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    This is Health and the secrets of health
    All DIS-EASES are Preventable
    Saturated Fats are NEEDED to Maintain good health
    With the right Ingredients your body could regenerate Indefinitely…example of this are oxygen and aminos in right proportions with the right fats and minimal sugars.. certain cells have been kept alive long after the death of an animal for over 30 years
    FASTING can and will save your life
    Mediterranean diets as well as Asian and Near east Asian diets are similar in that the diets are rich in antioxidants and preventatives that protect the body from toxins and poisons in the foods they eat (potential toxins)
    What is not being told to the western cultures is that Asians have 3-4 X’s higher accounts of cancer from Soy products then western women in the pancreas, esophagus, intestines, and thyroid
    Organic = Carbon Based…this applies to anything that is a carbohydrate ( veges, fruits, and grains) nothing states that it is chemical or pesticide free, or genetically free it is implied therefore you think it is safe
    Info of this has been known …since the dawn of time
    Antioxidants and other Body Cleaners are Key to a DIS-EASE Free Body
    The One thing in common with all cultures from anywhere in the world is to be clean internally and externally
    Pollutants and Chemicals are the key disasters to a dysfunctional immune system
    Foods laced with hormones and xeno-estrogens are causing havoc in your system
    SOY is not the wonder food that you think it is if anything it is a depletory of vital minerals that are needed to maintain the right bio-electric field needed and required for a health immune system as well as a proper running nervous system
    Multinationals in certain bio engineering areas of agriculture are not concerned about you or whether you eat ORGANIC or NONE Organic foods ( they are both essentially the same)
    Pesticides are ever being used whether intentionally or otherwise just by proximity to others who use them
    Alot here and there is more alot more.. did you know for about 2-3.00$ ‘s a day you can take a cancer preventative …..and you can get them at a grocery store.. Apples and Garlic eaten raw and peeled( yep peel the apples they are mostly imported nowadays and usually have some kind of spraying whether it’s acceptable or not and when coated with wax it seals the poisons til it enters your gut and then the oils mixed with chemicals gives your liver a problem not worth it….better to peel and eat them together makes for a good synergy
    My intent is to give any and all info I get or have attained over the years to everyone freely.. no charge no 1-900# nada if I do make any financial gain here it will be due to the fact that I will be in a consulting manner in either doing workshops or seminar or personal consulting in area of health or in making your own herbal combo’s …compounding your own supplements …or teaching you how to make your own tinctures creams, and how to get the most effective use out of the supplements you are already taking
    I will start ..with a workshop I did several weeks ago…THIS is what was covered…..
    Now I have to tell you…. this is all on your own ..and if you do have health issues seek a UNBIASED MD. who is not afraid or unopposed to practicing there Oath on health…or willing to explore in your best interest your complete Healing or maintaining a healthy life style…these are all suggestions based on what I have either personally have seen or EXPERIENCED and all I can do is share this info.. It’s up to you to know yourself and your limitations.. always always, in any new adventure take it slow and in low doses till you see an effect ( good or bad) and from there either maintain dose ( for only a period of time) or reduce it or stop completely
    There are answer(s) and you can have them too!
    o Alternatives to Soy and Dairy
    o How to make your own supplements
    o What to buy in the grocery store that is effective and affordable (example..a vege that fights cancer and cost under a 1.00$
    o What does organic really mean and where did that term come from?
    o How to make a good chelator with things you can purchase from the grocery store
    o How to read a supplement container it what they don tell you that should alarm you
    o How to combine supplements and herbals that can combat effectively health issues
    o How to make tinctures and creams
    o FASTING and why you should do it regularly
    o Exercise Ohhhhhhhh the dreaded word and why it good to do and how little is required for fitness
    o Questions and Answers
    Almond Milk or Seed milk Principle way to make?
    Amount of almonds needed ?about 8-12 seeds
    Amount of pumpkin seeds needed about 1/8 cup
    Amount of sunflower seeds same as pumpkin
    Amount of Millet same as pumpkin
    Amount of rice same as pumpkin
    Amount of barley same as pumpkin
    Or any other seed explore and share
    This recipe uses almond but you can substitute other seed or combine together for combo
    Let the almonds ( or other seed or grains you might want to explore ) sit in a glass container or Jar over night ( you can do it in a shorter period of time but you might find it takes longer to blend and mix) the next day blend mix with your favourite sweetener ( Unpasteurized honey, xylitol, maple syrup, corn syrup ?whatever you would like or even use unsweetened) Add xanthium gum as a binder it keeps every thing together
    Blend til smooth and add water as you blend til you fill to top of blender? blend til smooth
    Stop pour out into another container ( preferably glass) refrigerate and drink or drink straight from the blender either way you will love it
    Anti Cancer formula Milk
    Use bitter almond and sweet almond and vitamin C together let soak over night blend the next day and use just like the other seed milks.
    Amount of bitter almond is about half of what you use of the sweet and the sweet is the same vitamin C amount is a minimal of 2 grams ( 2000 milligrams)
    What to buy in a grocery store that is a potent Anti cancer fighter.. and is under a dollar?
    Parsley and Garlic.. each have anti cancer fighting ingredients and can be bought for under a dollar when made into juices or eaten raw with a apple ( garlic ) it is a heavy duty antioxidant for the liver lungs immune system hair nails respiratory the 2 of them have a synergy ( meaning on there own there good but together they compliment each other and then are more effective )parsley can be blended or juiced and with cilantro are also effective on the immune system and can possibly remove toxic metals from your system
    Chelator Formula? toxin remover and blood vessel cleaner-
    Apple —Peeled (should be peeled due to the toxic effects of the skin
    Garlic— as previously mentioned but it to has an increasing effect on L glutathione
    Main antioxidant in the system also a sulfur containing food that is a chelator on its own
    Vitamin C— 2 grams ( 2000 mgs)
    Magnesium— 500mgs Metal binder like C but it also does about 300 other functions in the body as well as nourishes a good part of the skeletal area
    H2O2 food grade — Food grade hydrogen peroxide 2-3 drops anti viral anti bacterial anti fungal anti HIV anti cancer anti aids anti negative but you have to have Vitamin C with it to clean up H2O2 s free radicals
    baking soda and citric acid
    Blend the apple and garlic til smooth ( use water or juice as long as its NOT GRAPE OR BEET AND NO IRON OF ANY KIND FOR AT LEAST 2 HOURS) IRON WILL OXIDIZE IN THE STOMACH IF YOU MIX ANY OF THIS WITH IT ( NO GREEN VEGS EITHER) also add magnesium and vitamin C while blending
    When blended add 2 drops of H2O2 stir ad citric acid 1/8 of a teaspoon or less
    Same with baking soda stir vigorously and when foaming drink right away
    You might feel the effect almost immediately
    DEFINITIONS OF ORGANIC are they yours?
    What does it mean? IT MEANS Carbon based…. its a catch phrase designed by the multinationals to exploit people into thinking that organic is safe or free of pesticides or even good for you
    Definition of the word could apply to any vege or fruit, herb or spice that is grown in nature
    The implication is what is selling these products, not anything else.
    Is a store bought produce any better ( or worse then what is bought on a farm straight from a farmer) ? based on this the answer would be NO, is it better or worse then your health food store again the answer is NO, its a game of semantics don’t be deceived if something is pesticide free it should say this not Organic if it is whole and pure it should say this as well be wary of the new age old adage selling game
    Replenish and maintain soil fertility;
    Avoid the use of known and perceived toxic and persistent chemical pesticides and fertilizers: ( does not mean chemical free or toxic free, just means what is known to be is not used or even something else)
    Alternate the crops grown in each field, rather than growing the same crop year after year.
    Plant cover crops such as clover to add nutrients to the soil and prevent weeds;
    Or Soy ( the only real use that it should be used in most places to replenish nitrogen in soil, and only sparingly)
    May release beneficial insects to prey on pests, helping to eliminate the need for chemical insecticides that can remain in soil for years;
    Add composted manure and plant wastes to help the soil retain moisture and nutrients.
    Another tidbit
    A “natural” label does not guarantee the product has been organically produced and processed according to the rules of a private certification entity. A “natural” label does mean that there has been a minimization of synthetic inputs and that it may have been produced and processed according to the rules of a private certification entity. In some cases, products labeled as “natural” have possibly originated from growing and processing operations that are phasing into organic production but have yet to achieve a certifiable status.
    How to read a Vitamin Label
    When you see a list of vitamins especially oil based supplements ( omegas or vitamin E or supplements that are combined such as CQ10 and a fat read carefully) when they list no wheat dairy etc if they say no soy then it should be soy free provided they don’t say natural flavour( unless they specify the flavour e.g. vanilla) or color ( again unless they describe the colour ?e.g annatto) if you see food color red or yellow then stay away especially if you are asthmatic or have a liver problem ( this would also apply to pharmaceuticals) yellow number 5 can bring on a asthma attack and reds can cause cancer or liver damage especially red # 40 Use alternatives e.g. most vitamin Es are soy based but some are either rice bran or palm oil based or wheat germ based ( way way better source)
    Making your Own remedies or tinctures
    Ok now you are in the big leagues now so when you make these tinctures remember they are Mother Tinctures ( undiluted and un cut so you only use what you need not 30-50 drops more like 1-10 maximum) again use discreetly they are extremely powerful
    Ok this is how you can do this pick your favourite Herb ( example rosemary) or your favourite tea ( e.g. green tea) find IT AS FRESH and AS CLEAN AS POSSIBLE .. if you can’t then use Dry herbs it will be just as effective
    Buy either a grain alcohol ( 190 proof everclear or the stuff from Poland) or use either Polar Ice, Smirnoff or any vodka that specifies it has been distilled either 3-4 times and has been filtered 3-4 times )
    Place your herbs or spices in the alcohol in an enclosed jar for at least 4 weeks ( some sources say 2 I have found for a real potent tincture 4 is essential) shake occasional( give about 20 -80 shakes) as often as you remember then in 4 weeks blend then strain put in your bottles and label. You can also use grapefruit seed extract to preserve or just bottle it by it self it can last for years ( I have some that are 4-5 years old and still have a potent kick)
    Creams and lotions
    Utilize an oil( grapeseed, olive, sunflower, almond) cooking oils use a herb or flower or anything you might want to use as a source of a healthy skin ( you can utilize the herbs from your tincture after you use them) put oil and herbs in a glass jar, heat water and place jar in the pot and let simmer ( light boil) for 3 hours you will see the plant blend with the oil add either coconut, or palm oil shred some beeswax with about a shot of your alcohol( yep vodka or whatever you used) put in after you strain the oil from the materials heat again till wax and coconut ( palm) oil melt and mix then when cooling add your favourite essential oil ( cream or lotion is all based on the amount of oil and wax ratio you use so explore)
    The ultimate healer fasting should be done for a lot of reasons mainly for health and welfare when you fast the body rids itself of a lot of unwanted build up of foods and debris as well as toxic materials one might be exposed too
    Juice fasting whereby you drink juice all day and nothing solid other then juice
    Water fasting ( same as above but you use only water)
    Vege fast where you take a day and only consume veges
    Pure fast? nothing in and toxins out this is dramatic for some so if you never did this try the previous fast(s) first and once you have overcome some of the psychological anxieties( which are all bs but your head will talk to you about you starving) then go for the pure fast
    Symptoms of fasting for 1st timers tingling of hands and feet drop in body temperature possible headaches( symptom of poisons in the body) Lack of energy( definitely minimize activities when trying this for the first time you will feel weak) do for 24 hours to complete? if it becomes to overwhelming (due to emotions or psychological angst then break it off ? if you think it can be to much after trying the other type(s) of fast then do it for say 5-6 hours then break it next time you try go for 12 hours ..then next time keep adding it til you reach the 24 hour time frame and do this whenever you feel the need
    Usually when starting fast there are varying opinions how you should start for a 24 hour fast not much is really needed in preparation except to have your self fortified for the 24 hours but if you extend this for a long period of time then you should take the time to prepare properly to get the most out of your fasting experience Remember when incorporating any kind of alternative(s) the biggest problem will be ignorance and bad programming ( bad info that has no fact but a lot of hearsay or even marketing hype we have come to accept as truth which is anything but
    OHHHHHHH the awful word
    What it really means Physical Mental or Spiritual activities or disciplines that promotes health? WOW what a statement
    Lets say your job is very physically demanding do you need to lift weights run or jog or do anything extremely strenuous… Probably not what might be better is a light activity ( walking or doing breathing exercises, stretching for example) that will benefit you more due to the fact of other physical laboring you may need to rest more and utilize a more balanced eating habits) eating to help restore the physical part of the system rather then breaking it down more and resting properly
    Lets say you sit all day utilizing a lot of mental activity then maybe walking or cycling might be a more effective form of exercising or any other type of physical endeavor you enjoy ( golf ,ping pong tennis or baseball just to name a few ) this could in itself revitalize you and again proper eating ( Notice in both instances the word DIET doesn’t come to play at all!!!!!)
    Lets say you are seeking a path of spiritual enlightenment then you are already practicing a discipline but you might need to be a bit more physical to maintain an earthly balance then maybe weightlifting or rock climbing or something really challenging for about a 30 minutes interval would be sufficient and again balanced eating habits this would do a body good
    Again these are all just guides doesn’t mean you should only do this if you do that ?.this just means don’t over due anything do things that will promote VITALITY choose what you like and do it basketball swimming anything that can refresh you and stimulate you enough to bring the desired effect of health and fitness that’s all that is required ?Never look at this as a duty or another job but rather a pleasant distraction this in itself can feel like your meditating and your mind gets a boost and feels refreshed as well as everything else
    Now I have to tell you…. this is all on your own ..and if you do have health issues seek a UNBIASED HEALER. {alternative or conventional} who is not afraid or unopposed to practicing there Oath on health{NEVER TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE WEAK}…or willing to explore in your best interest your complete Healing or maintaining a healthy life style…these are all suggestions based on what I have either personally have seen or EXPERIENCED and all I can do is share this info.. It’s up to you to know yourself and your limitations.. always always, in any new adventure take it slow and in low doses till you see an effect ( good or bad) and from there either maintain dose ( for only a period of time) or reduce it or stop completely
    Comments: if you have any suggestions on what you might want to know or how to apply or utilize certain things you might have bought by all means email me and I will put this on the page


    Health Prevention & Health Revitalization Workshop
    Why you should attend this “free” workshop?
    Health is on the mind of us all…. But how is one to determine which supplement remedy will work?
    Alternative health care books, are extraordinary confusing as well as contradictory….SO how is one to choose the right Doctors book?
    He challenges you to put on your thinking cap! Come listen and ask questions. You’ll be inspired to make lifestyle changes, because it will make sense and it will be simple for you
    Learn…How to use everyday spices and herbs as preventatives and cures…How to combine supplements and herbs for powerful results….how to use Essential oils to prevent the body from getting sick…How to fight fungus with herbs, spices essential oils, and food…How to maintain and rejuvenate brain health…How to prevent cancer….how to make tinctures without using fillers or binders, inexpensively….Learn why you should avoid Soy Products, and Canola oil at all cost (FDA 288 page study about Soy products and Canola oil toxicity reports) Wonder why no one is sounding the alarm in the 15 billion dollar industry? Tony welcomes you to call him if you would like to add a category not mentioned above 602-795-2827
    Tony’s dedication to research, years working in the health care field and “proven” techniques in herbalogy . . has given him a distinct advantage to helping people live healthier and successfully fight illnesses. Pat states: “The liver formula Tony recommended brought my enzymes within a normal range in one month! My doctor was amazed as they were significantly higher.”
    After being around Tony a short time. . you’ll know his enthusiasm to help you is genuine! He truly cares about helping people.
    ****Their will be remedies, colognes, CD’s and booklets and other items for purchase, Also Consultations by appointment *****
    ¯ Wine is key to longer life, says new study
    By staff reporter
    3/1/2007- More evidence that drinking moderate amounts of wine every day can increase life expectancy has been put forward by Dutch researchers.
    Around half a glass of wine per day was linked to a 48 per cent lower risk of heart disease in men, said the researchers, presenting their findings at the American Heart Association’s 47th annual conference.
    The same amount was also associated with a 40 per cent lower risk of death from all causes.
    Their research broadens existing health claims made about moderate red wine consumption to all wine, and to some extent, alcohol in general.
    The team analysed a lifestyle and dietary survey of 1,373 men from Zutphen, an industrial town in the eastern Netherlands. Known as the Zutphen Study, it followed the men, all born between 1900 and 1920, until death and measured their alcohol intake seven times over 40 years.
    Martinette Streppel, lead author of the new research, said the results were specific to “long-term, light alcohol intake among middle-aged men”.
    Wine gave the most protection when compared with other alcoholic drinks, adding an extra two years on to the drinker’s life on average, said Streppel, a PhD student at Wageningen University.
    And, men who drank small amounts of wine (around 45ml) could expect to live nearly four years longer than those who drank no alcohol.
    “Those people who already consume alcoholic beverages should do so lightly (1 to 2 glasses per day) and preferably drink wine,” said Streppel.
    Several previous studies have linked moderate consumption of red wine to lower heart disease risk and even longer life.
    More recently, these apparent benefits have been attributed to polyphenols in the wine, which are thought to provide strong protection for human blood vessels. One type of polyphenol in wine, procyanidins, are considered the most active.
    Source: Presentation to American Heart Association’s 47th Annual Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention.
    Authors: Martinette Streppel, Marga Ocke, Hendriek Boshuizen, Frans Kok and Daan Kromhout (all PhD).
    Yogurt is not just a delicious snack with fruits on the bottom, it has great health benefits. It is an excellent source of protein, calcium, riboflavin and vitamin B 12. When yogurt is compared to milk, yogurt contains more calcium and protein because of the added cultures in the yogurt. Yogurt must contain active and living cultures to be yogurt. Cultures are composed of unique living microorganisms which are responsible for many of the health and nutritional benefits of yogurt. Some of the health benefits of yogurt are It improves natural defense, it contains a good amount of phosphorus and 88% water. People with a risk of osteoporosis should eat at least one serving of yogurt per day. It has also been claimed that yogurt may protect against some types of cancer but more investigations have to be carried out. Some people have trouble digesting lactose, a carbohydrate in milk and milk products, because of the deficiency of enzyme lactase in the body. Live yogurt cultures produce lactase and break down the lactose. Yogurt is a healthy way to get the calcium the body needs, for the people who can not tolerate milk products. Other benefits of live and active cultures in the yogurt are, they may help to boost the immune system. They encourage the right kind of bacteria to multiply in the gut. These bacteria help to digest food and prevent stomach infections. Also, they help to provide relief from vaginal infections.
    Yogurt was a long-established staple in Eastern Europe and the Middle East before it reached our shores.
    Friendly Bacteria
    Yogurt may not be the miracle food some have claimed, but it certainly has a lot to offer in the health department. Besides being an excellent source of bone-building calcium, it is believed that the bacterial cultures Lactobacillus bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus), that are used to make yogurt, carry their own health benefits.
    For example, research has suggested that eating yogurt regularly helps boost the body’s immune-system function, warding off colds and possibly even helping to fend off cancer. It is also thought the friendly bacteria found in many types of yogurt can help prevent and even remedy diarrhea.
    For people who suffer from lactose intolerance, yogurt is often well tolerated because live yogurt cultures produce lactase, making the lactose sugar in the yogurt easier to digest (see Lactose Intolerance for advice on coping with this condition). Be sure to check the label on the yogurt carton for the National Yogurt Association’s Live and Active Cultures (LAC) seal. This seal identifies products that contain a significant amount of live and active cultures
    In 2002, a Joint FAO/WHO Working Group defined probiotics as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host”. In other words, probiotics are live bacteria that are beneficial to our health, when eaten an adequate amount. It is important for our large intestine to maintain a healthy count of these “good” bacteria – a concept first promoted by a Russian scientist in 1907!
    Health Benefits of Probiotics
    Studies found that probiotics may improve nutrient bioavailability, including B vitamins, calcium, iron, zinc, copper, magnesium and phosphorus.
    Pediatric studies found that probiotics aids in a significantly decreasing the rate of acute diarrhea and rotavirus shedding. Parents also reported a 25% decrease in diaper rash among babies drinking formula containing probiotics.
    Probiotics and active bacteria culture may improve lactose intolerance. The bacterial strain commonly used in yogurt can produce lactase enzymes. Therefore, people with lactose intolerance and children suffering from intestinal infection can usually tolerate yogurt with an active culture.
    Many studies showed that by regulating intestinal transit time, probiotics improve constipation among the elderly.
    Other studies showed that probiotics, especially acidophilus, promotes the growth of healthy bacteria in the colon and reduces the conversion of bile into carcinogens (cancer causing substances).
    Quite a few studies found that probiotics may enhance immunity by regulating lymphocytes as well as antibodies
    Pineapple contains the protein digesting enzyme mixture called bromelain. The uses of these enzymes are similar to those mentioned in the notes on papaya. However, fresh pineapple juice has many other uses. When tuberculosis was common instead of the rarity it has now become, the juice was found to be effective in dissolving mucus and aiding recovery from the once dread disease.
    Pineapple has been thought good for heart conditions and indeed should not be used by people with haemophilia or by those with diseases of the kidneys and liver. This is because it seems to reduce the time taken to coagulate the blood – which is why it can be useful for heart patients.
    Sore throats and bronchitis are relieved by sipping the juice. Choose ripe fruits of good colour for pineapples do not become sweeter on storage if they are picked green. This is because the starch in the stem is taken up into the fruit and converted to sugar only at the final stage of ripening. If it is cut off beforehand then the sweetness can be as little as a half of that found in a ripe fruit allowed to finish its development on the plant
    ­­­Pineapple Strengthens Bones
    One of the benefits of pineapple is that it helps to build healthy bones. Pineapples are rich in manganese, a trace mineral that is needed for your body to build bone and connective tissues. Just one cup of pineapple provides 73% of the daily recommended amount of manganese. The benefits of pineapple can effect the growth of bones in young people and the strengthening of bones in older people. ­­­
    Health Benefits
    ­A Digestive Aid and A Natural Anti-Inflammatory
    Fresh pineapple is rich in bromelain, a group of sulfur-containing proteolytic (protein-digesting) enzymes that not only aid digestion, but can effectively reduce inflammation and swelling, and has even been used experimentally as an anti-cancer agent. A variety of inflammatory agents are inhibited by the action of bromelain. In clinical human trials, bromelain has demonstrated signifcant anti-inflammatory effects, reducing swelling in inflammatory conditions such as acute sinusitis, sore throat, arthritis and gout, and speeding recovery from injuries and surgery. To maximize bromelain’s anti-inflammatory effects, pineapple should be eaten alone between meals or its enzymes will be used up digesting food. Bromelain is found in both the flesh and stem of pineapple. Since it is deactivated by heat, pineapple juice and canned pineapple are not good sources of this health-promoting enzyme. In terms of getting bromelain from pineapple, fresh is definitely the way to go.
