-free mice, which lack a microbiota. Transplant of microbiota from emulsifiers-treated mice to germ-free mice was sufficient to transfer some parameters of low-grade inflammation and metabolic syndrome, indicating a central role for the microbiota in mediating the adverse effect of emulsifiers.–The team is now testing additional emulsifiers and designing experiments to investigate how emulsifiers affect humans. If similar results are obtained, it would indicate a role for this class of food additive in driving the epidemic of obesity, its inter-related consequences and a range of diseases associated with chronic gut inflammation.–While detailed mechanisms underlying the effect of emulsifiers on metabolism remain under study, the team points out that avoiding excess food consumption is of paramount importance.–“We do not disagree with the commonly held assumption that over-eating is a central cause of obesity and metabolic syndrome,” Gewirtz says. “Rather, our findings reinforce the concept suggested by earlier work that low-grade inflammation resulting from an altered microbiota can be an underlying cause of excess eating.”–The team notes that the results of their study suggest that current means of testing and approving food additives may not be adequate to prevent use of chemicals that promote diseases driven by low-grade inflammation and/or which will cause disease primarily in susceptible hosts.-This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health and Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America.-Source: Georgia State University
    [F1]Food emulsifiers act as an interface between the conflicting components of food like water and oil.
    While preparing the food, often conflicting natural components of food have to be combined into a consistent and pleasing blend. Each component of food (carbohydrate, protein, oil and fat, water, air, etc.) has its own properties which are sometimes conflicting to one another just like oil and water. To make the two components compatible, emulsifiers are used.——————- What is an Emulsifier?
    An emulsifier is a molecule with one oil-friendly and one water-friendly end. Water friendly end in food emulsifier is called hydrophilic tail and oil-friendly end is called hydrophobic head. Food emulsifiers are also called emulgents. In this way droplets of oil are surrounded by the emulsifier molecule, with the oil core hidden by the water-friendly tails of the emulsifier. A classic natural emulsion is milk, which is a complex mixture of fat suspended in an aqueous solution. Nature’s emulsifiers are proteins and phospholipids (lipids means fat soluble phosphate is water soluble). Egg is commonly used as an emulsifier. Some emulsifiers also act as anti-caking agents like Magnesium Stearate, Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids. Few others like Sorbitan monostearate are emulsifier as well as stabilizer
    .
    [F2]Emulsifier
    The most frequently used raw materials for emulsifiers include palm oil, rapeseed oil, soy bean oil, sunflower oil or lard/tallow. Egg happens to be the oldest emulsifier. Basic emulsifier production involves combining oil (triglyceride) with glycerol that results in monoglyceride. The type of triglyceride used in the reaction determines the type of emulsifier obtained. Unsaturated triglycerides produce fluid products such as oil while saturated triglycerides result in pasty or solid structures like butter. Monoglycerides can be combined with other substances, such as citric acid and lactic acid, in order to increase their emulsifying properties. Food drugs and cosmetics and pigment emulsions also require one or other kind of emulsifier.
    On the basis of their hydrophilic groups, there are basically four categories
    Anionics
    Non-ionics
    Cationics
    Amphoterics
    Food Emulsifier
    Egg Yolk emulsifying agent lecithinShow of the Month March 2015
    Honey
    Mustard
    Soy lecithin
    CSL Calcium Stearoyl Di Laciate
    PolyGlycerol Ester (PGE)
    Sorbitan Ester (SOE)
    PG Ester (PGME)
    Sugar Ester (SE)
    Monoglyceride (MG)
    Acetylated Monoglyceride (AMG)
    Lactylated Monoglyceride (LMG)

    #2719
    AvatarEK
    Keymaster

    What Is Metal Charged Water
    When metals like gold, silver or copper are put in water for a specific time period, the resultant water gets charged with the health benefitting qualities of the metal.
    Some Health Benefits Of Metal Charged Water
    Some of these health benefits are :
    Gold
    People suffering from respiratory disease like asthma, breathlessless, diseases of the lungs, heart diseases, brain diseases, find it benefits to consume gold charged water.
    Gold benefits the brain, relaxes the body and mind. Cleopatra used it for its benefits to health and beauty. It is also used in China as medicine.
    Silver
    People suffering from digestive problems and organs related to digestion like stomach, intestines, liver etc and those suffering from diseases of the urinary system and organs find it benefits to consume silver charged water.
    Silver has anti bacterial, anti viral and anti fungal properties. In olden times milk was preserved by putting silver coins in it since it kills pathogens of all types instantly.
    Copper
    Those suffering from a number of chronic and complicated diseases like joint diseases, polio, leprosy, high BP, knee pains, stress and mental tension, paralysis find it benefits to consume copper charged water.
    Copper is needed by the body for various physiological functions like RBC synthesis, protein metabolism, enzyme activity and benefits the nervous and circulatory systems and bone health.
     