    ­Antioxidant Protection and Immune Support
    Vitamin C is the body’s primary water-soluble antioxidant, defending all aqueous areas of the body against free radicals that attack and damage normal cells. Free radicals have been shown to promote the artery plaque build-up of atherosclerosis and diabetic heart disease, cause the airway spasm that leads to asthma attacks, damage the cells of the colon so they become colon cancer cells, and contribute to the joint pain and disability seen in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. This would explain why diets rich in vitamin C have been shown to be useful for preventing or reducing the severity of all of these conditions. In addition, vitamin C is vital for the proper function of the immune system, making it a nutrient to turn to for the prevention of recurrent ear infections, colds, and flu.
    ­Manganese and Thiamin (Vitamin B1) for Energy Production and Antioxidant Defenses
    Pineapple is an excellent source the trace mineral manganese, which is an essential cofactor in a number of enzymes important in energy production and antioxidant defenses. For example, the key oxidative enzyme superoxide dismutase, which disarms free radicals produced within the mitochondria (the energy production factories within our cells), requires manganese. Just one cup of fresh pineapple supplies 128.0% of the DV for this very important trace mineral. In addition to manganese, pineapple is a good source of thiamin, a B vitamin that acts as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions central to energy production.
    ­Anti-Tumor Compounds Found in Pineapple Stems
    Two molecules found in pineapple stems have shown anti-tumor activity in research done at Australia’s Queensland Institute of Medical Research (QIMR). One of the molecules, called CCS, blocks the Ras protein, which is defective in approximately 30% of all cancers, while the other molecule, CCZ, stimulates the immune system to target and eliminate cancer cells.
    The QIMR researchers discovered these anti-cancer molecules while studying bromelain. “We suspected that different components of the crude mixture might be responsible for bromelain’s biological effects. In searching for these components, we discovered the CCS and CCZ proteins and found that they could block growth of a broad range of tumour cells, including breast, lung, colon, ovarian and melanoma,” said lead researcher, Dr. Tracey Mynott.
    The major limitation of current cancer therapies is they are non-specific and affect both normal and tumor cells. Future cancer treatments will be highly specific to selectively destroy the cancer cells, counteracting the mechanisms by which cancers grow. Data already generated show that CCS and CCZ have the desired specificity and selectivity.
    “An interesting characteristic of CCS and CCZ is that they are proteases. Proteases are traditionally thought of as degradative enzymes which breakdown proteins, such as in the process of digestion. Other reports on the role of proteases in disease have centered on their potential to cause damage. CCS and CCZ are the first examples of proteases that have been shown to modulate cell signal transduction pathways and have specific immunomodulatory activities,” said Dr Mynott.
    “The way CCS and CCZ work is different to any other drug in clinical use today. Therefore, CCS and CCZ will represent a totally new way of treating disease and potentially a whole new class of anti-cancer agent. In general, products with novel mechanisms of action are more likely to represent real breakthroughs in the treatment or prevention of disease.” QIMR is continuing to investigate CCS and CCZ to demonstrate i) additional in vivo proof of principle, ii) reliable supply of the material and iii) safety. All these factors will be addressed in a two year research program. If all the objectives of the research are achieved, CCS or CCZ will rapidly progress to human clinical trials.
    ­Protection against Macular Degeneration
    Your mother may have told you carrots would keep your eyes bright as a child, but as an adult, it looks like fruit is even more important for keeping your sight. Data reported in a study published in the Archives of Ophthalmology indicates that eating 3 or more servings of fruit per day may lower your risk of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), the primary cause of vision loss in older adults, by 36%, compared to persons who consume less than 1.5 servings of fruit daily.
    In this study, which involved over 110,000 women and men, researchers evaluated the effect of study participants’ consumption of fruits; vegetables; the antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E; and carotenoids on the development of early ARMD or neovascular ARMD, a more severe form of the illness associated with vision loss. While, surprisingly, intakes of vegetables, antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids were not strongly related to incidence of either form of ARMD, fruit intake was definitely protective against the severe form of this vision-destroying disease. Three servings of fruit may sound like a lot to eat each day, but pineapple can help you reach this goal. Add fresh pineapple to your morning smoothie, lunch time yogurt, any fruit and most vegetable salads. For example, try adding chunks of pineapple to your next coleslaw or carrot salad.
    Antimicrobial activity of Thyme
    The extracts from thyme by water and ethanol, thyme essential oil, thymol and carvacrol were used as antimicrobial agents. The results show that all antimicrobial agents used have strong inhibition activity against Staphalococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli.
    Thyme Research Update
    Systemic availability and pharmacokinetics of thymol in humans.
    J Clin Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;42(7):731-7.
    Essential oil compounds such as found in thyme extract are established for the therapy of chronic and acute bronchitis. Various pharmacodynamic activities for thyme extract and the essential thyme oil, respectively, have been demonstrated in vitro, but availability of these compounds in the respective target organs has not been proven. Thus, investigation of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion are necessary to provide the link between in vitro effects and in vivo studies. To determine the systemic availability and the pharmacokinetics of thymol after oral application to humans, a clinical trial was carried out in 12 healthy volunteers. Each subject received a single dose of a Bronchipret TP tablet, which is equivalent to 1.08 mg thymol. No thymol could be detected in plasma or urine. However, the metabolites thymol sulfate and thymol glucuronide were found in urine. Thymol sulfate, but not thymol glucuronide, was detectable in plasma. Peak plasma concentrations were reached after 2.0 hours. The mean terminal elimination half-life was 10 hours. Thymol sulfate was detectable up to 41 hours after administration. Urinary excretion could be followed over 24 hours. The amount of both thymol sulfate and glucuronide excreted in 24-hour urine was 16% of the dose.
    In-vitro anti-inflammatory effect of Eucalyptus globulus and Thymus vulgaris: nitric oxide inhibition in J774A.1 murine macrophages.
    J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004 Feb;56(2):257-63.
    It is well known that nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Thymus vulgaris L. ( thyme ) have been used in traditional medicine in the treatment of bronchitis, asthma and other respiratory diseases. The present study focuses on the effects of these two extracts on NO production induced by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the murine macrophage cell line. E. globulus and thyme extracts significantly inhibited the enhanced production of NO induced by LPS and IFN-gamma in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with these two extracts did not reduce cell viability at any dose used. Both eucalyptus and thyme showed significant scavenging of NO radicals released by an NO donor, PAPA-NONOate. Results also show that pre-treatment with E. globulus and thyme extracts significantly inhibits iNOS mRNA expression. This study thus suggests that the inhibition of net NO production by these two extracts may be due to their NO scavenging activity and/or their inhibitory effects on iNOS gene expression.
    Human platelet aggregation inhibitors from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).
    Phytother Res. 2002 Jun;16(4):398-9.
    Two antiaggregant compounds, thymol (compound 1) and 3,4,3′,4′-tetrahydroxy-5,5′-diisopropyl-2,2′-dimethylbiphenyl (compound 2) were isolated from the leaves of thyme. These compounds inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, ADP, arachidonic acid and thrombin except that compound 2 did not inhibit platelet aggregation induced by thrombin. thyme maternity rosemary and thyme herbs thyme wild thyme parsley sage rosemary and thyme oil thyme.
    Effect of thyme oil and thymol dietary supplementation on the antioxidant status and fatty acid composition of the ageing rat brain. thyme plant
    Aromatic and Medicinal Plant Group, Scottish Agricultural College, Auchincruive, Ayr, UK.
    Br J Nutr. 2000 Jan;83(1):87-93.
    The present study measured changes in antioxidant enzyme activity in, and the phospholipid fatty acid composition of the ageing rat brain and tested whether dietary supplementation with thyme oil or thymol could provide beneficial effects. There were significant declines in superoxide dismutase (EC and glutathione peroxidase (EC activities and the total antioxidant status in the untreated rats with age, while thyme-oil- and thymol-fed rats maintained significantly higher antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant status. The proportions of 18:2n-6, 20:1n-9, 22:4n-6 and 22:5n-3 in the brain phospholipids resulting from all three dietary treatments were significantly higher in 28-month-old rats than in 7-month-old rats. Only 20:1n-9 levels in 28-month-old thyme-oil- and thymol-treated rats were significantly higher than in the age-matched control. The proportion of 22:6n-3 in brain phospholipids, which declined with age in control rats, was also significantly higher in rats given either supplement. This latter finding is particularly important as optimum levels of 22:6n-3 are required for normal brain function. These results highlight the potential benefit of thyme oil as a dietary antioxidant. thyme research thyme oil. season of thyme wild mountain thyme thyme picture thyme and again
    classic thyme olive thyme cookware old thyme herb olive thyme tea thyme.
    Relieves nightmares, strengthens breathing, strengthens weak stomach, gas, cramps, diarrhea, relieves headaches.
    Thyme is a cultivated form of the wild thyme of the mountains European countries bordering the Mediterranean. Thyme contains very high concentrations of antioxidants (i.e., >75 mmol/100 g). In a normal diet, intake of herbs may therefore contribute significantly to the total intake of plant antioxidants, and be an even better source of dietary antioxidants than many other food groups such as fruits, berries, cereals and vegetables.
    Health Benefits
    Thyme has a long history of use in natural medicine in connection with chest and respiratory problems including coughs, bronchitis, and chest congestion. Only recently, however, have researchers pinpointed some of the components in thyme that bring about its healing effects. The volatile oil components of thyme are now known to include carvacolo, borneol, geraniol, but most importantly, thymol.
    Significant Anti-Oxidant Protection of Cellular Membranes
    Thymol – named after the herb itself – is the primary volatile oil constituent of thyme, and its health-supporting effects are well documented. In studies on aging in rats, thymol has been found to protect and significantly increase the percentage of healthy fats found in cell membranes and other cell structures. In particular, the amount of DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid) in brain, kidney, and heart cell membranes was increased after dietary supplementation with thyme. In other studies looking more closely at changes in the brains cells themselves, researchers found that the maximum benefits of thyme occurred when the food was introduced very early in the lifecycle of the rats, but was less effective in offsetting the problems in brain cell aging when introduced late in the aging process. Thyme also contains a variety of flavonoids, including apigenin, naringenin, luteolin, and thymonin. These flavonoids increase thyme’s antioxidant capacity, and combined with its status as a very good source of manganese, give thyme a high standing on the list of anti-oxidant foods.
    Eradicate Microbes with Thyme
    The volatile oil components of thyme have also been shown to have antimicrobial activity against a host of different bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Shigella sonnei are a few of the species against which thyme has been shown to have antibacterial activity.
    For thousands of years, herbs and spices have been used to help preserve foods and protect them from microbial contamination, now research shows that both thyme and basil contain constituents that can both prevent contamination and decontaminate previously contaminated foods. In these studies, published in the February 2004 issue of Food Microbiology, researchers found that thyme essential oil was able to decontaminate lettuce inoculated with Shigella, an infectious organism that triggers diarrhea and may cause significant intestinal damage. In addition, washing produce in solution containing either basil or thyme essential oil at the very low concentration of just 1% resulted in dropping the number of Shigella bacteria below the point at which they could be detected. While scientists use this research to try to develop natural food preservatives, it makes good sense to include thyme and basil in more of your recipes, particularly for foods that are not cooked such as salads. Adding fresh thyme and/or basil to your next vinaigrette will not only enhance the flavor of your fresh greens, but will help ensure that the fresh produce you consume is safe to eat.
    A Nutrient-Dense Spice
    The range of other health-supportive nutrients found in thyme is also impressive. This food emerged from our food ranking system as an excellent source of iron and manganese, a very good source of calcium and a food source of dietary fiber.
    A delicate looking herb with a penetrating fragrance, thyme is an herb we should all take time to investigate and enjoy. And with about sixty different varieties including French (common) thyme, lemon thyme, orange thyme and silver thyme, this herb is sure to add some spice to your life. Thyme leaves are curled, elliptically shaped and very small, measuring about one-eighth of an inch long and one-sixteenth of an inch wide. The upper leaf is green-grey in color on top, while the underside is a whitish color. French thyme is known scientifically as Thymus vulgaris.
    Thymus vulgaris
    Names: Common Thyme, Garden Thyme
    Habitat: Thyme is indigenous to the Mediterranean region, and cultivated widely.
    Collection: The flowering branches should be collected between June and August on a dry sunny day. The leaves are stripped off the dried branches.
    Part Used: Leaves and flowering tops.
    Volatile oil, of highly variable composition; the major constituent is thymol, with
    lesser amounts of carvacrol, with 1, 8-cineole, borneol, geraniol, linalool, bornyl and
    linalyl acetate, thymol methyl etherand [[alpha]]-pinene.
    Flavonoids; apigenin, luteolin, thymonin, naringenin and others
    Miscellaneous; labiatic acid, caffeic acid, tannins etc.
    Actions: Carminative, anti-microbial, anti-spasmodic, expectorant, astringent, anthelmintic.
    Indications: With its high content of volatile oil, Thyme makes a good carminative for use in dyspepsia and sluggish digestion. This oil is also a strongly antiseptic substance, which explains many of Thyme’s uses. It can be used externally as a lotion for infected wounds, but also internally for respiratory and digestive infections. It may be use as a gargle in laryngitis and tonsillitis, easing sore throats and soothing irritable coughs. It is an excellent cough remedy, producing expectoration and reducing unnecessary spasm. It may be used in bronchitis, whooping cough and asthma. As a gentle astringent it has found use in childhood diarrhea and bed wetting.
    Kings’ Dispensatory describes it thus: “Thyme is tonic, carminative emmenagogue and anti-spasmodic. The cold infusion is useful in dyspepsia, with weak and irritable stomach and as a stimulating tonic in convalescence from exhausting diseases. The warm infusion is beneficial in hysteria, dysmenorrhea, flatulence, colic, headache, and to promote perspiration. Occasionally the leaves have been used externally, in fomentation. The oil is valuable as a local application to neuralgic and rheumatic pains; and, internally, to fulfill any of the indications for which the plant is used. Dose of the infusion, from 1 to 3 fluid ounces; of the oil, from 2 to 10 drops on sugar, or in emulsion. Thyme, skullcap and rue of each 2 ounces; peony and black cohosh, of each, 1 ounce; macerated for 14 days in diluted alcohol, and then filtered, forms a good preparation for nervous and spasmodic diseases of children. It may be given in teaspoonful doses to a child 3 years old, repeating it 3 or 4 times a day, sweetening and diluting it, if desired. A strong infusion of the Thymusserpyllus, slightly sweetened and mixed with gum Arabic, is stated by M. Joset to be a valuable remedy for whooping-cough, convulsive and catarrhal coughs and stridulous sore throat, the favorable result occurring at the end of a very few days. It may be taken ad libitum.”
    Combinations: For asthmatic problems it will combine well with Lobelia and Ephedra, adding its anti-microbial effect. For whooping cough use it with Wild Cherry and Sundew.
    Preparations & Dosage: Infusion: pour a cup of boiling water onto 2 teaspoonfuls of the dried herb and let infuse for 10 minutes. This should be drunk three times a day. Tincture: take 2-4ml of the tincture three times a day.
    Key constituents of thyme include thymol, carvacrol and flavonoids, often attributed with the antibacterial, antiflatulent and antiworming properties of the herb. Thyme is also used to suppress coughing, ease chest congestion and stimulate production of saliva (1).
    Thymol is considered to be antihelmintic (antiworm) with particular effectiveness against hookworm, and together with carvacrol is both antibacterial and antifungal (1) (2) (3).
    The German Commission E Monographs list thyme as being bronchoantispasmodic, expectorant and antibacterial (4).
    Traditionally it is the thyme leaf and flowering tops that have been used therapeutically. In folk medicine thyme is used to stimulate the appetite, suppress coughing, and relieve digestive disorders such as chronic gastritis, diarrhoea in children and flatulence. It is also used to expel parasitic worms (1) (2) (5), particularly in children (6).
    The overall antiseptic and tonic properties of thyme suit it well as a general boost for the immune system during times of chronic infection, and is still commonly used to remedy respiratory ailments (6).
    Laboratory studies demonstrate that thymol has antifungal activity against a number of species, including Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus, Saprolegnia, and Zygorhynchus species. Further studies confirm the antibacterial actions of this constituent, with demonstrated activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureas, Escherichia coli and other bacterial species (7). As an antibiotic, thymol is 25 times as effective as phenol, but less toxic (7) (8) (9).
    Research in Scotland during the 1990’s suggests that thyme and its volatile oil may counter the effects of aging. Subsequent studies have confirmed thyme’s antioxidant properties, and how it helps the body maintain higher levels of essential fatty acids within the brain (6).
    Thyme is generally regarded as safe when used in normal amounts, and has a Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status in the US. Typical dosages of thyme include up to 4 grams of dried herb equivalent three times per day (1) (10).
    Due to the lack of reliable information regarding large amounts of Thyme it should be limited to a moderate intake, particularly during pregnancy and breastfeeding (1).
    Mechanism of Action
    Key constituents of thyme include phenols (thymol, carvacrol), flavonoids, borneol, linalool, rosmarinic acid, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, and acetophenone glycosides.
    Thyme and thymol have shown antibacterial activity in vitro against Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Heliobacter pylori, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Selenomonas artemidis,Streptococcus sobrinus, and Streptococcus mutans. This activity is possibly related to cell membrane perforation. Thymol has also demonstrated antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus flavous.
    In vitro and in vivo studies show that thyme flavonoids relax tracheal and ileal smooth muscles. The mechanism of action may be inhibition of acetylcholine and histamine receptors, calcium channel antagonism, or inhibition of phasic contractions. This antispasmolytic activity may be dependent on flavone aglycone concentrations.
    In vitro and in vivo studies of thyme have also demonstrated antioxidant effects and anti-inflammatory effects including inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. There are few studies on pharmacodynamic effects of thyme or thyme constituents. One study of the thyme phenolic constituents thymol and carvacrol showed rapid urinary excretion of metabolites.
    Culpeper states that thyme is:
    “a noble strengthener of the lungs, as notable a one as grows, nor is there a better remedy growing for hooping cough. It purgeth the body of phlegm and is an excellent remedy for shortness of breath. It is so harmless you need not fear the use of it. An ointment made of it takes away hot swellings and warts, helps the sciatica and dullness of sight and takes away any pains and hardness of the spleen: It is excellent for those that are troubled with the gout and the herb taken anyway inwardly is of great comfort to the stomach.”
    John Gerard maintains it will “cure sciatica and pains in the head” and is “healing in leprosy and the falling sickness,” and in the Middle Ages it was prescribed as a cure for nightmares.
    Camphor of thyme was noticed first by Neumann, apothecary to the Court at Berlin in 1725. It was called thymol and carefully examined in 1853 by Lallemand and recommended instead of phenol (carbolic acid) in 1868 by Bouilhon, apothecary, and Paquet, M.D., of Lille.
    Bees’ affinity for thyme is well known. Thyme honey, made when bees collect pollen from thyme flowers, is renowned. The fine flavor of the honey of Mount Hymettus near Athens was said to be due to the wild thyme with which it was covered, being of such special flavor and sweetness that in the minds and writings of the Ancients, sweetness and thyme were inextricably linked. “The honey which comes from thyme is held to be the best and most profitable,” wrote Pliny
    Inhibition of listeriolysin O and phosphatidylcholine-specific production in Listeria monocytogenes by subinhibitory concentrations of plant essential oils
    A. SMITH-PALMER*, J. STEWART{dagger} and L. FYFE*
    *Department of Dietetics, Nutrition and Biological Sciences, Queen Margaret University College, Clerwood Terrace, Edinburgh EH12 8TS and {dagger}Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Edinburgh Medical School, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG
    Corresponding author: Dr L. Fyfe. *Present address: Department of Biological Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS.
    Received 15 March 2001; revised version accepted 22 Oct. 2001.
    Successful infection by Listeria monocytogenes is dependent upon a range of bacterial extracellular proteins including a cytolysin termed listeriolysin O and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C. Five plant essential oils – bay, clove, cinnamon, nutmeg and thyme – significantly reduced the production of listeriolysin O by L. monocytogenes. The greatest change was observed after culture with oil of thyme, which reduced haemolysis to 52.1 haemolytic units (HU)/ml compared with 99.85muHU/ml observed with the control. Oil of clove was the only oil that also significantly reduced phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C activity. These changes were observed despite the oils causing no change to the final bacterial concentration or total extracellular protein concentration.
    Detoxifies the body of caffeine
    Cleanses kidneys and bladder
    Stimulates digestive system and reduces gas
    Expectorant action
    Improves circulation to the lungs and thus
    considered good for asthma and bronchitis
    Can counteract excess acidity in the stomach
    Stimulates appetite
    Remedy for tendency to infection
    Cures halitosi
    Cardamom is used for the following
    Elletaria cardamomum benefits:
    freshening the breath after eating garlic
    kidneys and bladder
    detoxifies caffeine
    fighting infections
    Cardamon Seed Powder
    The seeds contain volatile oil, fixed oil, salt of potassium, a colouring principle, starch, nitrogenous mucilage, ligneous fibre, an acrid resin, and ash. The volatile oil contains terpenes, terpineol and cineol. —Medicinal Action and Uses—Carminative, stimulant, aromatic, but rarely used alone; chiefly useful as an adjuvant or corrective. The seeds are helpful in indigestion and flatulence, giving grateful but not fiery warmth. When chewed singly in the mouth the flavor is not unpleasant, and they are said to be good for colic and disorders of the head.
    CARDAMOM: Strengthens the heart and lungs. It relieves pain, gas and sharpens the mind.
    Cardamom: Like ginger, cardamom is often used to soothe digestion problems. But it is also used to treat respiratory problems such as asthma or people suffering from other kinds of respiratory spasms. Further, in Saudi Arabia, animal studies have shown cardamom to have anti-inflammatory properties, reducing muscle spasms.
    The Secret World of Spices
    August 1999 — Cover Story
    By: Ronald C. Deis, Ph.D.
    Contributing Editor
    Spices do much more than impart flavor. In fact, a “secret” spice world has flourished for centuries, and is still cultivated by many cultures and modern-day herbalists. Spices and herbs have also been used for centuries as preservatives, colorants and medicinal remedies.
    China, India, Greece, Rome and Egypt have a rich history in the medicinal use of spices and herbs. Since the time of the ancient Greeks and Romans, spices have been used to combat snakebites, poor eyesight, stomach disorders, sleeping problems, poor circulation, sores, colds, muscular aches, gout, lumbago, poor digestion, motion sickness and hangovers. The apothecary industry in Europe emerged from the practice of blending spices and herbs to cure specific ills. In Middle-Age Europe, pomanders containing spice blends were popular as air purifiers, and were worn about the neck or hung in a room. Today, we might consider this potpourri.
    Spices have played an even larger role in history, however. The search for new and lower-cost spices resulted in the discovery of new lands and trade routes. Exploration needed a bottom line, and since spices were highly valued, any exploration that led to a new source or new spice filled the bill.
    What is a spice?
    According to the American Spice Trade Association (ASTA), Englewood Cliffs, NJ, ( the proper definition of spices, as opposed to herbs or botanicals, is “any dried plant product used primarily for seasoning purposes.” This definition includes a wide range of plants – tropical aromatics, leafy herbs, spice seeds, roots, dehydrated vegetables and spice blends.
    In the past, the leaves and seeds of temperate-zone plants were known as herbs, while the term spice denoted tropical aromatics only. Over time, this classification shifted, so that in general, the term spice now covers a whole range of elements – spices, herbs, blends and dehydrated vegetables. The FDA’s definition of spices, however, does not include dehydrated vegetables, so these require separate labeling in a product, as do any color-contributing spices such as paprika, turmeric or saffron. The USDA has much the same rules as the FDA, but also requires that onion and garlic be listed as “flavors.”
    Prior to the early 1800s, spices were available in whole form only, and it was up to the user to grind them. Today, we have whole spices, ground spices, seasoning blends, which may be a combination of several spices and several forms, and spice extractives. Spice extractives include essential oils (volatile aromatic fractions); oleoresins (derived by solvent extraction of the whole spice, including volatile and non-volatile fractions); liquid solubles (oleoresins plus solubilizing agents to create a liquid seasoning); dry solubles (oleoresins plated on a dry carrier); encapsulated spices; standardized oleoresins; and WONFs (essential oils plus other natural flavoring materials).
    Battling microbes
    Even in Middle-Age Europe, it was well-known that spices provide important preservation qualities. Salting, smoking, or pickling were also used to inhibit spoilage, but spices were preferred, which was the reason for their considerable worth.
    The most effective antimicrobial spices include garlic, onion, cinnamon, cloves, thyme and sage. Cloves, which have a high essential oil content, contain eugenol, a phenylpropanoid also present in sage and cinnamon. Allicin, present in garlic, also acts as an antimicrobial agent, as does the allyl isothiocyanate present in mustard. Thymol, present in thyme, oregano and sage, is also noted for its antimicrobial properties.
    Research at Kansas State University, Manhattan, has shown that cloves have a high antimicrobial effect against Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in ground meat. Cinnamon, garlic, oregano and sage were also shown to be effective – adding 7.5% garlic and clove killed 99% of the pathogen. This percentage is a little high for palatability, but further research could lead to extractives that are effective against specific bacteria.
    The best summary of what is known to date on the effectiveness of spices as antimicrobials is found in this list, adapted from L. Zaika in the Journal of Food Safety, 1988:
    Microorganisms differ in their resistance to a given spice or herb.
    A given microorganism differs in its resistance to various spices and herbs.
    Bacteria are more resistant than fungi.
    The effect on spores may be different than on vegetative cells.
    Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant than gram-positive bacteria.
    The effect may be inhibitory or germicidal (generally inhibitory).
    HAACP is still important – spices and herbs may harbor contaminants or serve as substrate for growth.
    Amounts of spices and herbs added to foods are generally too low to prevent spoilage.
    Nutrients present in spices and herbs may actually stimulate microbial growth.
    Active components may interact synergistically with other factors to increase preservative effect.
    The final item refers to an effect that has been recognized for some time and is often termed the “hurdle theory.” Microorganisms can be controlled through a combination of factors, including water activity, acidity, atmosphere (aerobic/anaerobic), temperature and chemical composition. For best antimicrobial results, adjustment should be made to as many of these factors as possible, throwing a number of “hurdles” in the way of microbial growth. If a number of factors can be combined so that the preservative effects of each can be realized without impacting the sensory attributes of the food product, the project is a success. If the preservative also brings along a desirable color or antioxidant effect, so much the better.
    Antioxidant activity
    Spices can also extend shelf life by slowing oxidation. In foods, lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, and enzymatic oxidation cause shelf-life problems. Rancidity development is an oxidative process that can be blocked by antioxidants, which block formation of free radicals by donating electrons or hydrogen ions to halt the oxidative process. While phenolic compounds such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), or tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) are all very effective, economical ingredients, they are not appropriate for a natural product. On the other hand, commercial rosemary products might be a better fit. Active compounds in this herb are diphenolic diterpenes, which are highly effective antioxidants. The main constituents include: carnosol, carnosoic acid and its esters, and lesser amounts of rosmanol, rosmaridiphenol and rosmarinic acid. Sage and thyme also contain natural antioxidative compounds.
    The positive effects of antioxidants aren’t just limited to food preservation. In the body, free radicals are initiated by a number of processes – heat, UV light, radiation, alcohol and tobacco, for example. Free-radical damage to cells can limit the ability of cells to fight cancer or to limit aging. At the University of Kentucky, researchers found that Vitamin E, a strong antioxidant, can limit the death of brain cells exposed to a free-radical-stimulating protein in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. Also, tests conducted by the USDA Tufts University in Boston, and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore have demonstrated a link between heart disease and lipid oxidation. Spices might also provide some of the same effects.
    Compound Chemistry
    What are some of the chemical constituents responsible for the healing and preservative properties of spices and herbs? Several classes of compounds stand out, and have collectively been given the name “phytochemicals.” These are generally secondary metabolites produced by a plant as an attractant for insects or as a defense against microbial or animal attack. In our diet, these compounds can, taken in moderation with proper exercise and reduction of stress, act as one step toward improving the quality of life.
    Sulfur Compounds:
    Sulfides and thioles play a prominent role in the preservative features of the onion family, Alliaceae.
    Terpenes and Terpene Derivatives:
    Terpenes are divided into classes of molecular weight – monoterpenes have 10 carbon atoms; sesquiterpenes, 15; diterpenes, 20; and triterpenes, 30. Monoterpenes are the most common, and spices are differentiated by their specific mixture of these. Monoterpenes play a large role in the mint and parsley families. Common to this class are limonene, pinene, camphene, myrcene, dipentene, terpinene. The sesqui-, di-, and tri- terpenes are less common, and are usually found specific to certain families. Sesquiterpenes are important to the characteristics of cinnamon and the Zingiberaceae family (ginger, turmeric, galangal). Common to this class are farnesol and chamazulene. Di- and triterpenes are very bitter, and are responsible for some of the bitterness of the mint family. Carotenoids are terpene derivatives, as is thymol, a preservative compound of thyme.
    Phenols figure prominently in a number of products – eugenol in cloves, safrol in nutmeg, vanillin in vanilla beans, and cinnamic acid in cinnamon, for example. Others include thymol, anethole and myristicin.
    Glycosides are made up of two distinct parts – a sugar molecule, and a non-sugar part called an aglycon. The glycoside itself is usually non-volatile, but the aglycon is easily cleaved, and can be volatile. The best example of this type of compound is mustard-oil glycosides, which release an isothiocyanate that causes tears and burning, as from horseradish.
    The aldehyde groups includes citral, cinnamic aldehyde, benzaldehyde and citronellal.
    Esters are found in most essential oils, and include eugenyl acetate, bornyl acetate and linalyl acetate.
    Alcohols have notable antimicrobial and antiviral properties, and include farnesol, citronellol, linalool, methol, terpinol and benzyl alcohol.
    A series of papers presented by Wang, et. al., of the food science department at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, shows that a number of spices, most notably basil, rosemary and sage, are very active anti-tumorigenic agents. Another paper by Wang, et. al. discusses the antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, and antimicrobial activity of Dalmatian sage, Salvia officinalis. Of 25 compounds isolated from sage by alcohol extraction, four were found to be very active. Flavonoid compounds were also evaluated in ethyl extracts from rosemary; six compounds were identified. Evidence suggests that the presence of flavonoids and di- and triterpenes is responsible for the antioxidant properties of rosemary.
    Color combinations
    Spices also improve the appearance of a food. For example, at 4% to 16% carotenoids, chili peppers provide a range of red to green colors.
    Paprika, turmeric and their oleoresins, as well as saffron, are approved in the United States as color additives in 21 CFR section 73, and may be used with no restrictions.
    Saffron, produced from the stigma of Crocus sativas, a member of the iris family, has a very intense water-soluble, yellow-orange color. This color is caused by carotenoids, particularly crocetin and crocin, as well as P- and L-carotene, lycopene and zeazanthin. Saffron may be unique in its color and fragrance, but it is also the most expensive spice in the world, at a cost of over $300 per lb. Saffron is permitted as a natural color in the United States, but economics limits its use. Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius, is a frequent saffron substitute overseas, but is not permitted in this country. This member of the sunflower family owes its orange-red color to the flavanoid carthamin. Safflower oil, even better known as an ingredient, is a highly unsaturated oil with high vitamin E content.
    Turmeric, Curcuma longa, a member of the ginger family, is also a very effective natural colorant. The name Curcuma is actually derived from the Persian word “kirkum,” meaning saffron. When the roots of this plant are dried and ground, the powder produced is yellow with an orange tinge. The powder is often blended with paprika and annatto to produce the desired color. Its largest use is in prepared mustard, but it is also widely used in curry powder, pickles, relish, sausage and cheese. The extractable color in turmeric comes from curcumin, which is also a natural antioxidant.
    Paprika provides a brilliant red powder derived from carotenoids – capsanthrine, capsorubin, beta-carotene and others. Paprika is produced from the pods of Capsicum annum, a mild bell pepper. Formulators usually prefer to use paprika oleoresin due to its better light stability. Product applications include blends for curry powder, cereals, sauces and baked goods.
    Cinnamon can also provide a range of colors, depending on the type chosen. Cassia-type cinnamons, native to China and Indonesia, have a range of essential oil contents (cinnamic aldehyde), and provide a selection of aromas, flavors and color intensities. Ceylon-type cinnamon is very low in essential oils, and so is weak in color, flavor and aroma.
    The onion family
    Onions, Allium cepa, are among the top three ingredients used in recipes worldwide. (The other two are salt and pepper.) In the United States, each person consumes approximately 16 lbs. of onions per year. Fresh onions contain only about 0.01% essential oil, made up of a range of sulfide compounds. The trademark “crying effect” experienced when cutting onions is caused by thiopropanal-S-oxide and propenyl sulfenic acid. When onion is dried, its flavor and odor become more garlic-like.
    One of the best-selling herbal remedies in the United States is a member of the onion family, Alliaciae, but it’s not onion. Garlic has been used as an herbal treatment for centuries. The Greeks, Romans and Egyptians believed that it increased strength and speed, and they also used it to treat wounds, infections, tumors and parasites. Garlic’s numerous purported cardiovascular, antimicrobial, antioxidative, antitumor, and cholesterol-lowering properties – which the ancients knew through practical use – are now being reinforced by modern studies. Add to that its flavor and aroma in Italian, Indian and other ethnic dishes, not to mention its effect on vampires, and garlic’s popularity is easily understood. In fact, production of garlic has increased from 140 million lbs. in 1975 to greater than 500 million lbs. today.
    The active compounds in garlic are found throughout the onion family, which also includes chives. When garlic cells are damaged, alliin, an odorless amino acid, is converted by allinase to allicin, which is responsible for the characteristic odor and flavor of garlic. Allicin itself is relatively unstable, and is converted over time to ajoenes, dithiins and diallyl disulfide, all of which have been shown to possess antimicrobial, anticlotting and antioxidant activity. Garlic also contains vitamins B and C, selenium and sulfur.
    According to German clinical trials using a standardized tablet marketed under the name of Kwai, garlic users who consume 600 to 900 mg per day can lower serum cholesterol an average of 12%. Meanwhile, researchers at The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, have reported that heating can destroy garlic’s anti-cancer activity. As little as one minute in the microwave or 40 minutes of oven roasting can destroy the allinase responsible for the breakdown of alliin. However, if the garlic is crushed and allowed to stand for 10 minutes, the garlic retains anti-cancer activity (as determined in rat studies). These researchers also identified three water-soluble, sulfur-containing constituents – S-allyl cysteine, S-ethyl cysteine and S-propyl cysteine – that decrease cholesterol production by 40% to 60% in rat liver cells.
    One last word on garlic – researchers at Clemson University in Charleston, SC have reported that feeding 3% dietary garlic powder to chickens reduces odor in poultry houses. (The offensive odor normally produced gives a new punch line to the old “why did the chicken cross the road?” joke. Answer – to get upwind of the other chickens.) According to researchers, the house now smells “like a pizzeria.” It is also possible that the garlic powder could lower the cholesterol content of the chickens’ eggs. In a follow-up study, hogs were a little more finicky about their food, but adapted well. Clemson is exploring the potential for commercializing this research. However, anything that would raise the cost of chicken feed would need considerable benefits to counter that cost.
    Aromatherapy for the Mind and Body
    Aromatherapy – using essential oils for flavoring, preservation, fragrance and healing -has been used by many cultures for centuries. The name may be new to this century, but perfumes, incense and extracts of aromatic plants are still used for therapeutic purposes. Certain essential oils have become associated with particular moods or notes.
    Top notes (stimulating): caraway, basil, coriander, eucalyptus, lemon, lime, sage
    Middle notes (neutral mood): anise seed, sweet fennel, thyme, black pepper, lavender, hyssop, rosemary, peppermint, pine
    Base notes (relaxing, sedative): cinnamon, clove, ginger, nutmeg, sandalwood, cedarwood
    According to aromatherapy literature, vapors can be inhaled to trigger a neurochemical release in the brain through receptors in the nose and mouth, causing the mood desired and/or evoking memories of specific personal history. Essential oils are also often used as a part of aromatherapy massage, where the oils can be worked into the skin, muscles and joints.
    Aromatherapy remedies can be found for arthritis, bronchitis, colds, diarrhea, eczema, and so forth – you can’t quite go to “z,” but there are therapies for any number of ills. Does it work? The general advice is to treat any form of aromatherapy with skepticism. It may be allright to try, but aromatherapy is mostly unsubstantiated, and some “remedies” could be harmful. And remember – it is not recommended to ingest essential oils as treatment. (However, consuming a freshly-baked cinnamon bun as a relaxant is highly recommended.)
    The nightshade family
    The nightshade, or Solanaceae family, includes tomatoes, tobacco and, most notably in this case, the genus Capsicum. Within this group are bell peppers (sweet, mild), tabascos, paprika, and habaneros (very hot). Red cayenne peppers, the hot variety of the Capsicum group, have been used for medicinal purposes since the 1500s. Believed to have originated in South America, cayenne was, according to early medical writings, used to “help digestion, provoke urine, relieve toothache, preserve the tooth from rottenness, comfort a cold stomach, expel the stone from the kidney, and take away the dimness of sight.”
    All capsicums contain a crystalline alkaloid known as capsaicin (vanillyl amids of isodenoic acid), which is responsible for the pungency, or heat. The level of capsaicin determines the level of heat, which is generally measured either as pure capsaicin or by the Scoville organoleptic test. The Scoville scale was developed in 1902, and ranks heat from zero to 300,000 Scoville units. Bell peppers measure 0 on the scale; cayenne 30,000 to 50,000; chipotle 75,000; jalepeño 5,000; and habeneros 100,000 to 300,000.
    Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin make up 80% to 90% of the capsaicinoids in peppers, and are the most pungent of the capsaicinoids. Also contained are nordihydro-, homo-, and homodihydrocysaicin.
    In addition to capsaicin, red peppers also are a good source of minerals including thiamine, iron and magnesium, and vitamins A, B, C, E, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin and beta-carotene, which leads to some use as a colorant, along with paprika. Paprika is a capsicum obtained by drying and grinding red peppers. The brilliant red color stems from the high carotenoid content. Taste, pungency and color depend upon the type of red pepper sourced. Color is measured by spectrophotometry and is expressed as ASTA color units. Paprika oleoresin is extracted with hexane or ethylene dichloride, and is generally used in sausages, cheeses, soups and sauces.
    Capsaicin has a rich history in alternative medicine, and a number of uses have been cited. It has been noted for its antimicrobial and antioxidative properties, leading to speculation that it may help to prevent cancer. Capsaicin has also been shown to provide relief for the oral mucositis (sores of the mouth) caused by chemotherapy. It acts by desensitizing the mucous membrane. When blended with sugar in a candy, it provides pain relief, while the sugar eases the capsaicin burn.
    A small amount of pepper in soft, baby-type food can help stroke patients swallow their food, according to Schwab Rehabilitation Hospital in Chicago. Also, according to the Herb Research Foundation, Boulder, CO, chili peppers can increase circulation in the stomach and intestines, helping digestion and decreasing flatulence.
    How can capsaicin have such wide-ranging effects? It has been suggested that capsaicin acts as a counter-irritant, reducing pain and swelling, aiding circulation, stimulating perspiration, and warming or cooling the extremities. Peppers can also help break up the respiratory effects of a cold, acting as an expectorant. In Russia, one potion consisting of a couple of pods in a bottle of vodka serves to treat both internal and external maladies. This concoction seems to relieve symptoms of colds, rheumatism and stomachache, as well as serve as an ingredient in a liniment to treat skin ailments or aches and pains in the joints.
    Studies are underway to confirm whether or not capsaicin, by increasing metabolic rate and body temperature, can increase the metabolism of body fat and/or slow fat absorption from the small intestine. Capsaicin is available in an over-the-counter drug, Zostrix®, for easing the pain of psoriasis, shingles, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Studies have also indicated that capsaicin may be instrumental in blocking production of “substance P,” which conveys the message of pain to the brain.
    Incidentally, capsaicin can bring an assailant to his knees with one good spray to the face – pepper spray can cause respiratory distress, eye irritation and choking. For this purpose, the more capsaicin, the better. Also, if pesky squirrels are a problem in a bird feeder, about 20,000 Scoville units on the feed will discourage squirrels, but does not affect birds.
    Black pepper and white pepper are not related to the red peppers, but come from the “peppercorn” of a climbing vine, Piper nigrum. The black pepper (which includes the dark skin of the berry) is more aromatic than the white (minus the skin), but the white is more pungent in flavor. Piperine, an alkaloid, provides the pungency. The essential oil content is 80% monoterpenes, with most of the remainder sesquiterpenes. Peppers increase appetite by stimulating the taste buds, aiding digestion and increasing gastric secretion.
    The ginger family
    If you were to prepare for a visit to the ginger family by looking up “ginger spice” in an Internet search engine, there’d certainly be a number of hits – but perhaps not many pertaining to food. This should be a temporary situation, though – Ginger has left the Spice clan, and things should return to “normal” soon. However, outside the music world, ginger belongs to the Zingiberaceae family, which contains some important aromatic and color-producing spices such as turmeric, ginger, cardamom, grains of paradise and galangal.
    When the roots of Curcuma longa are dried and ground, the result is a yellowish-orange powder called turmeric. At one time, turmeric was called Indian saffron – Marco Polo thought that he had discovered an inexpensive saffron substitute. India produces two types of turmeric: Madras, used within India, and Alleppey, which is exported. Alleppey has higher color, more flavor, more volatile oil, and more curcumin, the carotenoid responsible for the color. The active components of turmeric are the curcuminoids. Curcumin has an antioxidant effect, and it has been suggested that it has anti-inflammatory action similar to aspirin. The Chinese use turmeric to improve digestion and reduce gas, and to stimulate bile production in the liver. Herbalists recommend it for irritable bowel syndrome, colitis, Crohn’s disease, diarrhea, and post-salmonella infection. It is also said to improve beneficial intestinal flora, while inhibiting certain harmful bacteria.
    Oleoresin from ginger roots can be found in ginger ale, gingerbread, gingersnap cookies, ginger tea, ginger wine, cordials and candies, as well as a number of great Chinese, Indian and Jamaican dishes. The volatile oil of ginger contains zingiberene, AR-curcumene and farnesene, while the pungent taste is due to gingeroles and zingerone. In addition to its aromatic contribution to a food, ginger tea is often used to improve circulation, aid digestion, and treat nausea from motion sickness, pregnancy or chemotherapy.
    The ginger family also houses cardamom, whose sweet, aromatic seeds contain about 8% essential oil and a number of the previously mentioned compounds. In the past, cardamom was used as an aromatic in pomanders, and as an aphrodisiac. It is an essential part of Arabic coffee, and is also used in meat and rice dishes.
    Galangal is a warm, sweet, spicy aromatic root-stock like ginger. It blends well with garlic, and is considered to be an emerging ethnic ingredient, essential to many Asian dishes. Aromatic, spicy, warm and slightly bitter grains of paradise seeds are native to West Africa. In the Middle Ages, they were highly valued, but are difficult to obtain now.
    The parsley family
    Parsley, celery, coriander, cilantro, caraway, fennel, dill, anise and cumin belong to the Umbelliferae, or parsley family. We all know parsley leaves act as a garnish for a number of dishes, but the roots can also be used for cooking, as is celery. The fruits have a strong diuretic effect, and are used in stews or soups. Myristicin and terpenes dominate the essential oil of the fruits.
    Prior to the Middle Ages, a wild form of celery referred to as selinon, or smallage, was used as a diuretic and a carminative, which is a treatment to reduce intestinal gas. Today, celery – in dehydrated, flaked and freeze-dried forms – is often used as a garnish in vegetable dishes. Celery seed, salt and oleoresin are used primarily for flavor.
    Caraway is probably Europe’s oldest cultivated spice. In the past, it was used as a laxative, colic treatment and breath freshener. It has a pleasant odor similar to that of dill, and a warm, slightly bitter flavor stemming from a high concentration of carvone in the essential oil. In the 17th century, caraway was coated with sugar and served with fruit and used as a digestive, known as comfits.
    Caraway and cumin are sometimes confused – their flavors have some similarities, and their seeds are similar in appearance. In Germany, cumin and caraway are combined in a liqueur called kümmel. Cumin is essential to chili powder, and is often added on top for a “real” chili flavor. Herbalists recommend cumin tea for stress, and other cultures use it as a carminative. Researchers in India are studying cumin’s anti-cancer potential – it appears to increase the activity of glutathione-S-transferase, which is active against cancer, and also blocks chromosome damage.
    The word dill is derived from the Norse word for “to lull,” since it was used to lull small babies to sleep. American colonists used it for the same purpose, and also chewed the seeds for diversion in church. Today, we use two components of dill – dill seed, and the tops of the plant, which are referred to as dill weed. The seeds contain 2% to 4% essential oil, most of which is carvone (also present in caraway). The pickle industry is the largest user of dill, primarily dill-weed oil. Herbalists recommend dill tea for colic, and as a carminative.
    Fennel seeds look somewhat like caraway seeds (and cumin or dill), and smell and taste like anise, which is also part of the parsley family. The essential oils of both fennel and anise seeds contain predominately anethole, which is responsible for the licorice flavor and aroma. Fennel also contains fenchone, which smells like camphor, and limonene, which smells like lemon. In the past, fennel was regarded as a diet aid. Pliny felt that fennel improved eyesight, and fennel tea and eyewash are still recommended for strained eyes. Fennel tea is also used for colic, and as a muscle relaxant, diuretic, stimulant and carminitive. As with other parsley family seeds, our early ancestors chewed fennel seeds for diversion, to curb hunger and to freshen the breath.