    Gold coins
    Source: digitalmoneyworld, CC BY 2.0, via flickr
     
    Silver coins
    Source: sirqitous, CC BY 2.0, via flickr
     
    Copper coins
    Source: Karen Roe, CC BY 2.0, via flickr
    Things Required & Precautions
    Gold
    10 to 20 grams of gold coins or gold ornaments like bangles, rings, etc.
    Precautions
    Ornaments without stones or a lot of joints, like chains or necklaces should not be used for this purpose.
    Silver
    20 to 50 grams of pure silver coins, utensils like small plates or pieces of silver.
     
    Precautions
    Use only pure silver for this purpose.
    Copper
    40 to 50 grams of copper in the form of coins, utensils, small plates or pieces of copper.
     
    Precautions
    Do not use copper wires meant for electric work even if they are new.
    All these things can be got from jewellers who should be told that these things need to be pure and for what purpose they are being bought so that you do not end up buying the wrong thing.
     
    Procedure For Making Metal Charged Water & Its Usage
    Wash the needed metal well with clean water.
    In a steel vessel (do not use aluminium vessel), put 4 to 5 cups of fresh & clean water. Drop all the metal in this water and keep the water for boiling. Keep boiling the water till 2 cups of water remain.
    Remove the metals from the water and strain this water through a fine muslin cloth.
    The resultant water is the metal charged water.
    Drink 1 cup of this slightly warm metal charged water in the morning and the other cup in the evening.
    However it is better to prepare it fresh each time it is to be consumed. For this purpose take 3 cups of water each time and boil till just 1 cup remains. This can be consume after straining and cooling to the required temperature.
    If the disease is chronic boil further till 1/2 cup water remains. This will be more beneficial.
    Do not drink stale water that is water remaining from the previous day. Fresh metal charged water should be made each day preferably each time. also use pure metals.
    It is not necessary to use all the 3 metals together for making the metal charged water. One can use the metal indicated for the specific disease and make the water.
    However many times we are not aware of the exact reason of the disease or health condition. It is therefore better to use all the 3 metals together to make the charged water.
    ****************************************************************************
    Milk could be good for your brain–
    Date:
    March 24, 2015
    Source:
    University of Kansas Medical Center
    New research conducted at the University of Kansas Medical Center has found a correlation between milk consumption and the levels of a naturally-occurring antioxidant called glutathione in the brain in older, healthy adults.[F1]–In-Young Choi, Ph.D., an associate professor of neurology at KU Medical Center, and Debra Sullivan, Ph.D., professor and chair of dietetics and nutrition at KU Medical Center, worked together on the project. Their research, which was published in the Feb. 3, 2015 edition of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, suggests a new way that drinking milk could benefit the body.–“We have long thought of milk as being very important for your bones and very important for your muscles,” Sullivan said. “This study suggests that it could be important for your brain as well.”–Choi’s team asked the 60 participants in the study about their diets in the days leading up to brain scans, which they used to monitor levels of glutathione — a powerful antioxidant — in the brain.-The researchers found that participants who had indicated they had drunk milk recently had higher levels of glutathione in their brains. This is important, the researchers said, because glutathione could help stave off oxidative stress and the resulting damage caused by reactive chemical compounds produced during the normal metabolic process in the brain. Oxidative stress is known to be associated with a number of different diseases and conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and many other conditions, said Dr. Choi.—“You can basically think of this damage like the buildup of rust on your car,” Sullivan said. “If left alone for a long time, the buildup increases and it can cause damaging effects. Few Americans reach the recommended daily intake of three dairy servings per day, Sullivan said. The new study showed that the closer older adults came to those servings, the higher their levels of glutathione were[F2].–“If we can find a way to fight this by instituting lifestyle changes including diet and exercise, it could have major implications for brain health,” Choi said.An editorial in the same edition of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition said the study presented “a provocative new benefit of the consumption of milk in older individuals,” and served as a starting point for further study of the issue.”Antioxidants are a built-in defense system for our body to fight against this damage, and the levels of antioxidants in our brain can be regulated by various factors such as diseases and lifestyle choices,” Choi said.–For the study, researchers used high-tech brain scanning equipment housed at KU Medical Center’s Hoglund Brain Imaging Center. “Our equipment enables us to understand complex processes occurring that are related to health and disease,” Choi said. “The advanced magnetic resonance technology allowed us to be in a unique position to get the best pictures of what was going on in the brain.”-A randomized, controlled trial that seeks to determine the precise effect of milk consumption on the brain is still needed and is a logical next step to this study, the researchers said.Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by University of Kansas Medical Center. The original article was written by Andy Hyland. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
    ***********************************************************************
    Fat turns from diabetes foe to potential treatment
    Date:
    March 24, 2015
    Source:
    American Chemical Society (ACS)
    A new weapon in the war against type 2 diabetes is coming in an unexpected form: fat. Researchers have discovered a new class of potentially therapeutic lipids, called fatty-acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs). These lipids are found at lower levels in people with insulin resistance, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, compared with those who don’t have the condition. Administering FAHFAs to diabetic mice improved their glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, opening a surprising avenue for the development of novel medications for the disease.–One in ten people in the United States has type 2 diabetes, which is the seventh leading cause of death. Excess weight and body fat increase disease risk. Genes also play a role, but much remains unknown.–“There are some drugs available for treating type 2 diabetes, but there are still gaps in our knowledge about what causes it,” says Alan Saghatelian, Ph.D., who is at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. He co-led the study with Barbara Kahn, M.D. “Our discovery came out of basic research to understand the mechanism underlying type 2 diabetes.”–The researchers had been studying insulin resistance, a metabolic defect believed to contribute to the development and progression of type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance occurs when the body does not respond to the insulin being produced, causing glucose to build up in the blood. It is typically associated with obesity. But Kahn’s team at Beth Israel Medical Deaconess Center found that they could create obese mice that were unusually sensitive to insulin.–As it turned out, these mice had levels of a previously undiscovered family of fats, which they named FAHFAs, that was massively elevated –16- to 18-fold. The researchers suspected that these lipids were behind the increased insulin sensitivity. They figured if that were the case, then research on these newly discovered fats could someday lead to a diabetes therapy. In total, the researchers identified 16 different types of FAHFAs in the mice using a technique called mass spectrometry.–To check that their findings weren’t limited to rodents, the researchers measured FAHFA levels in the blood samples from human subjects, finding lower levels of these compounds in those with insulin resistance. They also checked various foods and detected FAHFAs in many common items, such as apples, broccoli, beef, chicken and eggs. “We’ve been eating them for a long time, and they aren’t toxic,” says Saghatelian, suggesting FAHFAs may be safe to use as a medication.–To test how well FAHFAs could work as a potential therapy, the researchers fed the lipids to insulin- resistant mice, and observed an improvement in inflammation, insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake. Although this experiment suggests that FAHFAs may make good type-2-diabetes drugs, Saghatelian says he’s now looking beyond lipids. “These are very cool compounds, but lipids aren’t typically used as drugs for several reasons, including that they might not be able to reach effective doses in the relevant tissues,” he says. “But the existence of FAHFAs means there is a metabolic pathway for making and breaking down these molecules. Identifying the enzymes involved in those processes may provide a lead toward even better drug targets.”–The Saghatelian and Kahn laboratories are currently parsing human tissues for those that show increasing or decreasing levels of FAHFAs. Once identified, the scientists will search the tissue for enzymes involved in FAHFA metabolism. Drugs could potentially be developed that work by either increasing the activity of enzymes that produce FAHFAs or blocking those that destroy FAHFAs.–“As we learn more about type 2 diabetes,” says Saghatelian, “we may be able to come up with better therapies that treat the disease with fewer side effects and that are effective in a larger number of people.”–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by American Chemical Society (ACS). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
    *************************************************************************
    ‘Good’ fat that fights diabetes discovered by scientists