    Both coriander and cilantro come from the same plant, Coriandrum sativum. Coriander is the dried ripened fruit, characterized by a lemon-sage note. It is used in seed, essential oil or oleoresin form. The seed is used primarily in gin and liqueurs, and is the flavor added to American cigarettes that makes them distinctive. Cilantro, sometimes known as Chinese parsley, has a parsley/citrus flavor, and is used in a dried or freeze-dried form. Cilantro is most common to Mexican sauces, Tex-Mex dishes, Chinese products and many other popular ethnic dishes.
    The mint family
    Lamiaceae, the mint family, hosts sage, basil, oregano, thyme, and rosemary – all of which have qualities beyond flavoring. Thyme is used for visual effect in foods, but its components also have antibacterial and antioxidant properties. In France, it is tied into bundles with other spices and added as bouquet garni to soups, sauces and stews. Thyme leaves are strongly aromatic; their essential oil contains primarily the phenols thymol and carvacol, as well as small quantities of thymol methyl ether, cineol, alpha-pinene and borneol. In legend, thyme has been used to soothe the throat, cure coughs, promote sleep and rid nightmares, improve digestion, cure hangovers, improve sight, warm the heart, soothe the liver, decrease hot swelling, purge phlegm, and cure pains in the loins and hips.
    Thymol, which is now produced synthetically, has been used as a carminative, anti-spasmodic and counter-irritant. It can be found in cough drops, antiseptic mouthwash, liniments, anti-fungal creams and herbal teas.
    The leaves of rosemary yield a product that is strongly aromatic (camphor-like) and slightly bitter. Rosemary has gained a reputation as a good natural antioxidant. The essential oil contains 1,8-cineol, camphor, borneol, bornyl acetate and alpha-pinene as primary components.
    Oregano is by far the largest-selling herb/spice today, mostly because of its heavy use on pizza and in Italian dishes. Oregano is a wild plant, but is often domestically cultivated as marjoram.
    Second on the list of best-selling herbs is sage, which was once grown in Middle-Age Europe and China specifically for medicinal purposes, and often taken as sage tea. Now, it is primarily used in pork sausage, poultry seasonings and stuffings.
    Use of basil, like its other mint relatives, has boomed over the past 30 years, from 40,000 lbs. imported to greater than a million lbs. – most of this due to pizza and Italian foods. In the past, basil has had more symbolic purposes than medicinal, but basil does have important antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The essential oil contains a complex and widely varied composition, depending upon the species and environmental growth conditions. Linalool, methyl chavicol and eugenol play a role in aroma, while a number of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenols lend the flavor characteristics.
    Other families
    Cloves and allspice are both members of the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, and both are high in eugenol content. Eugenol is an alcohol noted for its antimicrobial properties. Cloves contain as high as 15% essential oil, with eugenol dominating at 70% to 85%. Cloves are noted for their strong aroma and burning taste, and have been used to freshen breath, as a room deodorant, and as a preservative. In the United States, they show up in baked ham, sweet pickles, and a variety of seasoning powders. Cloves dominate the flavor of Worcestershire sauce. Allspice has a distinctive clove-like aroma, and is frequently used in seasoning powders.
    Nutmeg and mace come from the same plant, Myristica fragrans, a nutmeg tree grown in India. Nutmeg is the seed, and mace is the thin tissue between the seed and the pulp. Both give off a strong aroma, contain 10% to 12% essential oil, and have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties from a complex mixture of terpenes, terpene derivatives and phenols. Notable among these are pinenes, terpinene, limonene, myrcene, linalool, terpineol, safrol, and myristicine. Myristicine is insecticidal and a hallucinogen, and the other components have anti-bacterial and antioxidant properties.
    Fenugreek, a seed extract from Trigonella, a member of the bean family, contains very little essential oil, but is known for its vanilla-scented coumarin and high mucilage content. It is used as an emollient in veterinary drugs, a poultice, and in tea for dyspepsia, diarrhea, sore throats and fevers.
    Science is only starting to learn the hows and whys of the intricate role that spices and herbs play in foods. So next time you think you’re only giving a product a flavor boost by sprinkling in the spice blend, remember that the secret world of spices might be working behind the scenes, providing a host of additional benefits
    Copyright 1997 by O. Peter Snyder
    Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management; St. Paul, Minnesota
    Spices and herbs have been used for thousands of centuries by many cultures to enhance the flavor and aroma of foods. Early cultures also recognized the value of using spices and herbs in preserving foods and for their medicinal value. Scientific experiments since the late 19th century have documented the antimicrobial properties of some spices, herbs, and their components (17, 20).
    Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Spices and Herbs
    Table 1 describes the relative antimicrobial effectiveness of some spices and herbs.
    Table 1. Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Spices and Herbs*
    Spices and Herbs
    Inhibitory Effect
    Cinnamon, cloves, mustard
    Allspice, bay leaf, caraway, coriander, cumin, oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme
    Black pepper, red pepper, ginger
    * Adapted from Zaika (20).
    Studies in the past decade confirm that the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative foodborne bacteria, yeast. and mold can be inhibited by garlic, onion, cinnamon, cloves, thyme, sage, and other spices. Effects of the presence of these spices / herbs can be seen in food products such as pickles, bread, rice, and meat products. The fat, protein, water, and salt contents of food influence microbial resistance. Thus, it is observed that higher levels of spices are necessary to inhibit growth in food than in culture media (17). Table 2 is a list of various spices and herbs and their inhibitory effect on various microorganisms.
    Table 2. Inhibitory Effects of Spices and Herbs*
    Spice / Herb
    Salmonella typhymurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, mycotoxigenic Aspergillus, Candida albicans
    (1, 5, 9, 15)
    Aspergillus flavis, Aspergillus parasiticus
    Mycotoxigenic Aspergillus, Aspergillus parasiticus
    (1, 3, 4)
    Mycotoxigenic Aspergillus
    (1, 7)
    Mycotoxigenic Aspergillus
    Mycotoxigenic Aspergillus
    (1, 7)
    Mycotoxigenic Aspergillus, Salmonella spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus
    (1, 2, 10, 12)
    Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus
    Bay leaf
    Clostridium botulinum
    Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus
    (18, 19)
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus
    (2, 12)
    * Adapted from Shelef (17).
    Microbial Contamination of Spices
    Spices and herbs may be contaminated because of conditions in which they were grown and harvested. Spores of both Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus have been found to be present in spices and herbs (11, 13). Contaminated spices have been reported to have been causes of foodborne illness and spoilage. Fewer microorganisms are present in spices with higher antimicrobial activity such as sage, cloves, and oregano. However, all spices and herbs should be cleaned and decontaminated with ethylene oxide, irradiation, or other acceptable methods (6).
    Antimicrobial Compounds in Spices and Herbs
    Essential oils extracted from spices and herbs are generally recognized as containing the active antimicrobial compounds. Table 3 is a list of the proximate essential oil content of some spices and herbs and their antimicrobial components.
    Table 3. Antimicrobial Components of Spices and Herbs*
    Spice / Herb
    Proximate Essential Oil Content (%)
    Antimicrobial Component(s)
    0.3 – 0.5
    0.5 – 1.0
    Allyl isothiocyanate
    0.5 – 2.0
    Cinnamaldehyde, Eugenol
    16 – 18
    0.7 – 2.0
    Thymol, Eugenol
    0.8 – 0.9
    Thymol, Carvacrol
    * Adapted from Shelef (17).
    Allicin and allyl isothocyanate are sulfur-containing compounds. Allicin, isolated from garlic oil, inhibits the growth of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Sulfur-containing compounds are also present in onions, leeks, and chives.
    Eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol are phenol compounds and, as Table 3 indicates, are found in cinnamon, cloves, sage, and oregano. The essential oil fraction is particularly high in cloves, and eugenol comprises 95% of the fraction. The presence of these compounds in cinnamon and cloves, when added to bakery items, function as mold inhibitors in addition to adding flavor and aroma to baked products. Paster et al. (14) have shown that essential oils of oregano and thyme (which contain carvacrol and thymol) are effective as fumigants against fungi on stored grain. These investigators have proposed using them as an alternative to chemicals for preseving stored grains.
    Antioxidant Action
    Spice extractives, such as oleoresin of rosemary, can provide inhibition of oxidative rancidity and retard the development of “warmed-over” flavor in some products. Thus, some spices not only provide flavor and aroma to food and retard microbial growth, but are also beneficial in prevention of some off-flavor development. These attributes are useful in the development of snack foods and meat products (6).
    Although the antimicrobial activity of some spices and herbs is documented, the normal amounts added to foods for flavor is not sufficient to completely inhibit microbial growth. The antimicrobial activity varies widely, depending on the type of spice or herb, test medium, and microorganism. For these reasons, spice antimicrobials should not be considered as a primary preservative method (6). However, the addition of herbs and spices can be expected to aid in preserving foods held at refrigeration temperatures, at which the multiplication of microorganisms is slow.
    Zaika (20) has given an excellent summary of the antimicrobial effectiveness of spices and herbs. A partial listing of this summary is as follows.
    Microorganisms differ in their resistance to a given spice or herb.
    A given microorganism differs in its resistance to various spices and herbs.
    Bacteria are more resistant than fungi.
    The effect on spores may be different than that on vegetative cells.
    Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant than gram-positive bacteria.
    The effect of a spice or herb may be inhibitory or germicidal.
    Spices and herbs harbor microbial contaminants.
    Spices and herbs may serve as substrates for microbial growth and toxin production.
    Amounts of spices and herbs added to foods are generally too low to prevent spoilage by microorganisms.
    Active components of spices / herbs at low concentrations may interact synergistically with other factors (NaCl, acids, preservatives) to increase preservative effect.
    Nutrients present in spices / herbs may stimulate growth and/or biochemical activities of microorganisms.
    Thus, food product safety and shelf life depend in some part on the type, quantity, and character of spices and herbs added to the products.
    Azzouz, M. A. and Bullerman, L. R. 1982. Comparative antimycotic effects of selected herbs and spices, plant components and commercial antifungal agents. J. Food Protect. 45:1248-1301.
    Beuchat, L. R. Sensitivity of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus to spices and organic acids. J. Food Sci. 41:899-902.
    Bullerman, L. B. 1974. Inhibition of aflatoxin production by cinnamon. J. Food Sci. 39:1163-1165.
    Bullerman, L. B., Lieu, F. Y., and Seier, S. A. 1977. Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production by cinnamon and clove oils, cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol. J. Food Science. 42:1107-1109, 1116.
    Dankert, J., Tromp, Th. F. J., Devries, H. and Klasen, H. J. 1979. Antimicrobial activity of crude juices of Allium ascalonicum, Allium cepa and Allium sativum. Zb. Bkr. Hyg., I. Abt. Orig. A245:229-239.
    Giese, J. 1994. Spices and seasoning blends: A taste for all seasons. Food Technol. 48(4):87-98.
    Hitokoko, H., Morozumi, S., Wauke, T., Sakai, S., and Kurata, H. 1980. Inhibitory effects of spices on growth and toxin production of toxigenic fungi. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 39:818-822.
    Huhtanen, C. N. 1980. Inhibition of Clostridium botulinum by spice extracts and aliphatic alcohols. J. Food Protect . 43:195-196, 200.
    Johnson, M. G., and Vaught, R. H. 1969. Death of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli in the presence of freshly reconstituted dehydrated garlic and onion. Appl. Microbiol. 17:903-905.
    Julseth. R. M. and Deibel, R. H. 1974. Microbial profile of selected spices and herbs at import. J. Milk Food Technol. 37:414-419.
    Kneifel, W. and Berger, E. 1994. Microbial criteria of random samples of spices and herbs retailed on the Austrian market. J. Food Protect. 57:893-901
    LLewellyn, G.C., Burkitt, M. L., and Eadie, T. 1981. Potential mold growth, aflatoxin production and antimycotic activity of selected natural spices and herbs. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 64(4):955-960/
    Pafumi, J. 1986. Assessment of microbiological quality of spices and herbs. J. Food Protect. 49:958-963
    Paster, N., Menasherov, M., Ravid, U., and Juven, B. 1995. Antifungal activity of oregano and thyme essential oils applied as fumigants against fungi attacking stored grain. J. Food Protect. 58:81-85.
    Powers, E. M., Layer, R., and Masuoka, Y. 1975. Microbiology of processed spices. J. Milk Food Technol. 38:683-687.
    Sharma, A., Tewari, G. M., Shrikhande, A. J., Padwal-Desai, S. R., and Bandyopadhyay, C. 1979. Inhibition aflatoxin producing fungi by onion extracts. J. Food Sci. 44:1545-1547.
    Shelef, L. A. 1983. Antimicrobial effects of spices. J. Food Safety. 6 29-44.
    Shelef, L. A., Jyothi, E. K., and Bulgarelli, M. 1984. Effect of sage on growth of enteropathogenic and spoilage bacteria in sage containing broths and foods. J. Food Sci. 737-740, 809.
    Shelef, L. A., Naglik, O. A., and Bogen, D. W. 1980. Sensitivity of some common food-borne bacteria to the spices sage, rosemary, and allspice. J. Food Sci. 45(4):1045-1044.
    Zaika, L. L. 1988. Spices and herbs: Their antimicrobial activity and its determination. J. Food Safety. 9:97-118.


    Ramirez Work Shop ( Phoenix, Arizona )
    Vitamin C could reduce inflammation
    08/03/2006- A diet rich in sources of vitamin C could cut the level of
    markers for inflammation by 45 per cent, a result that needs verifying
    by supplementation studies, says a new study. Consumers have a positive image of vitamin C, with public perception linking the vitamin to improved immune system health. The new cross-sectional study, published in this month’s American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Vol. 83, pp. 567-574), examined 3258 men aged between 60 and 69 with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. A food-frequency questionnaire was used to quantify vitamin C intake from dietary and supplemental sources, and related to blood levels of certain markers linked to inflammation: C-reactive protein (CRP) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). “Plasma vitamin C, fruit intake, and dietary vitamin C intake were significantly and inversely associated with mean concentrations of C-reactive protein, an acute phase reactant, and t-PA antigen, a marker of endothelial dysfunction,” wrote lead author Goya Wannamethee from the Royal Free and University College Medical School, London. High blood levels of vitamin C were associated with a 45 per cent reduced risk of inflammation (with respect to CRP levels), and high fruit intake was related to a 25 per cent reduced risk of inflammation. “Plasma (but not dietary) vitamin C also showed inverse associations with both fibrongen concentrations and blood viscosity,” reported Wannamethee. In an accompanying editorial (Vol. 83, pp. 525-526), Ishwarlal Jialal and Uma Singh from the University of California Davis Medical Center, said: “It is important to emphasize that theirs was a cross-sectional study and not a randomized placebo-based clinical trial, and thus the authors conclusion is not firm and cannot be used for policy guidelines.” The editorial also pointed out that the study was only focused on elderly white men and thus could not be generalized for other races, women, and age groups. Jialal and Singh also questioned the use of t-PA as a measure of endothelial inflammation. “It is not clear whether there is indeed a relation between vitamin C and biomarkers of endothelial function, because the authors did not show a correlation between vitamin C and von Willebrand factor, another biomarker.” Both commentators stressed that previous clinical trials (with diabetics, smokers and healthy men) had not reported an anti-inflammatory effect from vitamin C supplementation. In contrast, intravenous vitamin C trials did report an improvement in endothelial function. “Much further research in a dose-response is required to ascertain whether oral vitamin C supplementation is anti-inflammatory and whether it improves endothelial dysfunction,” concluded Jialal and Singh. The recommended daily intake of the vitamin in Europe is 60 mg. In the US, men are recommended to consume 90 mg per day, and women 75 mg per day. Lactic acid Reduction Solutions: One recommended by Dr. Reich, “Calcium and Vitamin D Deficiency, The Theory and Clinical Work of Dr. Carl Reich,” which I had the privilege of editing for The Arthritis Fund, is calcium-magnesium. Calcium and magnesium combine with lactic acid, neutralizing the negative effect of excess lactic acid, normalizing pH, and normalizing breathing for asthma, emotional disturbances, and restoring the ill health of people in many disease conditions. Malic acid supplements, an acid found in food, in apples and other fruit, and produced by the citric acid cycle in the human body itself, has been written about by Holzschlag as “reducing” the effects of excess lactic acid. Drs. Hyde, Cheney, and Goldstein have used it in their practice with CFS to improve energy and reduce pain. The reason for greater energy is made clear by Lehninger. It doesn’t neutralize lactic acid build-up directly. Energy production uses another pathway with malic acid. Szent-Gyorgyi found that malic acid kicks red muscle into using oxygen to produce its energy rather than anaerobic ways of doing it. Rather than reducing the effects of lactic acid, malic acid gives a signal to the mitochondria to use oxygen to burn fat as fuel or to use oxygen to burn glucose as energy. Red muscle is red because of its oxygen content. Oxygen gives muscle and blood its redness. The red blood cell abnormalities in people subject to Multiple Chemical Sensitivity and chronic fatigue may stem from inability of the RBC to carry adequate oxygen to the cells, so the cells revert to their least efficient mode of energy production, the lactic acid or alcohol pathways. Iron-copper balance synergized with molybdenum help make the RBC do its job of carrying oxygen. Mineral deficiency or mineral imbalance may help explain why RBC abnormalities exist, and, at the same time, explain why MCS people, PPS, and CFS have unusual blood gases. Either mineral deficiencies trigger abnormal breathing patterns, or abnormal breathing patterns trigger mineral deficiency. In fact, both perpetuate each other. The more hurried you are, the tenser you become, and the worse the breathing. Type A hurried rats were created by injuring the hypothalamus in Friedman and Rosenman’s experiments. Hypothalamus damage in humans is explained to my way of thinking under beriberi listings in the 1992 Merck Manual: refined sugar, white flour, or white rice causes hypothalamus damage, poliocencephalitis, weakness in the extremities and the heart, by not having enough real B1, thiamine pyrophosphate cocarboxylase and magnesium. Vitamin B1 and magnesium deficiency from refined carbohydrates may be the mineral-vitamin cause of the Type A personality to begin with if I’m right. You can become Type A just as the accountants did by just hurrying through life; you could also become that way if refined sugars and grains are staples in your diet. Type A breathing patterns worsen mineral status either through fostering overly acid conditions in the blood less than pH 7, or overly alkaline conditions over 7.4. Long term use of ascorbic acid or “vitamin C” may also lead to or worsen mineral status for one simple reason. Ascorbic acid takes both bad toxic metals out of the system and GOOD minerals at the same time. All of those circumstances suggest solutions. Change your breathing, pace yourself, and slow down. Deep breathing alone should be a part of every health program. Secondly, checking your mineral status, or taking mineral supplements may do the job to help give your cells the oxygen they need for greater energy and strength, especially calcium-magnesium. Moderating ascorbic acid use might also be warranted. Adding malic acid supplements or upping one’s intake of apples and apple products like apple cider vinegar and juice make a lot of sense. You get more oxygen and you’re no longer running on empty. You have 20 times the fuel to go on after malic acid kicks your muscles into their most efficient energy mode The body’s defenses against an increase in acidity are the bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein “buffers”, which help to neutralize the acid produced by intense exercise…Taking a sufficient quantity of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) before high-intensity event should make the muscles and blood less acidic during the event and should enhance physical performance. Sodium citrate is another substance that should enhance performance by buffering the acidity of intense exercise….Short-term exercise can be enhanced by reducing the level of acidity. In a review of 29 studies of the effects of ingestion of sodium bicarbonate, Matson and Vu Tran (1993) concluded that the effect on performance varied between athletes, but that the greater the dosage and the shorter the exercise, the more likely that bicarbonate buffering would enhance performance. Maughan and Greenhaff (1991) concluded that ingestion of sodium bicarbonate can enhance performance of high intensity exercise lasting 1-10 minutes…Tested the effect of sodium citrate on 30-km cycling performance. Performance times averaged almost 3% faster than those in the placebo condition
    Benfotiamine is a form of Vitamin B-1 used in Germany for the treatment and prevention of diabetic health complications. Advanced Glycation Endproducts, or “AGEs” as they’re appropriately called, are the end result of the complex chemical process through which the structure of proteins is warped by exposure to sugars or by other, much more reactive molecules. AGE chemistry is the cause of the “browning” you see when you roast a chicken or make toast, but the same “browning” chemistry is at work in your body every day of your life. In your arteries. In your kidneys. In your heart, your eyes, your skin, your nerves. In every cell, the sugar that your body uses for fuel is busily at work at this very moment, caramelizing your body through exactly the same chemical processes that caramelize onions or peanut brittle. Glycation math is simple: more sugar equals more AGEd proteins. As a result, people with diabetes begin to feel the effects of glycation at much younger ages than do people with more normal blood sugar levels. Watching people with diabetes age is like watching “normal” aging played on fast-forward. Slowly, imperceptibly, AGE reactions create chemical handcuffs, which gum up your proteins, deactivate your enzymes, trigger unhealthy biochemical signaling in your cells, and damage your DNA. Aging you. Make that: AGEing you. Two Ways to AGE There are two major ways that AGEs can form inside the body. One way is through a simple series of chemical reactions known as the “Maillard Pathway,” known from food chemistry for a century. But more recently, scientists have come to understand another pathway of AGE formation – a distinctly biological pathway, which only occurs within your cells because of the body’s metabolism of carbohydrates. When blood sugar levels rise, some key kinds of cell – including- nerve cells (neurons) and the cells that make up the fine blood cells of the retina of the eye and the filtering units (glomeruli) of the kidney – are also flooded with glucose. The resulting high sugar levels within these cells cause a logjam in the normal cellular metabolism of glucose. This backlog results in a buildup within the cell of super-reactive glucose-metabolic intermediates known as triosephosphates. And once that happens, the excess triosephosphates attack the surrounding proteins, lipids, and DNA, causing AGE damage from within the heart of the cell. It’s these cells are thus the most vulnerable to the complications of diabetes. Drugs do exist which can inhibit the formation of AGE, but none are available on the market as yet, and one of the most promising candidate (aminoguanidine) has shown signs of toxicity in human trials and appears to have been abandoned by its developers. On the other hand, some companies are selling supplements are marketed as “AGE-inhibitors.” But while many of the herbs and other nutrients may be valuable, and many even inhibit AGEing in a test tube, there’s no evidence that most of these “AGE-blocking” ingredients have any effect on AGEing in your body at the dosages used. Examples include thyme extract, inositol, acetyl-Lcarnitine, taurine, and a whole host of antioxidants (including nacetyl- cysteine (NAC) and flavonoids, such as quercetin and resveratrol). Special Note_ these, above mentioned supplements so work on retarding the age, issues as a result of free radical damge , but the have to be taken at a high end and throughout the day, or there effect is not that good _The power of Benfotiamine to improve vibratory perception threshold and nerve conduction velocity have been confirmed in other trials. Clinical trials have also shown that Benfotiamine supports nerve function in diabetics as measured by many other methods. For instance, Benfotiamine users experience a 50% reduction in diabetic nerve pain, along with an increased ability of the nerves to detect an electrical current, respond to electrical stimulation, and regulate the heartbeat Similarly, Benfotiamine prevents this loss of control from happening in the first place in diabetic dogs. In another human clinical trial, a B-vitamin combination using Benfotiamine as its thiamin source was put head-to-head with a Bcomplex supplement that included a megadose of conventional thiamin. Benfotiamine proved its effectiveness on several of these key parameters, while the standard thiamin pill failed. These benefits are not due to changes in blood sugar levels (either fasting, or after a meal, or averaged over several months (as measured by HbA1c), or improvements in metabolic benchmarks. They are the direct results of Benfotiamine’s AGE-fighting, metabolic-balancing powers. Benfotiamine in Other Vulnerable Tissues More recently, new studies have begun to document Benfotiamine’s ability to shield other tissues from AGE damage. One just-published study tested the ability of thiamin and Benfotiamine to protect diabetic rodents’ retinas from the ravages of AGE. The researchers then gave one group of diabetic rodents Benfotiamine supplements, and left another group unsupplemented, keeping a third group of nondiabetic animals as a control group. Nine months later, they examined the animals’ eyes, testing the level of AGE in their retinas, examining metabolic abnormalities of the cells, and looking for acellular capillaries (the dead husks left behind when the cells of the tiny blood vessels of the eye die). Benfotiamine supplements normalized AGE levels in the diabetics’ retina, as well as several key metabolic parameters within the diabetic animals’ cells – without influencing body weight or blood sugar (as measured by HbA1c). More importantly, Benfotiamine prevented the AGE-associated retinal damage. After nine months of diabetes, diabetic animals had suffered three times as many acellular capillaries as were found in healthy animals. But with the protection afforded by Benfotiamine, the number of acellular capillaries in the supplemented diabetics was indistinguishable from that of their normal, healthy cousins! And there’s another AGE-related disease that researchers believe Benfotiamine may fight: the loss of kidney function which accompanies “normal” aging, and which is accelerated by diabetes. Dr. Paul Thornalley of the University of Essex has just completed a study designed to see if Benfotiamine will protect diabetic rodents against kidney damage. While the results have not yet been published, Dr. Thornalley has indicated that both megadose thiamin and Benfotiamine caused clear-cut reductions in the leakage of protein – with Benfotiamine showing itself to be the superior intervention. A second study is now underway to see if Benfotiamine will actually improve kidney function in diabetic animals with pre-existing kidney damage, as it has already been shown to do in the nerves of diabetic animals and humans
    Did you know that this herb/spice is the equivalent as nitroglycerin that they use for heart patients, but without the side effects??? amazing eh, how God and Creation…have a way of knowing what the actual programs and chemicals really work for us and keep us alive…. Here are some of the other actions that Galangal has…. Main Actions Other Actions
    · lowers blood pressure · relieves pain
    · kills bacteria · kills insects
    · kills fungi · relieves spasms
    · kills candida · antioxidant
    · reduces pain Rhizo me
    This can be made into a tea…a tincture…..taken as a spice….mixed with
    food…..or blended with wine….taken with honey….and a host of other
    combo’s as well as uses.
    Here is a quote fro the past: “Whoever has heart pain and is weak in the heart should instantly eat enough galangal, and he or she will be well again” is it not amazing that for all our expertise and our technology, that the past can still give us a blast as to what really has been tried and true…..and did you also know that they tied “gastric distresses” to heart conditions and that galangal addressed successfully….this is really a profound statement…that the foods that linger in the intestines can cause a heart condition ….hmmm….foods that can linger in the gut…GMO’s….GE’s….SOY ( really bad for this) BEANS….high dense insoluble fibers…..anything fermentable…wow!!!! and this was in the 12th century…makes you feel sort of humble eh!??imagine if the Doctors and Dieticians today could actually be aware of what they knew in the past, you think we would have heart issues?? here is another tidbit on Galangal “Antifungal:Research indicates that galangal is distinctly effective against Candida albicans.” again this ties with intestinal debris not moving and fermenting, creating an excess sugar which will eventually bring out fungus which feeds on sugar, to try to balance the system from excess sugar…. here is what the chinese found out as well ” had an antibacterial action against a number of pathogens, including anthrax”…..So here you have it….a herb/spice…that is a pharmacy all it’s own….next time you see this ….pick it up and start a tea … has other qualities as well….it can have aphrodisiac properties ….hmmm heart health….intestinal fortitude…and sex…what more can one ask for!!!
    Inositol is necessary for the formation of lecithin and functions closely with a B complex vitamin, Choline. Since it is not essential in the human diet, it cannot be considered a vitamin. Inositol is a fundamental ingredient of cell membranes and is necessary for proper function of nerves, brain, and muscles in the body. Inositol works in conjunction with folacin, Vitamins B-6 and B-12, choline, betaine, and methionine to prevent the accumulation of fats in the liver. It exists as the fiber component phytic acid, which has been investigated for its anti-cancer properties. Inositol is primarily used in the treatment of liver problems, depression, panic disorder, and diabetes. It also aids in the breakdown of fats, helps in the reduction of blood cholesterol, and helps to prevent thinning hair. A diet low in Inositol may result in deficiency symptoms that culminate in high blood cholesterol, constipation, eczema, and hair loss. Neurotransmitters such as seratonin in the brain depend on Inositol to function properly. Low levels of this nutrient may result in depression and some research has shown that increased levels of Inositol appear to be a promising treatment for depression. According to recent research, the abundance of Inositol in fiber may explain in part why high fiber diets are often associated with a lower incidence of certain cancers. Although promising in the treatment of depression and high blood cholesterol, there is no significant research available to support the use of Inositol for weight loss.
    By Dr. James Howenstine, MD.
    July 27, 2006
    Medical journals and textbooks typically portray iodine as an unimportant substance which should be taken in small amounts[1] because of it’s dangers. Actually approximately one third of humanity has iodine deficiency. When humans lack iodine the thyroid gland enlarges (goiter), nodules appear in the thyroid gland and over a period of time cancer may appear in a thyroid nodule. Conventional medicine treats thyroid gland enlargement with thyroid hormone without considering the possibility that the hypothyroidism and goiter may be due to lack of iodine. This failure to diagnose and treat iodine deficiency can lead to an increased risk of breast cancer and the longer the diagnosis is missed the greater the chance that breast cancer will occur. Women taking thyroid hormone appear to be twice (12.1%) as likely to develop breast cancer as women not using thyroid hormone (6..2%). Women who had taken thyroid hormone for 15 years had a 19.5% incidence of breast cancer whereas women who have only taken thyroid hormone for 5 years had only a 10% incidence of breast cancer. Why is this? The essential trace element iodine may be the most important least publicized mineral in existence. Iodine is the only element needed in hormones and in the production of hormones. The iodine containing hormones are involved in the creation of embryos, development of brain function, growth, metabolism and maintenance of body temperature. This means that proper amounts of thyroid hormone, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, insulin, growth hormone etc. can not be made when iodine is lacking from the body. One third of all individuals on Earth are functioning with subnormal levels of iodine. Low intake of iodine is the leading cause for intellectual deficiency in the world.There is strong evidence that iodine lack predisposes to breast cancer. One out of seven women in the U.S. has deficiency of iodine proven by urine iodine screening tests (urine I less than 50 ug/L). This is the same incidence for breast cancer seen in U.S. women. Without bothering to check urine for iodine, physicians visited by a woman with a goiter or symptoms of hypothyroidism are routinely prescribing thyroid hormone therapy. Hintze et al[2] compared the results of 400ug/L of Iodine with 150ug of T4 (synthyroid) for 8 months and then four months after stopping therapy. The results clearly favored iodine therapy. Both treatments led to similar suppression in the size of the goiter. However, four months later the size of the thyroid had returned to pre-treatment levels in the group treated with T4 hormone. The group who had received iodine therapy continued to have normal sized thyroid glands four months after therapy was stopped. Several investigators have concluded that iodine lack is a probable cause for breast cancer in women. Demographic studies in Japan and Iceland revealed that both countries have a high intake of iodine and low incidences of goiter and breast cancer ( My special note this is the REAL REASON why Asian women DO NOT GET BREAST CANCER, that and utilizing Fish Bone soup, the Vitamin D that also prevents Cancer of the reproductive system, SOY encourages breast cancer ). In Mexico and Thailand where iodine intake is low there is a high incidence of goiter and breast cancer.[8] Thyroid gland size measured by ultrasound is significantly larger[9] in Irish women with breast cancer than control women. Administration of thyroid hormone to iodine deficient women appears to increase the risk of developing breast cancer. In a group of women undergoing screening mammograms the incidence of breast cancer[10] was twice as high in the women taking thyroid hormone. for hypothyroidism (probably caused by iodine lack) than in women not taking thyroid supplements. The mean incidence was 6.2% in controls and 12.1% in women on thyroid hormones. The incidence of breast cancer was twice as high in women taking thyroid hormone for more than 15 years (19.5%) compared to those on thyroid hormones for only 5 years (10%). In the state of Michigan, during a period of iodine supplementation in bread (1924-1951) the prevalence of goiter diminished from 38.6% to 1.4%. Of interest the incidence of breast cancer remained unchanged during this time frame. This information was used to suggest that iodine supplementation had no effect on the incidence of breast cancer. However, Ghent and Eskin were able to show in women and female rats that the amount of iodine needed to protect against fibrocystic disease of the breast and breast cancer was at least 20 to 40 times greater[11] than the iodine needed to control goiter. In the 1960s mandated iodine containing dough was equivalent to the RDA of 150 ug per slice of bread. At that time the incidence of breast cancer was only 1 in 20.[12] In the past 20 years the use of iodine supplementation in bread was eliminated and a goiter producing substance toxic to the thyroid gland (bromine) was introduced as replacement for iodine. The risk for breast cancer is now 1 in 8 and this risk is increasing by one percent[13] each year. The decision to replace iodine in an iodine deficient population with a goitrogen was illogical lacking in common sense. The damaging effects of bromine on thyroid tissue also appears to contribute to the development of auto-immune diseases in the thyroid gland (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis). Now the next part is extremely important, as to the why iodine is required for breast health….. ( my special note ) The mammary glands have a trapping system for iodine similar to that of the thyroid gland. The breasts effectively compete with the thyroid gland for ingested iodine. This distribution of iodine to both breast and thyroid gland in pubertal girls explains why goiter is 6 times more common in girls than pubertal boys. The disappearance of iodine into breast tissue in women leads to decreased ability to supply the thyroid gland with an adequate amount of iodine. The development of a goiter in young girls indicates deficient distribution of iodine to both breast and thyroid tissue. Treating such a patient with thyroid hormone is not sensible and appears to increase the risk of breast cancer. Study of radioiodine uptake in normals and women with fibrocystic breast disease FDB reveals that the FDB breasts were able to take in 12.5% of the iodine dosage compared to only 6.9% in normal breasts. This proves the existence of considerable iodine depletion in the breasts of women with FDB. There is considerable evidence for an increased risk of thyroid cancer as well as breast cancer in persons with iodine deficiency. Untreated iodine deficiency leads to goiter, thyroid nodules and eventually some of these nodules become malignant. The decreasing intake of iodine has resulted in an increase in thyroid nodules and increase in thyroid cancer. In 2001 there were 19,500 new cases of thyroid cancer in the U.S. with 14,900 of these cases occurring in women. Iodine has a role in promoting general well being as well as protecting against infections, degenerative diseases and cancer. Iodine promotes the normal killing of defective and abnormal cells (apoptosis). Thus, iodine helps the body’s surveillance system to detect and remove abnormal cells. Additionally, the presence of iodine triggers differentiation away from the more dangerous undifferentiated type of cell toward normal cells. The presence of adequate levels of iodine in the body (Japanese diet with lots of sea vegetables and fish) reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS)(.SPECIAL NOTE THIS ALSO IS EATEN IN THE MEDITEREANAN DIET AS WELL AS THE NORTHERN EUROPEANS, AFRICAN COAST LINES, MIDDLE EASTERN COASTAL AREAS AS WELL. IN NORTH AMERICA ( CANADA , USA , MEXICO ) WHERE COMMERCIAL FOODS ARE PROCESSED WITH THYROID DAMAGING FOODS, THE INCIDENCE OF THYROID CANCERS ARE HIGH AS A RESULT OF TOXIC POISONS BLENDED IN THE FOODS ) in the body which decreases the oxidative burden in the body This results in slowing of degeneration disease processes and decreasing the risk of cancer. Nearly every physician in the United States will reach for a prescription pad to order thyroid hormone when he sees a patient with goiter or s
    ymptoms of hypothyroidism. This can be exactly the wrong thing to do if the patient has deficient stores of iodine. Insist on obtaining a 24 hour urine collection for iodine to eliminate iodine lack as the cause for your symptoms (values below 50 ug/liter are abnormal). Thyroid hormone therapy in the presence of iodine deficiency increases the risk of breast cancer and probably thyroid cancer as well. Endocrinologist, Dr. Guy Abraham, formerly of the U.C.L.A. Department of Endocrinology, is convinced that everyone needs to be on iodine therapy until their iodine stores have been fully restored. After this time frame periodic intake of iodine will help insure that the many body functions requiring iodine run smoothly. A dosage of two tablets of Iodoral twice daily for three months followed by one Iodoral tablet daily for a year will restore iodine stores for most persons. At that point periodic taking of an Iodoral tablet daily one month out of 4 to 6 months etc. will be adequate to maintain iodine stores. Iodine stores can be easily monitored by taking 4 Iodoral tablets (50 mg iodine) and collecting a 24 hour urine sample for iodine content. If 80% of the ingested iodine is found in the urine collection the iodine stores are normal. Iodoral can be obtained from Optimox Corp. Torrance, Cal. To purchase a referral from a health care practitioner is needed. SPECIAL NOTE ; INCORPORATE SEAWEED IN THE DIET BY EITHER SUPPLEMENTATION OR DIRECTLY PURCHASING SEAWEED AT ANY ETHNIC MARKET OR HEALTH FOOD STORE THAT SELLS THIS, YOU CAN ALSO GET KELP TINCTURES AND USE THEM AS A PREVENTATIVE BY UTILIZING THEM AS NEEDED …SOME GOOD TINCTURES ARE LUGOLS ( HAS 7.5 MGS PER DROP) ATOMIDINE ( 600MCGS> THEN 1 MG SO YOU CAN USE MORE OF THIS THEN THE LUGOLS) OR JUST ANY KELP OR SEAWWEED TINCTURE WHICH IN ALL LIKELIHOOD HAVE ABOUT 300-600MCGS. ( MCGS = MICROGRAMS) IT TAKES 1000 MCGS TO MAKE 1 MILLIGRAM ( 1MG) Footnotes:
    1, Abraham, Guy F. et al Orthoiodosupplementaion: Iodine Sufficiency Of The Whole Body pg 1
    2, Hintze, G. et al treatment of Endemic goiter due to iodine deficiency with iodine,
    levothyroxine or both:results of a multicentre trial. European Journal of Clinical Investigation,
    19:527-534, 1989
    3, Eskin B et al Mammary Gland Dysplasia in Iodine Deficiency JAMA , 200:115-119. 1967
    4, Eskin B Iodine and Mammary Gland Cancer Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 91:293-304, 1977
    5, Ghent, W. et al Iodine Replacement in Fibrocystic disease of the Breast Can. J. Surg. , 36:453-
    460, 1993
    6, Eskin B. et al Different Tissue Responses for Iodine and Iodidein Rat Thyroid and mammary
    Glands Biol. Trace Element Research 49:9-19, 1995
    7, Derry , D Breast Cancer and Iodine Trafford Publishing, Victoria B.C. , 92, 2001
    8, Finley JW., Bogardus, G.M., Breast Cancer and Thyroid Disease Quart. Review Surg. Obstet.
    Gyn. 17:139-147, 1960
    9, Smtyhe, P. , Thyroid Disease and Breast Cancer J. Endo. Int. , 16:396-401, 1993
    10, Ghandrakant, C. et al Breast Cancer Relationship to Thyroid Supplements for
    hypothyroidism JAMA, 238:1124, 1976
    11, Backwinkel, K., Jackson, A.S. Some Fearures of breast Cancer and Thyroid Deficiency
    Cancer17:1174-1176 , 1964
    12, Epstein, S.S., Sherman, D. Breast Cancer Prevention Program Macmillan , NY. 1998 pg 5
    13, Ibid
    Conditions Helped:
    Pain of any kind: Ankylosing Spondylitis, Arthritis, Back Problems, Lower, Back Problems, Neck, Diabetes, Leg Ulcers, Oteoporosis, Polymyalgia Rheumatica, Prostate Problems, Repetitive Strain (RSI) Carpal Tunnel etc, Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Inflammation of any kind including : Breast Engorgement,
    Cystitis joints or muscles, Fibrocystic Breast Disease, Inflammatory bowel diseases (Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn’s, IBS.), Lupus Lung & Chest Problems: Asbestosis, Miners and Farmers Lung, Bronchiectasis, Bronchial Asthma, Bronchitis, Coughs,
    Cystic Fibrosis , Emphysema, Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Eye Problems: Inflammation, Blocked veins etc Multiple Sclerosis & other Neurological problems: Damaged Nerves, Multiple Sclerosis Ear, Nose & Throat problems: Chronic ear infection , Catarrhal Rhinopharyngitis, Hayfever, Sore Throat, Swollen Glands, Laryngitis, Runny nose/Rhinitis, Sinusitis problems
    Trauma: Sports Injuries, prevention & Recovery, Traumatic swelling/
    Oedema/Edema, Post Operative & Traumatic Swelling, Post Operative Scars & Lesions Cardiovascular: Varicose Veins & Thrombophlebitis, Cardiovascular Disease,Arterial Disease, Angina, DVT, Blood Clots Other Conditions: Anti-ageing , Animal treatment The enzyme activity is measured in units and clinical studies are based on the ratio of 10 mg of Serrapeptase equaling 20,000 units of activity. When purchasing the product be sure that the ratio of mg to units is 10 mg for every 20,000 units, or 5 mg for 10,000 units and so on. The average dose, therefore, is 20 mg–or 40,000 units. Serrapeptase digests non-living tissue, blood clots, cysts, and arterial plaque and inflammation in all forms. The late German physician, Dr. Hans Nieper, used Serrapeptase to treat arterial blockage in his coronary patients. Serrapeptase protects against stroke and is reportedly more effective and quicker than EDTA Chelation treatments in removing arterial plaque. He also reports that Serrapeptase dissolves blood clots and causes varicose veins to shrink or diminish. A MEDICAL PRACTIONER told of a woman scheduled for hand amputation and a man scheduled for bypass surgery who both recovered quickly without surgery after treatment with Serrapeptase.
    STOMACH PANCREATIC INSUFFIECENCY ( NOT ENOUGH ENZYME BEING PRODUCED OR DUE TO AGING NOT FUNCTIONING AS IT SHOULD) INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION ( EXCESS WASTE OR FOODS THAT INHIBIT INTESTINAL ENZYMES) USED IN DEBRIDEMENT ) OF ULCERATION (Surgical excision of dead, devitalized, or contaminated tissue and removal of foreign matter from a wound, EMPYEMAS(The presence of pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural cavity.)FISTULAS (An abnormal duct or passage resulting from injury, disease, or a congenital disorder that connects an abscess, cavity, or hollow organ to the body surface or to another hollow organ.) NECROTIZING WOUNDS (means damage and death of cells ) ABSCESSES (A localized collection of pus in part of the body, formed by tissue disintegration and surrounded by an inflamed area.) HEMATOMAS (A localized swelling filled with blood resulting from a break in a blood vessel.) DECUBITUS ULCERS ( BEDSORES) AN AUXILLARY AGENT FOR MENINGITUS (Inflammation of the meninges of the brain and the spinal cord, most often caused by a bacterial or viral infection and characterized by fever, vomiting, intense headache, and stiff neck)
    INTERCOSTAL NEURITIS (. Inflammation of a nerve or group of nerves, characterized by pain, loss of reflexes, and atrophy of the affected muscles, Located or occurring between the ribs) URTICARA (HIVES) POSTOPERATIVE PAROTITIS (Inflammation o the parotid glands, as in mumps.) BEDSORES, PLEURAL EFFUSION ( an exudation{ oozing forth} of fluid from the blood or lymph into a pleural cavity) INFECTED WOUNDS, SCARS, PANCREATITIS(is a rare disease in which the pancreas becomes inflamed,) TRENCH MOUTH(A progressive painful infection of the mouth and throat with ulceration, swelling and sloughing off of dead tissue from the mouth and throat due to the spread of infection from the gums.), EXZEMATOID DERMATITIS(is an inflamation of the skin. The disorder has many causes including contact with an irritating substance, allergic reaction, eczema, and immune disease
    DISEASES (The blocking of a blood vessel by a blood clot dislodged
    from its site of origin )PERIPHERAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS (A chronic disease in which thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls result in impaired blood circulation. It develops with aging, and in hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and other conditions. Normally, the arteries of the arms and legs widen (dilate) and narrow (constrict) in response to changes in the environment, such as a change in temperature Functional peripheral arterial disease usually occurs when the normal mechanisms that dilate and constrict these arteries are exaggerated.) PULMINARY INFARCTS ( lung blockages as a result of dead tissue, or a blockage of blood supply to the lung tissue resulting in dying tissue) PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE ( outer blood vessels in the heart area, having blockages, and restricting blood flow) MILK LEG (A painful swelling of the leg occurring in women after childbirth as a result of clotting and inflammation of the femoral veins )ISCHEMIC PURULENT LEG ULCERS (Containing, discharging, or causing the production of pus as a result of poor circulation, boils are an example , either dead tissue as a result of poor circulation or and a pus leaking out )
    SWELLING AFTER A SURGERY SPEEDS HEALING FROM INJURIES ( INFLAMMATION OR SWEELING), THIS INCLUDES SPRAINS, STRAINS, CONTUSIONS (An injury in which the skin is not broken; a bruise), FRACTURES, BLACK EYE, HEMATOMAS (A localized swelling filled with blood resulting from a break in a blood vessel) TENDONITIS, AND BURSITIS TREATS, ASSIST IN HEALING RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (A chronic disease marked by stiffness and inflammation of the joints, weakness, loss of mobility, and deformity) AND ACUTE GOUTY ARTHRITIS (arthritis associated with gout and caused by the deposition of urate crystals in the articular cartilage of joints ) TREATS SKIN DISORDERS, including ATOPIC DERMATITIS (Dermatitis characterized by intense itching, occurring in individuals predisposed to developing certain hypersensitivity reactions ) PUSTULAR ECZEMA (A small inflamed elevation of the skin that is filled with pus; a pimple ) EXZEMATOID DERMATITIS (is an inflamation of the skin. The disorder has many causes including contact with an irritating substance, allergic reaction, eczema, and immune disease ) ASSIST EFFECTIVELY IN THE TREATMENT OF RESPIRATORY AND THROAT INFECTIONS, INFLUENZA ( the flu) BRONCHITIS, TUBERCULOSIS ADENITIS (Inflammation of a lymph node or gland, An infectious disease of humans and animals caused by the tubercle bacillus and characterized by the formation of tubercles on the lungs and other tissues of the body, often developing long after the initial infection ) LUNG ABSCESS, INFECTED BRONCHOPLEURAL FISTULA ( AN INFECTION IN AN AREA WHERE THE (Communication between bronchus and pleural cavity occur ) BRONCHIAL ASTHMA, SINUSITIS, PERITONSILLAR ABSCESS (An abscess formed usually above and behind the tonsil, due to extension of infection beyond the tonsillar capsule. Also called QUINCY) PULMONARY DISEASE, PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA (a common disease of the lungs in which the air cells are distended and their partition walls ruptured by an abnormal pressure of the air contained in them ) UNRESOLVED PNEUMONIA -ATELECTASIS (An acute or chronic disease marked by inflammation of the lungs and caused by viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms and sometimes by physical and chemical irritants. AND CAUSES COLLAPSING OF THE LUNS AS WELL) PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS, TRAUMATIC HYPEREMIA (An increase in the quantity of blood flow to a body part; engorgement AS A RESULT OF AN INJURY) and VIRAL PNEUMONIA TREATING
    VENEREUM( STD, an inflammation of lymph nodes as a result of
    exposure to granulomalike lesions ) GONORRHEAL URETHRITIS,
    PROTEUS VULGARIUS OF THE URINARY TRACT(A bacterium found in putrefying materials and in abscesses; it includes strains that agglutinate in typhus serum and are therefore used in diagnosis of typhus ) EYE CARE, SUCH AS, GLAUCOMA, ACUTE IRIDCYCLITIS (Inflammation of the iris and the ciliary body ) THROMBOSIS OF CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN( a blood clot in the retinal area ) FOR DIABETES MANAGEMENT TO PREVENT CELLUTIS, INFECTED LEG ULCERS, AND CARBUNCLE (A painful localized bacterial infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue that usually has several openings through which pus is discharged ) CANCER FIGHTER, AND PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH CANCER SUCH AS..ASCITES (An abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity ) DUE TO CANCER OR CIRRHOSIS (A chronic disease of the liver characterized by the replacement of normal tissue with fibrous tissue and the loss of functional liver cells. It can result from alcohol abuse, nutritional deprivation, or infection especially by the hepatitis virus.) AND LYMPHOSARCOMA (A diffuse malignant lymphoma ) WITH INFECTION IT IS ONE OF THE 4 PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES IN THE PANCREATIN
    Also when garlic is combined with cayenne pepper it to has an analgesic effect…tumeric with pineapple…papaya with pepper, even coffee before an activity wil reduce pain. Grapefruit with any kind of herbal pain kiler will extend the effects of the herbs in use. Certain oils like Olive and Wheat Germ oil also have pain reduction activity due to the Vitamin E and octacosanol and polyphenols content of these oils.