    Salk Institute for Biological Studies–The protein Glut4 moves to the cell surface to help transport glucose from the blood into the cell after a meal. The left column shows total –Scientists at the Salk Institute and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in Boston have discovered a new class of molecules — produced in human and mouse fat — that protects against diabetes.-The researchers found that giving this new fat, or lipid, to mice with the equivalent of type 2 diabetes lowered their elevated blood sugar, as detailed October 9 in Cell..-Lipids The team also found that levels of the new lipids are low in humans with a high risk for diabetes, suggesting that the lipids could potentially be utilized as a therapy for metabolic disorders, like cholesterol, are typically associated with poor health. But in recent years, researchers have discovered that not all lipids are bad for you. The newly discovered lipids, called fatty acid hydroxy fatty acids, or FAHFAs, were lower in humans with early stages of diabetes and were much higher in mice resistant to diabetes.-“Based on their biology, we can add FAHFAs to the small list of beneficial lipids,” says Alan Saghatelian, Salk professor in the Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology and one of the senior authors of the work. “These lipids are amazing because they can also reduce inflammation, suggesting that we might discover therapeutic opportunities for these molecules in inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as diabetes.”-FAHFAs had not been noticed previously in cells and tissues because they are present in low concentrations, making them difficult to detect. Using the latest mass spectrometry techniques, Saghatelian and Barbara Kahn, vice chair of the Department of Medicine at BIDMC and the other senior author of the work, uncovered the FAHFAs when they examined the fat of a diabetes-resistant mouse model developed by Kahn.-“We engineered these mice to have more of a sugar transporter, called Glut4, in their fat because we had shown that when levels of this transporter are low, people are prone to developing diabetes,” says Kahn. By examining how this sugar transporter might help protect against diabetes, the team noticed more fatty acid synthesis in mice that had improved insulin activity (and thereby were less likely to develop diabetes). The team collaborated to find out what lipids were involved.-“While many of the other lipids were essentially the same between normal mice and these diabetes-resistant mice, we saw these FAHFA lipids elevated by sixteen fold in mice that were resistant to diabetes, standing out really clearly as a big change,” says Saghatelian. “After that, we elucidated their structures using a combination of mass spectrometry and chemical synthesis. We basically uncovered a whole new class of molecules using these techniques.”-Once they identified FAHFAs as being the lipid that was different between normal mice and these diabetes-resistant mice, they found something else important: when the mice eat FAHFAs, blood sugar levels dropped and insulin levels rose, indicating the potential therapeutic value of FAHFAs.-To determine whether FAHFAs are also relevant in humans, the team measured FAHFA levels in humans who are insulin-resistant (a condition which is often a precursor to diabetes) and found that their FAHFA levels were lower in fat and blood, suggesting that changes in FAHFA levels may contribute to diabetes.-“The higher levels of these lipids seem to be associated with positive outcomes in mice and humans,” says Kahn, who is also a professor at Harvard Medical School. “We show that the lipids work through multiple mechanisms. When blood sugar is rising, such as after a meal, the lipids rapidly stimulate secretion of a hormone that signals the pancreas to secrete insulin. In addition, these novel lipids also directly stimulate sugar uptake into cells and reduce inflammatory responses in fat tissue and throughout the body.”-These combined effects make the therapeutic potential of the lipids tremendous, say the researchers. Aside from existing in low levels within a wide range of vegetables, fruits and other foods, FAHFAs are also — unlike the other known beneficial lipids — produced and broken down inside the body. Potentially, new drugs could target the pathways that make or break down lipids to control FAHFA levels.-In the new paper, the team also identified the cellular receptor that FAHFAs bind to, called GPR120, to control how much glucose is absorbed into fat cells. The team thinks that increasing the body’s levels of FAHFAs may also be a way to activate GPR120 to treat or prevent diabetes.-“This work may suggest that changes in FAHFA levels are a new mechanism in diabetes that was underappreciated before because these lipids weren’t known,” says Saghatelian. “We hope this work points to novel therapeutics that could boost the body’s own way of managing blood sugar.”-“Because we can detect low FAHFA levels in blood before a person develops diabetes, these lipids could serve as an early marker for diabetes risk,” adds Kahn. “We want to test whether restoring the lipids before diabetes develops might potentially reduce the risk or even prevent the disease.”-Story SourceThe above story is based on materials provided by Salk Institute for Biological Studies. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Mark M. Yore, Ismail Syed, Pedro M. Moraes-Vieira, Tejia Zhang, Mark A. Herman, Edwin A. Homan, Rajesh T. Patel, Jennifer Lee, Shili Chen, Odile D. Peroni, Abha S. Dhaneshwar, Ann Hammarstedt, Ulf Smith, Timothy E. McGraw, Alan Saghatelian, Barbara B. Kahn. Discovery of a Class of Endogenous Mammalian Lipids with Anti-Diabetic and Anti-inflammatory Effects. Cell, 2014; 159 (2): 318 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.09.035
     
    TOP B
    [F1]Should be either unpasteurized milk or should be feremented
    [F2]Again fermented and Unpasteurized
     

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