    Capsaicin plus green tea combo aids weight loss
    A combination of capsaicin and green tea could promote the feeling of fullness and sustain satiety, indicating it could be successful for weight management, says a new study. Researchers from Denmark and the Netherlands report sweet pepper may also reduce energy intake during positive energy balance, according to findings of their 27-person study published in Clinical Nutrition. “We conclude that thermogenic food ingredients have energy intake reducing effects when used in combinations, and in positive energy balance,” wrote the researchers, led by Professor Margriet Westerterp-Plantenga from Maastricht University. “These results suggest that bioactive ingredients (capsaicin, green tea, CH-19) may be helpful in reducing energy intake to prevent body weight gain and may support body weight loss by relatively sustaining satiety and suppressing hunger,” they added. The research taps into the burgeoning weight loss and management market, estimated to already be worth $7bn (€5.2bn) globally. It also has implications for diabetes. With 50 per cent of Europeans and 62 per cent of Americans classed as overweight, the food industry is waking up to the potential of products for weight loss and management. The slimming ingredients market can be divided into five groups based on the mechanisms of action – boosting fat burning/ thermogenesis, inhibiting protein breakdown, suppressing appetite/ boosting satiety (feeling of fullness), blocking fat absorption, and regulating mood (linked to food consumption).
    Study details
    Westerterp-Plantenga and her co-workers recruited 27 people with an average age of 27 and an average BMI of 22.2 kg/m2, and randomised them to three weeks of negative (less calories consumed than used) and three weeks of positive energy balance (more calories consumed than used). During these periods ten separate test days were used to test the effects of capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper, capsaicin plus green tea, or placebo on appetite, energy intake, body weight and heart rate. Only the CH-19 and the capsaicin plus green tea combinations produced a reduction in energy intake during the positive energy balance period. Moreover, the combined supplement produced suppressed hunger and increased satiety, and this was greater during negative than positive energy balance, wrote the researchers. This indicated that energy balance did not affect energy intake but did affect appetite.
    Active components
    Commenting on the mechanism, the researchers note that both catechins and caffeine in green tea may be behind the effects, with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) previously noted to reduced food intake and body weight in rats. On the use of capsaicin the researchers note that long-term intervention is “hardly possible and results in bad compliance”, and that CH-19 sweet pepper, which is non-pungent, could be “an attractive alternative to capsaicin”. “Since CH-19 sweet pepper was an efficient suppressor of energy intake it would be of interest to investigate if a combination of CH-19 sweet pepper and green tea leads to a similar synergistic effect on energy intake,” wrote Westerterp-Plantenga and her co-workers. “Capsaicin only increases liking of the food when used at lower concentrations, and one can only comply with a relatively small dosage of capsaicin over the longer term. “Therefore we suggest that a lower dosage of capsaicin should be combined with other bioactive ingredients (e.g. CH-19 sweet pepper) in order to reach optimal effects,” they concluded.
    Source: Clinical Nutrition
    Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2009.01.010
    “Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance”Authors: H.C. Reinbach, A. Smeets, T. Martinussen, P. Møller, M.S. Westerterp-Plantenga Abstract available
    Hot Pepper (Capsicum spp.) protects brain from sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress in vitro.
    J Med Food. 2008 Jun;11(2):349-55
    Authors: Oboh G, Rocha JB
    One practical way through which free radical-mediated neurodegenerative diseases could be prevented is through the consumption of food rich in antioxidants. The ability of aqueous extracts of ripe and unripe Capsicum annum, Tepin (CAT) and Capsicum chinese, Habanero (CCH) to prevent lipid peroxidation induced by sodium nitroprusside and quinolinic acid in rat brain in vitro is assessed in this study. The aqueous extract of the peppers were prepared (1 g/20 mL). Incubating rat brain homogenates with pro-oxidant (7 microM sodium nitroprusside [222.5%] and 1 mM quinolinic acid [217.4%]) caused a significant increase (P < .05) in lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. However, the aqueous extract of the peppers (4.2-16.8 mg/mL) caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in the lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. However, unripe CAT (92.5-55.2%) caused the highest inhibition of sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while unripe CCH caused the least inhibition (161.0-102.1%). Furthermore, unripe CAT and CCH peppers had a significantly higher (P < .05) inhibitory effect on quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain than the ripe pepper (CAT and CCH). Therefore, the protection of the brain tissues by hot pepper depends on the total phenol content in sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while ripening would reduce the protective properties of hot pepper against quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation. However, unripe CAT has the highest protective properties against sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain.
    Hot Pepper (Capsicum spp.) protects brain from sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress in vitro.
    J Med Food. 2008 Jun;11(2):349-55 Authors: Oboh G, Rocha JB
    One practical way through which free radical-mediated neurodegenerative diseases could be prevented is through the consumption of food rich in antioxidants. The ability of aqueous extracts of ripe and unripe Capsicum annum, Tepin (CAT) and Capsicum chinese, Habanero (CCH) to prevent lipid peroxidation induced by sodium nitroprusside and quinolinic acid in rat brain in vitro is assessed in this study. The aqueous extract of the peppers were prepared (1 g/20 mL). Incubating rat brain homogenates with pro-oxidant (7 microM sodium nitroprusside [222.5%] and 1 mM quinolinic acid [217.4%]) caused a significant increase (P < .05) in lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. However, the aqueous extract of the peppers (4.2-16.8 mg/mL) caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in the lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. However, unripe CAT (92.5-55.2%) caused the highest inhibition of sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while unripe CCH caused the least inhibition (161.0-102.1%). Furthermore, unripe CAT and CCH peppers had a significantly higher (P < .05) inhibitory effect on quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain than the ripe pepper (CAT and CCH). Therefore, the protection of the brain tissues by hot pepper depends on the total phenol content in sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while ripening would reduce the protective properties of hot pepper against quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation. However, unripe CAT has the highest protective properties against sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain.
    RED PEPPER Capsaicin
    Possible health benefits
    All chili peppers contain phytochemicals known collectively as capsaicinoids.
    Capsaicin was shown, in laboratory settings, to cause cancer cell apoptosis in rats.[13]
    Recent research in mice shows that chili (capsaicin in particular) may offer some hope of weight loss for people suffering from obesity.[14][15]
    Canadian researchers used capsaicin from chillies to kill nerve cells in the pancreases of mice with Type 1 diabetes, thus allowing the insulin producing cells to start producing insulin again.[16][17]
    Research in humans found that “after adding chili to the diet, the LDL, or bad cholesterol, actually resisted oxidation for a longer period of time, (delaying) the development of a major risk for cardiovascular disease”.[18][19]
    Australian researchers at the University of Tasmania found that the amount of insulin required to lower blood sugar after a meal is reduced if the meal contains chili pepper.[20]
    Chilli peppers are being probed as a treatment for alleviating chronic pain.[21][22]
    Spices, including chilli, are theorized to control the microbial contamination levels of food in countries with minimal or no refrigeration.[23]
    Hot peppers can provide symptomatic relief from rhinitis and possibly bronchitis by thinning and clearing mucus from stuffed noses or congested lungs.[citation needed]
    Several studies found that capsaicin could have an anti-ulcer protective effect on stomachs infected with H. pylori by affecting the chemicals the stomach secretes in response to infection.[24][25][26]
    By combining an anesthetic with capsaicin, researchers can block pain in rat paws without causing temporary paralysis. This anesthetic may one day allow patients to be conscious during surgery and may also lead to the development of more effective chronic pain treatments
    Digestion Cayenne can rebuild the tissue in the stomach and the peristaltic action in the intestines. It aids elimination and assimilation, and helps the body to create hydrochloric acid, which is so necessary for good digestion and assimilation, especially of proteins. All this becomes very significant when we realize that the digestive system plays the most important role in mental, emotional and physical health, as it is through the digestive system that the brain, glands, muscles and every other part of the body are fed.
    Cayenne has been known to stop heart attacks within 30 seconds. For example, when a 90-year-old man in Oregon had a severe heart attack, his daughter was able to get Cayenne extract into his mouth. He was pronounced dead by the medics, but within a few minutes, he regained consciousness. On the way to the hospital, he remained in a semi-conscious state, but the daughter kept giving him the Cayenne extract. By the time they got to the hospital, he had fully recovered and wanted to go home and mow the lawn. The doctor asked what she had given him, as he said it was the closest thing to a miracle he had ever seen. Heart Attacks: Cayenne
    ùùùGreen tea extracts may stop Parkinson’s
    By Stephen Daniells
    14/12/2007- The antioxidant effects of green tea polyphenols may protect neurons against the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), thereby offering potential benefits for Parkinson’s, says new research from China.
    The study, conducted in rats, looked at the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on inhibiting the death of neurons induced by the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The results are published in the journal Biological Psychiatry. Parkinson’s disease is a degenerative condition affecting movement and balance in more than one million Americans each year, a figure expected to rise due to ageing populations. According to background information in the article, the disease is caused by an unrelenting process of cell death affecting the neurons containing pigmented dopamine (DA). Researchers, led by Baolu Zhao from the Institute of Biophysics, Academia Sinica, Beijing, randomly assigned male Sprague-Dawley rats to one of six groups: control-fed only; control-fed plus 6-OHDA; GTP (150 mg/kg/day) plus 6-OHDA; GTP (450 mg/kg/day) plus 6-OHDA; GTP (150 mg/kg/day) only; GTP (450 mg/kg/day) only. Green tea contains between 30 and 40 per cent of water-extractable polyphenols, while black tea (green tea that has been oxidized by fermentation) contains between 3 and 10 per cent. Oolong tea is semi-fermented tea and is somewhere between green and black tea. The four primary polyphenols found in fresh tea leaves are epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), and epicatechin (EC).
    The mix used in this new study contained 50 per cent EGCG, 22 per cent ECG, 18 per cent EGC, and 10 per cent EC (Sichuan Full-green Biology Technology). Zhao and co-workers report that the green tea polyphenols protected against the toxic effects of 6-OHDA, with the higher dose producing a higher protective effect. Most notable, were the inhibition of increases in ROS and NO levels, and subsequent lipid peroxidation. “This study shows that, in vivo, GTP partially protected dopaminergic neurons (3.7 times more remaining neuron in GTP-treated than vehicle-treated animals) from 6-OHDA-induced cell death through ROS-NO pathway,” wrote the researchers. Commenting independently on the study, John Krystal, editor of Biological Psychiatry and affiliated with both Yale University School of Medicine and the VA Connecticut Healthcare System said: “If green tea consumption can be shown to have meaningful neuroprotective actions in patients, this would be an extremely important advance.”He added a note of caution however, saying that many health-related benefits have been reported for a wide variety of naturally-occurring substances with many being contradicted by subsequent clinical trials. This is the case with St. John’s Wort and Ginko Biloba, he said. “Thus, it is extremely important to identify the putative neuroprotective mechanisms in animal models, as Guo and colleagues have begun to do for Parkinson’s disease,” said Krystal. Source: Biological Psychiatry (Elsevier) 15 December 2007, Volume 62, Issue 12, Pages 1353-1362 “Protective Effects of Green Tea Polyphenols in the 6-OHDA Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease Through nhibition of ROS-NO Pathway”
    Authors: Shuhong Guo, J. Yan, T. Yang, X. Yang, E. Bezard and B. Zhao
    This is good news for women as a general rule you can live longer by eating flavonoids…..mind you I was a bit bias on the SOY, but I had to leave it in the report because the isoflavones of soy are also classified as a flavonoid…but you notice in the report the flavones from soy are not mentioned to much on how high they actually helped??? curious eh!!! the flavonoids daizeden and genisten ( from soy) have been actually attributed in blocking estrogen ( due to the fact that they are phytoestrogens) and convert to a foreign estrogen that can lead to a cancer of the reproductive area…..funny how this report sort of implies the benefits of flavonoids and lumps them altogether….it is a good report and the facts are about 98% accurate….so i think this is a good report to share with all of you, but i wanted to point out as well how something could be slipped into a report and you would asssume that a substance is safe just by association, notice no mentioning of how effective it was in reducing anything!!!!! I also added some other info on Bioflavonoids.
    To your health eh!!!
    Greater intake of some flavonoids linked with reduced cardiovascular and all cause mortality among women over a 16 year period
    A report published in the March, 2007 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition described the finding of researchers at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis and the University of Oslo that women whose intake of certain classes of flavonoids is high in comparison with other women have a reduced risk of cardiovascular and/or all cause mortality. Flavonoids are polyphenolic plant compounds that act as antioxidants, thereby helping to prevent the oxidation of LDL cholesterol. They may also benefit the heart by reducing inflammation, improving endothelial function, and inhibiting platelet aggregation.
    The current study evaluated data from 34,489 postmenopausal participants in the Iowa Women’s Health Study who were free of cardiovascular disease upon enrollment. Flavonoid intake from dietary questionnaires completed at the beginning of the study was classified, and the associated risk of death from cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and all causes over a sixteen year period was calculated.
    Dietary flavonoids were classified as flavonoids, which includes flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanidins; proanthocyanidins, and isoflavones (from soy). Among women who reported consuming anthocyanidins (found in blueberries, raspberries and red wine), the risk of coronary heart disease mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and total mortality was significantly lower than that of women who reported no anthocyanidin intake. For subjects in the top one fifth of flavanone (hesperitin, narigenin and eriodictyol) intake, there was a 22 percent reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease mortality compared with those who consumed the least amount, and for flavones (luteolin and apigenin) a 12 percent reduction in total mortality was determined. Individual foods associated with significant mortality reduction included bran, apples, pears, red wine, grapefruit, strawberries and chocolate. The study is the first of its kind, to the authors’ knowledge, to report on total flavonoids and their seven subclasses. “Results from this study suggest that the intake of certain subclasses of flavonoids may be associated with lower coronary heart disease and total cardiovascular disease mortality in postmenopausal women,” the authors write. “Furthermore, consumption of some foods that are high in flavonoid content or that are among the main sources of flavonoids in the diet of these study participants may have similar associations.”
    Here are some other bioflavonoids……. Flavonoid polyphenolics (aka bioflavonoids)
    Bioflavonoids, a subset of polyphenol antioxidants, are present in many dark berries such as black currant, pomegranate, seabuckthorn, noni, blueberries, and blackberries, as well as in certain types of coffee and tea, especially green tea.
    Quercetin and related, such as rutin
    Myricetin – walnuts are a rich source
    Proanthocyanidins, or condensed tannins
    Hesperetin (metabolizes to hesperidin)
    Naringenin (metabolized from naringin)
    Flavan-3-ols (anthocyanidins):
    Catechin, Gallocatechin and their coresponding gallate esters
    Epicatechin, Epigallocatechin and their coresponding gallate esters
    Theaflavin its gallate esters
    Isoflavone phytoestrogens – found primarily in soy (which have been found to be active in promoting cancerous growth on the reproductive system after years of research), peanuts, and other members of the Fabaceae family. Besides having antioxidant characteristics, isoflavones also protect and maintain the skeletal system.
    Genistein ¯¯¯ DANGER
    Daidzein ¯¯¯ DANGER
    Resveratrol – found in the skins of dark-colored grapes, and concentrated in red wine.
    Pterostilbene – methoxylated analogue of resveratrol, abundant in Vaccinium berries
    Anthocyanins protect plants from UV damage:
    Phenolic acids and their esters
    See main article: Polyphenol antioxidant
    Ellagic acid – found in high concentration in raspberry and strawberry, and in ester form in red wine tannins.
    Gallic acid – found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, and many other plants.
    Salicylic acid – found in most vegetables, fruits, and herbs; but most abundantly in the bark of willow trees, from where it was extracted for use in the early manufacture of aspirin.
    Rosmarinic acid – found in high concentration in rosemary, oregano, lemon balm, sage, and marjoram.
    Cinnamic acid and its derivatives, such as ferulic acid – found in seeds of plants such as in brown rice, whole wheat and oats, as well as in coffee, apple, artichoke, peanut, orange and pineapple.
    Chlorogenic acid – found in high concentration in coffee (more concentrated in robusta than arabica beans), blueberries and tomatoes. Produced from esterification of caffeic acid.
    Chicoric acid – another caffeic acid derivative, is found only in the popular medicinal herb Echinacea purpurea.
    Gallotannins – hydrolyzable tannin polymer formed when gallic acid, a polyphenol monomer, esterifies and binds with the hydroxyl group of a polyol carbohydrate such as glucose.
    Ellagitannins – hydrolyzable tannin polymer formed when ellagic acid, a polyphenol monomer, esterifies and binds with the hydroxyl group of a polyol carbohydrate such as glucose.
    Other nonflavonoid phenolics
    Curcumin from tumeric
    Xanthones from noni
    Silymarin – mixture of flavonolignans extracted from milk thistle.
    Other plant pigments such as anthoxanthins and betacyanins.
    Other organic antioxidants
    Citric acid
    Lignan – antioxidant and phytoestrogen found in oats, flax seeds, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, rye, soybeans, broccoli, beans, and some berries.
    Antinutrients – strong antioxidants that readily bind to needed dietary minerals, rendering them unabsorbable in the gastrointestinal tract. Examples: oxalic acid and phytic acid.
    Bilirubin, a breakdown product of blood, has been identified as a possibly significant antioxidant.
    Uric acid In humans accouts for roughly half the antioxidant ability of plasme.
    R-a-Lipoic acid – fat and water soluble
    N-Acetylcysteine – water soluble
    Naringin normalizes Hematocrit (Blood Thickness) levels (i.e. it raises low Haematocrit levels and lowers elevated Haematocrit levels and has no effect on normal Haematocrit levels). research
    Naringin promotes the elimination of old Red Blood Cells. research
    Digestive System
    Naringin inhibits the ability of Alcohol (ethanol) to cause Gastric Ulcers. research
    Immune System
    Naringin prevents or treats some types of Cancer:
    – Naringin helps to prevent Breast Cancer. research
    – Naringin helps to prevent Lung Cancer. research
    – Naringin inhibits the metastasis of Melanoma:
    – In mice studies, oral administration of Naringin inhibited the metastasis of Melanoma to the Lungs – Naringin-treated mice exhibited an 27% reduction in the number of Lung tumor nodules.
    Naringin lowers elevated serum Cholesterol levels. research
    Naringin lowers elevated serum Triglycerides levels. research
    Naringin Enhances the Function of these Substances
    Naringin extends the half-life of Caffeine. research
    Pharmaceutical Drugs
    Naringin increases the bioavailability and potency of many Pharmaceutical Drugs and extends their half-life.
    Naringin Counteracts these Potentially Toxic Substances
    Naringin inhibits the activity of Aldose Reductase.
    Naringin inhibits the activity of HMG-CoA Reductase. research
    Recreational Drugs
    Naringin inhibits the ability of Alcohol (ethanol) to cause Gastric Ulcers. research
    Dietary Source of Naringin
    Naringin is a constituent of Grapefruit
    ùùùAntioxidant Querciten and Green Tea on muscle peformance
    Quercetin increases brain and muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and exercise tolerance
    J. Mark Davis,1 E. Angela Murphy,1 Martin D. Carmichael,1 and Ben Davis2
    1Division of Applied Physiology, Department of Exercise Science and 2Department of Communication Science and Disorders, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina
    Submitted 13 November 2008 ; accepted in final form 6 February 2009
    Quercetin is one of a broad group of natural polyphenolic flavonoid substances that are being investigated for their widespread health benefits. These benefits have generally been ascribed to its combination of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but recent in vitro evidence suggests that improved mitochondrial biogenesis could play an important role. In addition, the in vivo effects of quercetin on mitochondrial biogenesis exercise tolerance are unknown. We examined the effects of 7 days of quercetin feedings in mice on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and brain, and on endurance exercise tolerance. Mice were randomly assigned to one of the following three treatment groups: placebo, 12.5 mg/kg quercetin, or 25 mg/kg quercetin. Following 7 days of treatment, mice were killed, and soleus muscle and brain were analyzed for mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator (PGC-1{alpha}) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and cytochrome c. Additional mice underwent a treadmill performance run to fatigue or were placed in voluntary activity wheel cages, and their voluntary activity (distance, time, and peak speed) was recorded. Quercetin increased mRNA expression of PGC-1{alpha} and SIRT1 (P < 0.05), mtDNA (P < 0.05) and cytochrome c concentration (P < 0.05). These changes in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis were associated with an increase in both maximal endurance capacity (P < 0.05) and voluntary wheel-running activity (P < 0.05). These benefits of querectin on fitness without exercise training may have important implications for enhancement of athletic and military performance and may also extend to prevention and/or treatment of chronic diseases.
    flavonoid; mitochondria; endurance capacity
    Endurance capacity in maturing mdx mice is markedly enhanced by combined voluntary wheel running and green tea extract
    Jarrod A. Call,1 Kevin A. Voelker,1 Andrew V. Wolff,1,2 Ryan P. McMillan,1 Nick P. Evans,1 Matthew W. Hulver,1 Robert J. Talmadge,3 and Robert W. Grange1
    Departments of 1Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, and 2Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia; and 3Biological Sciences Department, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, California
    Submitted 11 January 2008 ; accepted in final form 24 June 2008
    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by the absence of dystrophin from muscle cells. Dystrophic muscle cells are susceptible to oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that 3 wk of endurance exercise starting at age 21 days in young male mdx mice would blunt oxidative stress and improve dystrophic skeletal muscle function, and these effects would be enhanced by the antioxidant green tea extract (GTE). In mice fed normal diet, average daily running distance increased 300% from week 1 to week 3, and total distance over 3 wk was improved by 128% in mice fed GTE. Running, independent of diet, increased serum antioxidant capacity, extensor digitorum longus tetanic stress, and total contractile protein content, heart citrate synthase, and heart and quadriceps β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities. GTE, independent of running, decreased serum creatine kinase and heart and gastrocnemius lipid peroxidation and increased gastrocnemius citrate synthase activity. These data suggest that both endurance exercise and GTE may be beneficial as therapeutic strategies to improve muscle function in mdx mice.
    Remedy 1
    Take gunpowder green tea and use 1 tablespoon add 1 tablespoon of powdered garlic or onion and add 1 tablspoon of the bioflavonids from dried whites from citrus ….pulverize them in a blender until powdered….sift through a tea strainer or sifter then re blend the left over , and re sift then when you have the powder add it to either honey or aloe vera blend til fused then consume as needed this should increase the effect of endurance and immune protection of lungs liver, immune system, will bind with metals as well as other toxic chemicals, and have a cancer preventative and combatative effect
    Take gunpowder green tea…21-3 tablespoons and ground it to a powder the add to a bowl ( sift to get out rough or unpowdered material)
    Take 1-2 teaspoons of the dried white of either grapefruit , orange, lemon , pomelo or lime or any other citrus you may like…powder and sift…Add to bowl….
    Then take 1 teaspoon of red pepper powder ( do the same if you buy fresh let dry then blend to a powder and sift ) put into bowl
    Add 1 cap of any alcohol ( brandy or cognac or vodka or gin or even tequila) anything filtered is preferred
    Then add 2 tablespoons of honey ( unpasteurized )
    Put in the bowl
    Mix all of these you can either hand mix this or add to a blender and blend on low til everything is saturated and smooth….
    When down pour out into a glass bottle or container then use ½ tsp several times a day
    Other effects will be as well the Mass lose and potential satisfaction of food in the system, as well as an analgesic effect for pain on several different levels. All of these components as well have anti cancer fighting properties as well as arterial strengthening and heart regulating effect, antibacterial qualities, and immune enhancing indication.
    The effect can be felt almost immediately
    CCCAnother way of doing this is it mix 4 tablespoons of powdered sifted green tea in a blender and add ½ cup of alcohol ( brandy ….vodka…cognac…etc) and blend for 10 minutes at a medium to high speed….. strain and add to a glass container
    Repeat this with the powdered dried bioflavonoid and the red pepper only add 1 tablespoon of the red pepper and only add a ¼ cup
    Once all these have been blended and strained then add equal parts of each into a dropper bottle ( 1 ounce or 15 ml) then use 3-5 drops ( It will be hot )
    You can apply the alcohol mix in oil if need be to take or you can apply this to food or anything you may want to
    You will again feel the effect immediately so again do not take any prescription drugs with this
    You can how ever mix these with certain vitamins …such as
    Vitamin C
    Alpha Lipoic Acid
    Garlic ( when added to garlic it will have an increased effect with cholesterol lowering and immune strengthening effect)
    Hawthorn Berry
    Rhodiola Rosea
    B1 or Benfotiamine
    Folic acid
    Beta Carotene
    Pine bark
    If you do mix this with these supplements Make sure you reduce the amount you take in a day or even rotate these every other day….it can impact the dose higher in the system, and as a result you can have a higher amount in the blood stream….so this can save you money as well as dosing……
    ùùùIodine and Heart Health
    International Medical Veritas Association ???
    Courtesy of Scientific American According to Scientific American physicians for decades have grappled with ways to block further tissue damage in patients who suffer heart attacks. They have tried everything from drugs to cell therapy?all with little luck. But promising new research indicates that a biogel made from seaweed may have the healing powers that have thus far eluded them. Some of the principle healing agents in seaweed are magnesium, iodine, and selenium. Though the main theme of this book is magnesium medicine for cardiac care we will deal in this chapter with iodine and in another with the important mineral selenium. Selenium is not only crucial when using iodine but it addresses most directly the Hun Hordes of Mercury that are attacking heart tissues in massive amounts leading to cardiac arrest. Mercury is a deadly cardiac poison whose best antidote is selenium – since they bind together making it easier for the body to remove the selenium-mercury compound. Doctors and all health care practitioners need to be up on their minerals because we need them now more than ever. Minerals provide the foundations of our bodies as cement provides the support for most building foundations. We need to be acutely aware also of how the minerals work together and are dependent on each other for functioning at optimal levels. It is important that mineral interactions be taken into account when looking at iodine supplementation. A person with superior nutrient intake, especially of selenium, will be much more likely to respond well to higher intakes of iodine. Seaweeds (iodine) have exceptional value in the treatment of candida overgrowth. They contain selenium and (all the) other minerals necessary for rebuilding immunity; furthermore the rich iodine content is used by enzymes in the body to produce iodine-charged free radicals which deactivate yeasts. Experiments have shown that k. japonica, edible seaweed, was able to transform inorganic selenium to organic selenium through metabolism. Seaweed was crucial in the evolution of life in that it was and still is responsible for concentrating iodine from the ocean. The Japanese eat more seaweed then anyone in the world and they enjoy some of the best health statistics for it. Clinical cardiovascular features of hypothyroidism include: bradycardia, reduced cardiac output, increased pericardial and pleural effusions, increased diastolic blood pressure and peripheral vasoconstriction. According to Dr. Stephen A. Hoption Cann, Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, iodine deficiency can have deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system, and correspondingly, that a higher iodine intake may benefit cardiovascular function.[ii] Regional iodine intake has been shown to be associated with the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, where autoimmune hypothyroidism is the more common of the two in regions with moderate to high iodine intake. Both of these thyroid abnormalities have been shown to negatively affect cardiovascular function. Selenium, an important antioxidant in the thyroid and involved ?in the metabolism of iodine-containing thyroid hormones, may ?play an interactive role in the development of these thyroid irregularities, and in turn, cardiovascular disease. Dr. Stephen. Hoption Cann Dr. Michael Donaldson says, Iodine stabilizes the heart rhythm, lowers serum cholesterol, lowers blood pressure, and is known to make the blood thinner as well, judging by longer clotting times seen by clinicians. Iodine is not only good for the cardiovascular system, it is vital. Sufficient iodine is needed for a stable rhythmic heart beat. Iodine, directly or indirectly, can normalize serum cholesterol levels and normalize blood pressure. Iodine attaches to insulin receptors and improves glucose metabolism, which is good news for people with diabetes. Iodine and iodine-rich foods have long been used as a treatment for hypertension and cardiovascular disease; yet, modern randomized studies examining the effects of iodine on cardiovascular disease have not been carried out Adequate iodine is necessary for proper thyroid function. The heart is a target organ for thyroid hormones. Marked changes occur in cardiac function in patients with hypo- or hyperthyroidism. The country of Finland is an excellent case study of cardiovascular disease and iodine, as reviewed by Dr. Cann. Endemic goiter was common in people and in domestic animals, particularly in the eastern part of Finland away from the sea. Studies in the 1950s revealed that the major dietary difference between eastern and western Finland was iodine. The risk of death from coronary heart disease was 3.5 times higher for people with a goiter in Finland .[iv] “Thyroid hormone is an important regulator of cardiac function and cardiovascular hemodynamics. Triiodothyronine, (T(3)), the physiologically active form of thyroid hormone, binds to nuclear receptor proteins and mediates the expression of several important cardiac genes, inducing transcription of the positively regulated genes including alpha-myosin heavy chain (MHC) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase. [v] Negatively regulated genes include beta-MHC and phospholamban, which are down regulated in the presence of normal serum levels of thyroid hormone. T(3) mediated effects on the systemic vasculature include relaxation of vascular smooth muscle resulting in decreased arterial resistance and diastolic blood pressure. In hyperthyroidism, cardiac contractility and cardiac output are enhanced and systemic vascular resistance is decreased, while in hypothyroidism, the opposite is true. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism manifest many of the same cardiovascular changes, but to a lesser degree than that which occurs in overt hypothyroidism. Cardiac disease states are sometimes associated with the low T(3) syndrome.?[vi] The phenotype of the failing heart resembles that of the hypothyroid heart, both in cardiac physiology and in gene expression. Changes in serum T(3) levels in patients with chronic congestive heart failure are caused by alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism suggesting that patients may benefit from T(3) replacement in this setting.”[vii] T(3) of course is iodine dependent so the relationship between iodine and heart disease gets clearer. Iodine-containing thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are important metabolic regulators of cardiovascular activity with the ability to exert action on ?cardiac myocytes, vascular smooth muscle, and endothelial cells. Dr. Stephen. Hoption Cann Whole body sufficiency of iodine/iodide results in optimal cardiac functions, writes Dr. Guy Abraham.[viii] There is an epidemic of cardiac arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation in this country and Dr. Abraham is convinced that the medical iodine phobia has a great deal to do with this phenomenon. Adequate stores of iodine are necessary for a smooth heartbeat.[ix] The thyroid hormone deficiency on cardiovascular function can be characterized with decreased myocardial contractility and increased peripheral vascular resistance as well as with the changes in lipid metabolism.[x] Dr. B. West says, Iodine supplementation may be the missing link in a good percentage of heart arrhythmia cases, especially atrial fibrillation. The body needs adequate stores of iodine for the heart to beat smoothly. After close to a year now of using Iodine Fulfillment Therapy, I can attest to this fact. Most of the stubborn cases of cardiac arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation that we were unable to completely correct with our cardiac protocols have now been resolved with adequate supplies of iodine added to the protocol.[xi] Amazingly, while medicine shuns iodine therapy, their most popular anti-fibrillation drug, Amiodarone, actually is iodine in a more toxic, sustained-release form. This drug can produce a smooth heartbeat when the body has accumulated about 1,500 mgs of iodine the exact amount of iodine retained by your body when iodine fulfillment is achieved by natural supplementation with Prolamine Iodine. Unfortunately, Amiodarone is an extremely
    toxic form of iodine used by the medical profession. The side effects are often too great (and even life threatening) for most people to endure long enough to achieve a normal heartbeat. In addition, once you stop this drug, your original problem returns. Iodine therapy, on the other hand, fulfills the body?s needs safely, then maintains the smooth heartbeat with a low-maintenance dose, continued Dr. West. Dr. Donaldson reminds us of the selenium iodine connection saying, Another factor in how much iodine can be safely used depends on other possible mineral deficiencies. Selenium is very important for thyroid function. Selenium is part of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Glutathione peroxidase in the thyroid helps quench free-radicals produced by the enzyme thyroid peroxidase (which functions to organify iodide as it enters the thyroid). If high levels of iodide are present in the thyroid without sufficient amounts of glutathione peroxidase it causes free-radical damage to the thyroid, leading to autoimmune thyroid disease. Several of the enzymes that convert T4 into T3 also require selenium. Studies in Zaire have found that supplementing selenium and iodine deficient children with just selenium had adverse effects on thyroid function.[xii] The selenium content in seaweed can bind with whatever mercury is present and render it harmless. There are just some people who understand the basics of cellular medicine and act appropriately. Dr. John Young in Tampa Florida has been experimenting with a new process for reversing metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. Over the past seven years he claims to have a success rate of 80 percent with over 100 diabetes patients. Dr. Young uses a combination of alkaline protein and minerals with a form of iodine that he says reverses the process in diabetes patients in eight to 12 weeks. It’s important to remember that diabetes and heart disease share similar etiologies. Whatever Dr. Young is doing for his diabetic patients physicians can be doing for their heart patients. Iodine is critical to the heart and arterial system so we know it needs to be part of a fundamental protocol either in a preventative or treatment sense. Dr. George Flechas has found that iodine can reduce the need for insulin in diabetic patients, using 50 to 100 mg of iodine per day. Of 12 patients, 6 were able to completely come off their medications with random glucose readings below 100 mg/dl and a HbA1c less than 5.8 (normal), and the other 6 were able to reduce the amount and/or number of medications needed to control their diabetes. There is a patient who had severe mitral valve prolapse. A 35-year old banker who could not walk more than 20 metres without?getting cyanosed. Five cardiologists and surgeons suggested open heart surgery immediately. He decided against the surgery and went to the DaVinci Clinic in Cyrus to my colleague Dr. George Gorgiou. A central part of the pathology was severe mercury toxicity of the heart tissues – he removed 14 amalgams poisoning himself in the process which caused severe mitral valve prolapse. With the correct treatment not only did this man survive but nearly a year later he is now wind surfing 12 miles at competition standard and came first two weeks ago in a race with two others. He is working a full life etc. The patient actually has registered with the Guiness Book of Records as being the only man on this planet who has completely healed of severe mitral valve prolapse without open-heart surgery. Dr. Georgiou is a naturopathic doctor whose speciality is chelation of heavy metals. He has done research in Russia creating his own natural chelator called HMD. There are doctors out in the field who understand what is actually going on in cardiac patients and treat them in ways mainstream cardiologists don’t even dream of. Basic to this man’s treatment was magnesium, iodine and natural chelation with the HMD and other naturopathic support medicinals.
    My soon to be released book on Iodine is dedicated to the iodine doctors, brave souls who have risked bringing medicine back to some semblance of sanity. Iodine offers us such a return; it is bedrock medicine and is almost as useful as magnesium chloride. The above is the last chapter written for the book and represents a breakthrough in cardiac care. Having just finished the book it still amazes me the mysteries of iodine. I am known in certain circles as the magnesium man but with the publishing of this book I am definitely in the iodine camp. The experience of the past few days though are transforming me into an iodine man as well. My whole family came down with something that has been going around the neighborhood, let’s call it the flu. As the first winds of it approached my body?s senses I ran for the iodine and took strong doses of it every hour or two and it beat the invading devils, headed them off right at the pass. I still got the symptoms of cough and running nose but I did not feel or get what most people call sick. I was right on the edge for a day but each time I took the iodine I could feel it giving me strength. The only side effect was that my mind intensified in clarity, my sleep time was reduced and I woke up fresh and ready to run to my work. I just this moment said to one of my son’s, who is suffering from the flu that he and I were both ignorant, meaning he did not think to take the iodine and until this week I never had for this purpose either. I have done so for my little children when they have gotten sick but there is nothing like first hand experience. I was using the Nascent Iodine[xiii], which I believe is the safest and most effective of the iodines available and for the children I would only use this. It is not as concentrated as Lugol’s, even the newer watered down Lugol?s, which is mostly what is available in the United States after some laws changed, is much stronger. I thus recommend Lugol’s for transdermal iodine therapy. Many of the iodine doctors use Iodoral or Iosol and with these one can take iodine dosages up to very high levels safely. The Nascent is something different, having powerful effects at much lower dosages. Feeling it in ones mouth hour after hour gives one a sense of amazement about iodine. Considering the importance of this element for overall well-being, it is most amazing that no study so far has attempted to answer the very important question about what the optimal amount of daily iodine intake should be for the greatest levels of mental and physical well-being in the majority of a population with a minimum of negative effects. The more one experiences iodine the higher ones estimate goes in this regard. An important note that the CDC would not like you to know is that Russian researchers and experts in mercury have correlated the flu with mercury toxicity more than with little bugs that crawl around inside of us. And behold, iodine chelates mercury as it does fluoride, bromide and even percolate, the halogen like rocket fuel polluting half of North America . In The Ultimate Heart Medicine book we see that mercury is a huge problem for heart muscles, which concentrate it to levels thousands of times higher than seen in other tissues. Though iodine is known for its importance for the thyroid, little has been publicized about its other crucial roles. Iodine is needed in microgram amounts for the health of the thyroid on a daily basis but when you factor in the needs of all the other tissues and organs[xiv] much higher doses are needed. Iodine supports the health of many organs in the body but for the heart it is mission critical as is magnesium. Mark Sircus Ac., OMD Director International Medical Veritas Association
    P. Pitchford, Healing with Whole Foods, Revised Edition, North Atlantic Books, 36, 1993. [ii] Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1-11 (2006) Hypothesis: Dietary Iodine Intake in the Etiology of Cardiovascular Disease [iii] ibid [iv] Cann SAH. Hypothesis: dietary iodine intake in the etiology of cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Nutr 2006;25(1):1-11. [v] Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system. Danzi S, Klein I. Minerva Endocrinol. 2004 Sep;29(3):139-50. Review. [vi] ibid [vii] ibid [viii] The Original Internist, 12(2):57-66, 2005 [ix] Health Alert, Vol. 22, No. 12 [x] Iodine deficiency in cardiovascular diseases Molnar I, Magyari M, Stief L. Orv Hetil. 1998 Aug 30;139(35):2071-3. Hungarian. [xi] Atrial Fibrillation, Arrhythmias and Iodine. West B Health Alert, June 2006, Volume 23, Issue 6 [xii] [xiii] Toll Free (800) 257-3315 [xiv] Other organs are also able to take up iodine, too, by the same transport protein as the thyroid. Research has shown that the receptor for iodine uptake is in the thyroid gland, salivary gland, parotid gland, submandibular gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, testis, mammary gland, gastric mucosa, prostate, ovary, adrenal gland, heart, thymus, lung, bladder, kidney, endometrium, and also breast, ovary and colon and the lacrimal gland The ovaries hold the second highest concentration of iodine, after the thyroid.? The breasts also have a high concentration of iodine. Most secretions in the body, whether gastric, nasal, tears, sweat, etc., have iodine in them if sufficient iodine is present in the body.
    Middle Eastern herb shows potential against pancreatic cancer
    An extract from the Middle Eastern herb Nigella sativa may not only stop the growth of pancreatic cancer, but inhibit the development of the tumours, suggest new results from the US.
    Thymoquinone, the major constituent of the herb’s oil, was found to have anti-inflammatory activity resulting in lower levels of inflammatory compounds linked to pancreatic cancer, according to findings presented at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) 100th Annual Meeting 2009 in Denver.
    The study findings, which have been accepted for publication in the Oxford journal Hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB), suggest that, if future studies back up the early promise, the herb extract could offer potential benefits to people with chronic pancreatitis or those at risk of development or recurrence of pancreatic cancer.
    The seed and oil of Nigella sativa have been used extensively in traditional medicine in many Middle Eastern and Asian countries, said the researchers, for the treatment of a range of conditions, including some immune and inflammatory disorders. “These are very exciting and novel results,” said lead researcher Hwyda Arafat, MD, PhD, from Thomas Jefferson University. “These potent effects show promise for the herb as a potential preventive and therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer. More importantly, the herb and oil are safe when used moderately, and have been used for thousands of years without reported toxic effects,” she added. According to the US National Cancer Institute almost 38,000 new cases of pancreatic cancer are diagnosed every year in the US, with almost 34,000 deaths from the disease. British charity Cancer Research UK states that the pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis overall since most cases are diagnosed quite late. Indeed, only one in every 50 cases will still be living five years after diagnosis, highlighting the importance of prevention for this type of cancer. Dr Arafat told that his team first reported the potential anti-cancer benefits of the herb last year at the Digestive Disease week in San Diego. “This year, we’re showing the anti-inflammatory activities and the effect of treating animals with xenografts of human pancreatic cancer,” she said. “So, yes, you can consider this as the first (or second) report about the anticancerous effect of NS in pancreatic cancer by our group. To my knowledge, no one else published about NS in pancreatic cancer.”
    The herb is available on many websites, according to Dr Arafat. “There are few websites that sell good product that is well manufactured and packed. So, it is available,” she explained.
    Study details
    The earlier results showed that thymoquinone could inhibit compounds called histone deacetylases (HDACs), which play a role in gene expression and have been linked to cancer progression. For the new study, Dr Arafat and her colleagues compared the anti-inflammatory properties of thymoquinone with trichostatin A, a known HDAC inhibitor previously reported to improve inflammation-associated cancers. Using pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells pre-treated with the cytokine TNF-alpha to induce inflammation, the researchers report that the Nigella sativa extract could almost completely inhibit the expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1b), IL-8, Cox-2 and MCP-1. Moreover, the effect was superior to that observed from trichostatin A. Furthermore, when animal with pancreatic cancer were given thymoquinone, 67 per cent of the tumours significantly shrank, with corresponding levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly reduced.
    On-going study
    Dr Arafat confirmed that this remains a very active area of investigation. She is currently in the process of attaining funding for a “more aggressive program to get more information from preclinical studies”. Once funding is in the place, the researchers would “actively proceed to a phase I clinical trial. I’m currently in discussions with the medical oncologist to write a clinical trial for a small number of patients. After we obtain some preliminary data, we can then proceed to bigger trials for either prevention or therapy,” he said.
    Protective effect of Nigella sativa seeds against lead-induced hepatorenal damage in male rats.
    Nigella sativa seeds— Black Seed
    Pak J Biol Sci. 2007 Sep 1;10(17):2809-16
    Authors: Farrag AR, Mahdy KA, Abdel Rahman GH, Osfor MM
    Heavy metals are widely distributed in the environment and some of them occur in food, water, air and tissues even in the absence of occupational exposure. Among of these lead, (Pb) is a hazardous substance to human and animals. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible protective effect of co-administered Nigella sativa seeds on lead acetate-induced rats’ toxicity in particularly on liver and kidney. Thirty-six male rats were divided into six groups, 6 rats each. The first group was served as a control, while the second group was fed on the basal diet with Nigella sativa addition, whereas the other groups contained lead acetate (10 and 20% of LD50) with and without Nigella sativa supplementation for six weeks. At the end of the feeding period, rats were fasted over night and anesthetized and blood and tissue samples were taken for biochemical and histopathological studies. The results of this study revealed that lead acetate caused significant elevations in AST, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum. Lead treatment also produced significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin. Histopathological observations showed severe damage in the liver and kidneys. Its damaged areas were measured using Image analyzer. Combined treatment of lead-exposed animals with Nigella sativa showed marked improvement in both biochemical and histopathological findings as well as reduction in the damaged areas. These experimental results strongly indicate the protective effect of Nigella sativa against toxic effect of lead on liver and kidney tissues.
    PMID: 19090181 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Nigella sativa relieves the deleterious effects of ischemia reperfusion injury on liver.
    World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Sep 7;14(33):5204-9
    Authors: Yildiz F, Coban S, Terzi A, Ates M, Aksoy N, Cakir H, Ocak AR, Bitiren M
    AIM: To determine whether Nigella sativa prevents hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury to the liver. METHODS: Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (Group 1), control (Group 2), and Nigella sativa (NS) treatment group (Group 3). All rats underwent hepatic ischemia (is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue) for 45 min followed by 60 min period of reperfusion. Rats were intraperitoneally infused with only 0.9% saline solution in group 2. Rats in group 3 received NS (0.2 mL/kg) intraperitoneally, before ischemia and before reperfusion. Blood samples and liver tissues were harvested from the rats, and then the rats were sacrificed. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were determined. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT), total oxidative status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in hepatic tissue were measured. Also liver tissue histopathology was evaluated by light microscopy. RESULTS: The levels of liver enzymes in group 3 were significantly lower than those in the group 2. TAC in liver tissue was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 2. TOS, OSI and MPO in hepatic tissue were significantly lower in group 3 than the group 2. Histological tissue damage was milder in the NS treatment group than that in the control group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa treatment protects the rat liver against to hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.
    Nigella sativa oil for prevention of chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity: an experimental model.
    Nigella sativa oil for prevention of chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity: an experimental model.
    Am J Nephrol. 2008;28(3):517-22
    Authors: Uz E, Bayrak O, Uz E, Kaya A, Bayrak R, Uz B, Turgut FH, Bavbek N, Kanbay M, Akcay A
    Nephrotoxicity is the main secondary effect of cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment. The antioxidant action of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) may explain the protective effect of these agents against various hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic models in vivo and in vitro. This study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of NSO, in prevention of chronic CsA-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Animals were randomly divided into four experimental groups: the control group received sunflower oil, the other groups were treated with CsA (25 mg/kg/day b.w. orally) or NSO (2 ml/kg orally) or CsA + NSO, respectively. Urine and serum creatinine levels, tissue superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase enzyme activities, and nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels were measured, and histological examination was performed. In our study, CsA caused a significant deterioration in the renal function, morphology and gave rise to severe oxidative stress in the kidney. NSO significantly improved the functional and histological parameters and attenuated the oxidative stress induced by CsA. In conclusion, our study demonstrated for the first time that NSO protects kidney tissue against oxygen free radicals, preventing renal dysfunction and morphological abnormalities associated with chronic CsA administration.
    PMID: 18223305 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Nigella sativa inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and improves glucose tolerance in rats.
    J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jan 30;121(3):419-24
    Authors: Meddah B, Ducroc R, El Abbes Faouzi M, Eto B, Mahraoui L, Benhaddou-Andaloussi A, Martineau LC, Cherrah Y, Haddad PS
    AIM OF THE STUDY: Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) seeds have been used traditionally for centuries, notably for treating diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the effects of the crude aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds on intestinal glucose absorption in vitro using a short-circuit current technique and in vivo using an oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: The aqueous extract of Nigella sativa (0.1 pg/ml to 100 ng/ml) exerted dose-dependent inhibition of sodium-dependent glucose transport across isolated rat jejunum. Maximal inhibition exceeded 80% and IC50 was close to 10 pg/ml. An oral glucose tolerance test was carried out in rats after the initial dose and after a 6-week treatment of Nigella sativa (2 g/(kg day)), and compared to metformin (300 mg/(kg day)). Chronic Nigella sativa treatment improved glucose tolerance as efficiently as metformin. Nigella sativa and metformin also reduced body weight without any toxic effect. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that Nigella sativa directly inhibits the electrogenic intestinal absorption of glucose in vitro. Together with the observed improvement of glucose tolerance and body weight in rats after chronic oral administration in vivo, these effects further validate the traditional use of Nigella sativa seeds against diabetes.
    PMID: 19061948 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Take 1 tsp of ground Black Seed and powder it fine in a blender ….then add this honey about 3 tablespoons and add 1 cap of brandy…..blend til smooth may take about 5-8 minutes
    Add to a glass jar and use 1 tsp increments…use it 1-3 times a day if ill with different conditions…will strengthen the system and give added materials to the body to rebuild and restore the system
    MRSA Recovery
    Effect of a glutamine-supplemented diet on response to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice.
    Suzuki I, Matsumoto Y, Adjei AA, Asato L, Shinjo S, Yamamoto S.
    Department of Food and Nutrition, Kumamoto Women’s University, Japan.
    The following study was undertaken to determine whether dietary supplementation with glutamine can be used to modulate the immune response following challenge with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) organisms in mice. Thirty BALB/c female mice were randomized into 3 groups: group A (n = 10) were fed 20% casein diet (control), whereas the mice in Groups B (n = 10) and C (n = 10) were given 20% casein diet supplemented with 2 and 4% glutamine, respectively. The diets were made isonitrogenous by glycine and alanine supplementation. On the 10th day on these treatments, each mouse was challenged intravenously with 2 x 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml of MRSA organisms and mortality was noted for 20 days. The survival rate in Group A (20%) tended to be lower than the rates in Group B (40%), and Group C (70%). CFU values of spleen and kidney of the surviving mice 20 days post challenge were not different among the three groups (p < 0.05). The present results suggest that dietary glutamine supplementation may be effective as a nutritional immunomodulator for the recovery from MRSA infection.
    Aromatherapy oils ‘kill superbug’
    « on: December 22, 2004, 04:59:51 PM »
    Essential oils could kill the deadly MRSA hospital ‘superbug’, scientists have claimed. University of Manchester researchers found three of the oils, usually used in aromatherapy, destroyed MRSA and E.coli bacteria in two minutes. They suggest the oils could be blended into soaps and shampoos which could be used in hospitals to stop the spread of the superbug. Hospital-acquired infections, such as MRSA, kill an estimated 5,000 a year. The Manchester study was triggered when complementary medicine specialists at Christie Cancer Hospital asked university researchers to test essential oils. Our research shows a very practical application which could be of enormous benefit to the NHS and its patients
    Jacqui Stringer, Christie Hospital, Manchester They wanted to ensure they could not harm the patients, whose immune systems are weakened by the treatments. Dr Peter Warn, who carried out the research, said: “When I tested the oils in the lab, absolutely nothing grew. Rather than stimulating bacteria and fungi, the oils killed them off.” Soaps and shampoos The team then tested 40 essential oils against 10 of the most infectious agents found in hospitals, including MRSA (methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus). Two of the oils were found to kill MRSA and E.coli almost instantly, while a third was found to act over a longer period of time. However, the researchers say they are unable to reveal which oils carry benefits because of commercial sensitivities. MRSA is often carried in patients’ nostrils, and is currently treated by putting disinfectant on the area to kill the bacterium – which many patients often find unpleasant. Dr Warn says the essential oils could be used to create much more pleasant inhalation therapies – which he said were likely to have a much higher success rate than the current treatment, which is only effective in around 50% of cases.” Dr Warn said: “We believe that our discovery could revolutionise the fight to combat MRSA and other superbugs.” But he said the team now needed around £30,000 in order to continue its research. Jacqui Stringer, clinical leader of complementary therapies at Christie Hospital in Manchester, instigated the oils research. She said: “Our research shows a very practical application which could be of enormous benefit to the NHS and its patients. “The reason essential oils are so effective is because they are made up of a complex mixture of chemical compounds which the MRSA and other superbug bacteria finds difficult to resist.” The Department of Health evaluates products which are claimed to prevent or treat HAIs before it permits them to be used across the NHS.
    Vapour-phase activities of essential oils against antibiotic sensitive and resistant bacteria including MRSA.
    Doran AL, Morden WE, Dunn K, Edwards-Jones V.
    School of Biology, Chemistry and Health Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.
    AIMS: To determine whether essential oil (EO) vapours could reduce surface and airborne levels of bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS AND RESULTS: The antibacterial activity of geranium and lemongrass EO individually and blended were evaluated over a range of concentrations by direct contact and vapour diffusion. The EO were tested in vitro against a selection of antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant bacteria, including MRSA, vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), Acinetobacter baumanii and Clostridium difficile. An EO blend containing lemongrass and geranium was used to formulate BioScent that was dispersed into the environment using the ST Pro machine. The effects were variable depending on the methods used. In a sealed box environment, MRSA growth on seeded plates was reduced by 38% after 20 h exposure to BioScent vapour. In an office environment, the ST Pro machine dispersing BioScent effected an 89% reduction of airborne bacteria in 15 h, when operated at a constant output of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: EO vapours inhibited growth of antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant bacteria in vitro and reduced surface and airborne levels of bacteria. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Results suggest that EO vapours, particularly Bioscent, could be used as a method of air disinfection
    The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model.
    Edwards-Jones V, Buck R, Shawcross SG, Dawson MM, Dunn K.
    Department of Biological Sciences, the Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester, M15GD, UK. [email protected]
    Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal (grapefruit seed extract) were used singly and in combination to assess their anti-bacterial activity against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus: Oxford S. aureus NCTC 6571 (Oxford strain), Epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (EMRSA 15) and MRSA (untypable). The individual essential oils, extracts and combinations were impregnated into filter paper discs and placed on the surface of agar plates, pre-seeded with the appropriate strain of Staphylococcus. The effects of the vapours of the oils and oil combinations were also assessed using impregnated filter paper discs that were placed on the underside of the Petri dish lid at a distance of 8mm from the bacteria. The most inhibitory combinations of oils for each strain were used in a dressing model constructed using a four layers of dressings: the primary layer consisted of either Jelonet or TelfaClear with or without Flamazine; the second was a layer of gauze, the third a layer of Gamgee and the final layer was Crepe bandage. The oil combinations were placed in either the gauze or the Gamgee layer. This four-layered dressing was placed over the seeded agar plate, incubated for 24h at 37 degrees C and the zones of inhibition measured. All experiments were repeated on three separate occasions. No anti-bacterial effects were observed when Flamazine was smeared on the gauze in the dressing model. When Telfaclear was used as the primary layer in the dressing model compared to Jelonet, greater zones of inhibition were observed. A combination of Citricidal and geranium oil showed the greatest-anti-bacterial effects against MRSA, whilst a combination of geranium and tea tree oil was most active against the methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (Oxford strain). This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils and essential oil vapours as antibacterial agents and for use in the treatment of MRSA infection.


    Egg Shell Calcium
    “”””Make your own Egg Shell Calcium—you will need citric acid- (malic acid– optional )–egg shells—essential oil of either orange or peppermint—gelatin—xylitol Reverse osmosis or distilled water—xanthium gum –Comfrey root extract ( optional )””””
    FRinse out the egg shells thoroughly in water or give the shells an acid bath to remove the inner shell of egg
    FTake your egg shells and put into a toaster oven ( or regular oven ) set the heat to about 200 fahr ( 100 cel) for about 15 minutes—then take out and put into blender and powder—add 1 tsp of citric acid—1 tsp of gelatin —1/4 tsp of xanthium gum— ¼ cup of water ( you can add more if you like it thinner or less you determine how you want it —add 1 tsp of xylitol—and add 1-2 drops of either the essential oil of orange or peppermint—and add 1 0unce of comfrey extract ( the last one is optional )
    FSpecial Note —if you want to make it with magnesium then add ½ of magnesium oxide to the proportion of calcium ( egg shells that are powdered ) this will give you a 2:1 ratio as you would normally use to absorb the calcium more effectively) DO NOT ADD VITAMIN D— Vitamin D and Magnesium have a negating effect with each other—take your Vitamin D separate and at separate times
    FUse 1 tsp before bed at night—refrigerate the mix will cause it to become hard so leave out on counter or in cabinet
    FFNever take calcium with anything ( supplements —pharmaceuticals—food ) this will impede absorption and block digestion—as well wait 2 hours before consuming anything supplement or pharmaceutical
    FEggshell calcium in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
    Rovenský J, Stancíková M, Masaryk P, Svík K, Istok R.
    National Institute of Rheumatic Diseases, Piestany, Slovak Republic. [email protected]
    In this paper the most significant biological and clinical aspects of a biopreparation made of chicken eggshells are reviewed. Eggshell powder is a natural source of calcium and other elements (e.g. strontium and fluorine) which may have a positive effect on bone metabolism. Experimental and clinical studies performed to date have shown a number of positive properties of eggshell powder, such as antirachitic effects in rats and humans. A positive effect was observed on bone density in animal models of postmenopausal osteoporosis in ovariectomized female rats. In vitro eggshell powder stimulates chondrocyte differentiation and cartilage growth. Clinical studies in postmenopausal women and women with senile osteoporosis showed that eggshell powder reduces pain and osteoresorption and increases mobility and bone density or arrests its loss. The bioavailability of calcium from this source, as tested in piglets, was similar or better than that of food grade purified calcium carbonate. Clinical and experimental studies showed that eggshell powder has positive effects on bone and cartilage and that it is suitable in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
    PMID: 15018022 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    F F [Hen’s eggshell calcium.]
    Masuda Y.-R&D Division, Q.P. Corporation, Japan.
    In Japan, insufficient calcium (Ca) intake is serious problem for health which may be associated with the high prevalence of osteoporosis among the aged. The intake of most nutrients has been sufficient, however, the Ca intake has never been sufficient. Eggshell Ca has as much as 38% of Ca and low phosphorus content. Eggshell Ca was more soluble than Ca carbonate and was as much as milk products. Eggshell Ca has been shown to exhibit higher absorptivity and availability than Ca carbonate. Furthermore, it has been reported that eggshell Ca is more effective in increasing bone mineral density in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats. These results suggest that eggshell Ca could be beneficial for bone and we propose Ca fortified foods which contain eggshell Ca as a nutraceutical.
    PMID: 15632478 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    F F The health benefits of calcium citrate malate: a review of the supporting science.
    Reinwald S, Weaver CM, Kester JJ.
    Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
    There has been considerable investigation into the health benefits of calcium citrate malate (CCM) since it was first patented in the late 1980s. This chapter is a comprehensive summary of the supporting science and available evidence on the bioavailability and health benefits of consuming CCM. It highlights the important roles that CCM can play during various life stages. CCM has been shown to facilitate calcium retention and bone accrual in children and adolescents. In adults, it effectively promotes the consolidation and maintenance of bone mass. In conjunction with vitamin D, CCM also decreases bone fracture risk in the elderly, slows the rate of bone loss in old age, and is of benefit to the health and well-being of postmenopausal women. CCM is exceptional in that it confers many unique benefits that go beyond bone health. Unlike other calcium sources that necessitate supplementation be in conjunction with a meal to ensure an appreciable benefit is derived, CCM can be consumed with or without food and delivers a significant nutritional benefit to individuals of all ages. The chemistry of CCM makes it a particularly beneficial calcium source for individuals with hypochlorydia or achlorydia, which generally includes the elderly and those on medications that decrease gastric acid secretion. CCM is also recognized as a calcium source that does not increase the risk of kidney stones, and in fact it protects against stone-forming potential. The versatile nature of CCM makes it a convenient and practical calcium salt for use in moist foods and beverages. The major factor that may preclude selection of CCM as a preferred calcium source is the higher cost compared to other sources of calcium commonly used for fortification (e.g., calcium carbonate and tricalcium phosphate). However, formation of CCM directly within beverages or other fluid foods and/or preparations, and the addition of a concentrated CCM solution or slurry, are relatively cost-effective methods by which CCM can be incorporated into finished food and beverage products.
    PMID: 18291308 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Making a Cream or Lotion
    F FThings you will need—Fat of choice—oil—Citric acid—Essential oils—water—alcohol ( vodka—gin—rum—or anything that pleases the senses that is clear ( the coloured alcohols may have contaminants that we would like to avoid )—Bees Wax
    what you will do is get a glass jar—and add your fat in here ( coconut oil—shea—palm—cocoa—butter) 3 tablespoon ( you can go more or less depending on your amount you are wanting) add 2 ounces of oil ( avocado—olive—almond—apricot—sunflower—sesame seed oil are a few you can use )and place in the pot of water—turn on the stove and allow the pot with water to boil as it boils add slices of bees wax to the glass jar of oil—start out with a tablespoon this will mix with the oil that is already there add 4-8 drops of the essential oil of choice ( we will be using lavender and rosewood) while this is heating take a glass container and add 2 tablespoon of water and add ½ tsp of citric acid and mix well till everything is dissolved—put contents in blender and add another 4-8 drops of the same essential oils—add ½ ounce of alcohol to this as well ( you will need this so that the fat or cream or lotion can penetrate the skin ) or take a tincture or alcohol extract of any floral you have made ( jasmine –marigold—chamomile –st johns wort ( to name a few )–when the oil and bees wax is fused and it is all liquid put this in the blender while it is hot—then as it is in the blender proceed to blend at high speed—due this til either everything is completely fused –observe the density—if it is the way you want it then pour into a GLASS container F F ( do not use plastics at all –If this solution is hot and you put it in a plastic container the hot oil will absorb the toxins in the plastic and the xenoestrogen which are cancer causing so use GLASS!!!) EE
    Fif it is not thick enough while the solution is hot use some more wax and added to the blending so it will thicken this or if you want it thinner just add more oil—eyeball this so you can see how you want it—remember that when this cools this will thicken so don’t over do it either way—
    FEssential oils suggestion and uses-
    Lavender—soothing agent, skin conditioner, astringent
    Juniper–astringent, skin detoxifier, deodorant, soothing agent
    Geranium–skin refresher, astringent ( anti MRSA )
    Cinnamon–strong antiseptic, it has a cleansing effect.– skin conditioner, deodorant
    Cypress–antiseptic, astringent, deodorant,
    FFAll Essential Oils are high In antioxidant and Anti Aging effects cellularly
    Seed Milk
    You will need seeds or nuts of choice—1-2 tablespoon of favourite nut or seed(s) if you want to make a combo–allow to soak over night and next day add all of the components –water and seed in blender—you will need ¼ tsp of xanthium gum—and honey or maple syrup or xylitol ( you may not need these at all —it will be a preference to use or not to use ) start the blending and once it gets to a purred or smooth paste then add your water to it slowly—if you want to add your sweetener you can as well—it will be up to you—keep adding the water til you reach the top—allow for expansion so do not over fill the blender
    Allow to blend at high speed for about 5 minutes
    When done BOTTLE IN GLASS- this is all enzyme active ( live, living food)
    Use this in any form you see fit —as a milk beverage—add whey to this and make a protein shake—add it to your honey mixes—add it to your cocoa making recipes—this is but one variation—you can add cocoa to this to make a cocoa seed milk—you can add 1 drop of an essential oil with this like orange or ginger—peppermint—you can add coconut milk or cream to increase fat and make it more smoother
    Nutritional Value of some Nuts and Seeds—
    FAlmond (mg of Substance per 100 grams)
    Aldehydes: Benzaldehyde
    Amino Acids: 20,000—Alanine— Aspartic Acid—Arginine
    Carbohydrates: 20,000—
    Enzymes: Beta-Glucosidase
    Fatty Acids: 52,000—Stearic Acid-2,600 Linoleic Acid-8,840
    Oleic Acid–40,560 Alpha-Linolenic Acid–400
    Glucosides: Laetrile
    Minerals: Magnesium 270 Manganese 2 Boron Potassium-732
    Copper 1 Iron-4 Phosphorus 520 Calcium-234
    Zinc 3
    Organic Acids: Oxalic Acid Prussic Acid
    Quinones: Coenzyme Q9 -0.63 Coenzyme Q10–1.4
    Vitamins: Vitamin B1-0.2 Vitamin B2-0.8 Vitamin B5–0.5 Vitamin B6–0.1
    Vitamin B3 Vitamin E
    FWalnut (mg of Substance per 100 grams)
    Amino Acids: 15,230 Tryptophan- 170 Threonine–596 Isoleucine–625
    Leucine–1,170 Lysine—424 Methionine–236 Cysteine—208 Phenylalanine—711 Tyrosine–406
    Carbohydrates: 13,710
    Fatty Acids: 62,235 Sterols–72 Cholesterol–NIL
    Phytosterols–72 Saturated–6,126 Palmitic Acid–4,404 Stearic Acid–1,659
    Unsaturated–56,109 Monounsaturated–8,933
    Oleic Acid–8,799 – Gadoleic Acid-134 Omega-6–38,095 Linoleic Acid-8,095
    Omega-3–9,081 Alpha-Linolenic Acid–9,081
    Minerals: 1,780—Iron-2.91 Magnesium–158 Potassium—441 Calcium-104 Copper–1.4 Manganese –3.414
    Phosphorus–346 Zinc–2.7 Selenium–0.0046 Sodium–2.0 Zinc–3.09 Copper–1.586
    Quinones: Coenzyme Q10–1.9
    Vitamins: Vitamin C–1.3 Vitamin B1–0.341 Vitamin B2–0.15 Vitamin B6–0.537 Vitamin B3-1.909 Vitamin B5–0.57 Folic Acid–0.098 Vitamin E–2.942
    FHazel Nut (mg of Substance per 100 grams)
    Amino Acids: 13,000
    Carbohydrates: 15,000
    Lipids: 63,000
    Minerals: Boron Zinc–2.4 Manganese—2 Calcium–188
    Magnesium—285 Phosphorus–312
    Copper–1.5 Iron– 3.3 Potassium–445
    Quinones: Coenzyme Q10–1.7
    Vitamins: Biotin Vitamin C—1 Vitamin B2–0.1 Vitamin B3–1.1
    Vitamin B5–1.1 Vitamin B1
    Vitamin B6–0.6 Vitamin E

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